20 s s s s s Summary



Yüklə 342.43 Kb.
PDF просмотр
səhifə2/4
tarix21.08.2017
ölçüsü342.43 Kb.
1   2   3   4

[Red-throated Lorikeet (CR) – historical records

(last sighting in 1875); may still occur]



Friendly Ground-dove (VU) – fairly common



Black-faced Shrikebill (VU) – uncommon



Tahiti Petrel (NT) – the largest recorded numbers

in Fiji (>150 were seen offshore in 2003)





Silktail (NT) – most of the estimated 5,000–8,000

pairs on Taveuni breed here

A2 Restricted-range species

23 species (out of 23 on Taveuni), including all

three endemic to Taveuni and Vanua Levu. See

Appendix 2.

[A4ii Congregatory seabird species

Tahiti Petrel – poorly known but may meet the

threshold of >100 pairs]

The Taveuni Mountains retain extensive unsurveyed

forest which may be suitable for Red-throated

Lorikeet, but none has been recorded since 11

specimens were taken between 1887 and 1912. The

majority of the world populations of eight subspecies

of bird endemic to Taveuni breed in this IBA.

s

s



s

s

Other biodiversity



Only partial surveys have been completed for plants

but at least seven plant species are identified as

endemic to this IBA. Threatened endemic plants

include Syzygium phaeophyllum (CR), Alsmithia



longipes (EN) and Neuburgia macroloba (EN)Also

found commonly at higher altitudes on the island is

the well-known Tagimaucia Medinilla waterhousei,

which has been suggested as a suitable national flower

for Fiji. The Fiji Flying-fox (CR) is only known from

a few specimens from the summit forests of Taveuni.

Both the Fijian Ground Frog (EN) and Fijian Tree

Frog (NT) are found here, alongside several lizards

which do not occur on islands with mongoose.

s

s



s

s

Conservation



The Taveuni highlands are relatively well-protected.

The Ravilevu Nature Reserve and the Taveuni Forest

Reserve are managed by the Department of Forestry.

The Bouma National Heritage Park is a community-

based initiative which accommodates and guides

tourists as part of an integrated conservation and

development project, owned by the villages of Lavena,

Korovou, Vidawa and Waitabu. Like Koroyanitu on

Viti Levu, the initiative has benefited from guidance

and assistance from the New Zealand government in

a project which is led by the NLTB. These protected

areas have little active management and are under

some threat from expanding small-scale subsistence

and cash-crop agriculture, especially kava (yaqona).

This encroachment is likely to continue unless local

people are more aware of (and benefit more directly

from) the links between tourist income and the

conservation of Taveuni’s coral reefs and traditional

village and rainforest environment. The extensive old-

growth forests, including significant areas of intact

ridge-to-reef ecosystems have lead to the Taveuni

Mountains being suggested as a potential World

Heritage Site. Designation could be used to promote

the island to tourists and to improve conservation

and environmental awareness. Although Taveuni has

many fewer invasive alien species than most islands,

these pose a greater threat than habitat loss. The most

important bird conservation action is to ensure that

mongoose do not colonise the island from

neighbouring Vanua Levu where they have extirpated

all ground-nesting bird species. Black Rats may also

be causing problems by predating birds (notably Red-

throated Lorikeet) but this has not been demonstrated

in Fiji.


s

s

s



s

References

B

IRD


L

IFE


 I

NTERNATIONAL

 Fiji Programme IBA project field

reports Nos 39 and 40.

F

LANNERY


, T. F. (1995) Mammals of the South-west Pacific

and Moluccan Islands. Sydney: Reed Books.GoF (1998)

Botanical Biodiversity in Fiji . Technical Group 3,

Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. Suva: Department

of Environment. Unpublished report.

G

O



F-IUCN (1993) An Integrated Development Plan for Taveuni

Island. National Environment Management Project. Suva:

Government of Fiji.

M

ORLEY


, C. G. (2004) Has the invasive mongoose Herpestes

javanicus yet reached the island of Taveuni, Fiji? Oryx 38:

457–460.


NLTB 

AND


  M

I N I S T R Y

 

O F


  F

O R E S T R Y

 (1994) Bouma

Environmental Tourism Project. Suva: Government of Fiji.

Unpublished report.

NLTB 


AND

  M


INISTRY

 

OF



  F

ORESTRY


 (1991) A Management

Plan for Bouma Forest Park, Taveuni, Fiji Islands.

Wellington: New Zealand Ministry of External Relations

and Trade.

S

WINNERTON



, K. 

AND


 M

ALJKOVIC


, A. (2002) The Red-throated

Lorikeet Charmosyna amabilis in the Fiji Islands. Suva:

National Trust for Fiji and World Parrot Trust.

Unpublished report.

W

ATLING


, D. (1986) Notes on the Collared Petrel Pterodroma

(leucoptera) brevipes. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists

Club 106: 63–70.

Important Bird Areas in Fiji – Site accounts



28

s

s



s

s

Summary



The tiny island of Vatu-i-Ra supports a large Black

Noddy breeding colony, larger numbers of non-

breeding Black Noddies and may still support

nationally important numbers of breeding Red-

footed Boobies and Lesser Frigatebirds. These birds,

their eggs and nestlings are probably eaten by rats

and visiting fishermen but the traditional land-owners

are supportive of conservation efforts.

s

s

s



s

Site description

Vatu-i-Ra is a small island approximately 100 m by

300 m wide, comprising two small hills connected by

a narrow neck. About half of the island is composed

of hills of volcanic rock, and the other half is flat

coral sand, not far above the spring high tide level.

Most of the island is dominated by the tree Pisonia



grandis which has a canopy of 5–10 m on the flat

land but less than 2 m on the hill. There is a distinct

strand vegetation of various other littoral trees and

bushes.


s

s

s



s

Birds

A4i Congregatory seabird species

Black Noddy population estimated at 4,550–

28,000 pairs (>1% threshold of 4,000 pairs)

A4iii Congregatory seabird species



Total population of Black Noddies, including non-

breeder, estimated at 34,000 birds in the 1970s

(> threshold of 20,000 birds)

Good data on nesting seabirds were collected in 14

visits between 1974 and 1983, but only single surveys

were made in 1963 and 2003. Estimates of the number

of breeding birds are: Red-footed Booby (300–500

pairs in 1963; 400 pairs in 1974; 400 birds and 20

FJ05 VATU-I-RA

Coordinates

 17°22’S, 178°26’E (between Viti Levu and Vanua Levu)  

Area

 2 ha  

Altitude

 0–65 m

Status

 Unprotected. Site of National Significance.



Dates of BirdLife visits

 18–19 and 22–23 December 2003

IBA criteria

 A4i, A4iii (congregatory seabirds)

Important Bird Areas in Fiji – Site accounts

Vatu-i-Ra.

(

PHOTO


XXXXXXX


)

FJ05

Viti Levu

Vanua Levu

K O R O   S E A

0

20

40



km

29

nestlings in 2003), Lesser Frigatebird (500–700 pairs

in 1963; 250 pairs in 1974; 150–250 non-breeders in

2003), White-tailed Tropicbird (one pair in 1974;

one bird seen in 2003), Brown Noddy (80 pairs in

1970s; 50–100 pairs in 2003), Black Noddy (4,550

pairs in the 1970s; perhaps 28,000 in 2003), Bridled

Tern (200 pairs in 2003) and Black-naped Tern (30

pairs in 2003). Black Noddies fluctuate in numbers

and non-breeding numbers were estimated to be

between 10,885 and 58,203 between 1974 and 1983.

A BirdLife survey in December 2003 counted nests

in five quadrats of 10 m

2

 which, if representative of



the whole island, could be extrapolated to give an

indicative population estimate of 28,000 pairs (202,

201, 285 and 260 nests on flat-land quadrats; 58 nests

on the hill quadrat). However, other areas of the

island probably had fewer birds than these quadrats,

meaning that the overall population was less than

28,000 pairs. The only other species breeding on Vatu-

i-Ra is the Eastern Reef Heron (1 pair in 1974; 2 birds

in 2003). Brown Booby, Crested Tern and some

migrant land-birds have been recorded in small

numbers but probably do not breed.

s

s



s

s

Other biodiversity



Turtles were reported to nest on the beach but the

species is unknown.

s

s

s



s

Conservation

The island is uninhabited but is regularly visited by

fishermen and occasional tourists on diving trips.

The breeding seabirds, their eggs and chicks are

sometimes eaten by visiting fishermen, and probably

also eaten by Polynesian rats. Trapping during

the 2003 visit indicated a high rat density but their

impact on the breeding success of the birds is

unknown. Fishermen regularly stop overnight on the

island and there is evidence of at least the two larger

species, Red-footed Booby and Lesser Frigatebird,

being taken for food. Counts of boobies and

frigatebirds have declined since 1963, suggesting that

they may have declined from over-hunting. However,

seabird numbers fluctuate between seasons and do

not follow regular annual cycles so comparisons

between these counts may not be valid. The land-

owning community has expressed interest in

sustainable management of the site. The opportunity

exists to develop a management plan for the island

to include rat eradication and reduction of seabird

harvesting. This could be linked to a more structured

programme of visits by tourists to benefit the

managing community but there is likely to be only a

small market as visits involve a relatively long journey

on rough seas.

s

s



s

s

References



B

ARRITT


, M. K. (1979/1980) Seabird observations in Fijian

waters. Sea Swallow 30: 22–36.

B

IRD


L

IFE


  I

NTERNATIONA

l Fiji Programme IBA project field

report No. 19.

T

ARBURTON


, M. K. (1978) Some recent observations on

seabirds breeding in Fiji. Notornis 25: 303–316.

T

ARBURTON


, M. K. (1986) Migration and breeding strategy of

the Black Noddy, Fiji. Emu 87: 50–52.

Important Bird Areas in Fiji – Site accounts

Black Noddy 

Anous minutus. (

PHOTO


: G

UY

 D



UTSON

/B

IRD



L

IFE


)

FJ14

Ogea


30

FJ06 KOROYANITU/VATURU

Other names

 Koroyanitu National Heritage Park; Mt Evans; Abaca



Coordinates

 17°43’S, 177°37’E (west Viti Levu)  



Area

 171 km

2

  



Altitude

 approximately 610–1,195 m



Status

 Vaturu is a water catchment protected under the tenure of the Lands Department/Native Lands Trust Board

(NLTB). Koroyanitu is a community-declared conservation area. Both are Sites of National Significance.

IBA criteria

 A1 (globally threatened birds); A2 (restricted-range birds)

Important Bird Areas in Fiji – Site accounts

Vatura. (

PHOTO


: D

IGGER


 J

ACKSON


)

Viti Levu

M t   K o ro y a n i t u

F J 0 6

A b a c a

Vatura

Dam


0

2

4



km

31

s

s



s

s

Summary



Koroyanitu and Vaturu support the sub-set of

endemic birds which occur in the drier transitional

forest of west Viti Levu, and this drier forest also

supports high numbers of Friendly Ground-doves

(VU). Koroyanitu is a community-managed

protected area and Vaturu is a protected water

catchment forest.

s

s



s

s

Site description



Koroyanitu and Vaturu are the two largest forest

blocks in the drier west of Viti Levu. Vaturu is the

water catchment for the Vaturu Dam, the main water

supply for the town and port of Nadi. The catchment

has been extensively logged but is mostly old-growth

forest. This lowland forest is transitional between the

dry forests at lower altitudes and the wet forests to

the east, with a more open understorey than the wet

forests of other IBAs in central and east Viti Levu.

The reservoir has some fringing wetland vegetation

and open water of little ornithological interest. The

IBA boundaries include all the contiguous dense

forest. Koroyanitu is the forested part of the Mt

Evans mountain range to the west of Viti Levu’s

central highlands, containing Mt Koroyanitu, Fiji’s

third highest peak. It is only 16 km from Lautoka,

Fiji’s second largest city. The IBA is mostly montane

rainforest, transitional between the dry forests of the

western lowlands and the wet forests of the centre

and east of Viti Levu. Forest remains on the steep

slopes and peaks of the mountain range but the lower

slopes have been cleared for agriculture, some

becoming fire-maintained grasslands. The IBA

follows NLTB in recognising the conservation area

as including all forest above 300 m altitude. The land

tenure across the IBA comprises 86 Native Lands

(totalling about 15,411 ha) and eight Crown Lands

(about 1,584 ha).

s

s

s



s

Birds

A1 Globally threatened species



Friendly Ground-dove (VU) – fairly common at

Vaturu




Black-faced Shrikebill (VU) – rare at Vaturu



Masked Shining Parrot (NT) – fairly common at

Vaturu and Koroyanitu

A2 Restricted-range species

22 species (out of 25 on Viti Levu), including two

of the three endemic to Viti Levu. See Appendix 2.

Vaturu and Koroyanitu are important in conserving

the geographical distribution of Fiji’s restricted-range

species. They have drier forests than those in eastern

Viti Levu and support a different sub-set of Fiji’s forest

birds. The nationally threatened Peregrine Falcon nests

in the Koroyanitu cliffs and hunts over the IBA.

s

s



s

s

Other biodiversity



Koroyanitu and the Mt Evans range is a hot-spot for

endemic plants including two species found nowhere

else in the world, Aglaia evansensis (CR) and

Syzygium minus (EN). The vertebrate fauna of

Koroyanitu includes the Fijian Tree Frog (NT), but

no biodiversity surveys have been undertaken at

Vaturu.


s

s

s



s

Conservation

This IBA is better protected than many but small-

scale forest loss from expanding small-scale

agriculture and fire is still a threat. The impact of

invasive alien species is poorly known and needs

further research. Koroyanitu National Heritage Park

is a community-based conservation and tourism

project based primarily in Abaca and Navilawa

villages, initially supported by NLTB, SPREP and

NZAID, now assisted by the National Trust of Fiji.

Community support is partly dependent on the

income generated from accommodating and guiding

tourists, so sustainable conservation requires an

ongoing flow of visitors. The forest at Vaturu is

protected to conserve the water supply for Nadi.

Access to Vaturu is restricted, and should be protected

against both logging and agricultural expansion. Both

sites are close to Fiji’s main tourist hub at Nadi –

Koroyanitu already receives many visitors and a

similar ecotourism initiative could be established

around Vaturu.

s

s

s



s

References

B

IRD


L

IFE


 I

NTERNATIONAL

 Fiji Programme IBA project field

report No. 9.

G

O

F (1998) Botanical Biodiversity in Fiji. Technical Group 3,



Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. Suva: Department

of Environment. Unpublished report.

T

HAMAN


, R. (1996) The biodiversity of Koroyanitu National

Park. Domodomo 10: 28–50.

Important Bird Areas in Fiji – Site accounts

Fiji Goshawk 

Accipiter fufitorgues.

(

PHOTO



: G

UY

 D



UTSON

/B

IRD



L

IFE


)

32

s

s



s

s

Summary



Greater Tomaniivi IBA supports the largest known

population of Long-legged Warbler (EN), has good

populations of Pink-billed Parrotfinches (VU) and

used to be the best-known site for Red-throated

Lorikeet (CR). The IBA comprises two large

government reserves with lowland and montane

rainforest extending up to Fiji’s highest mountain.

s

s



s

s

Site description



Greater Tomaniivi combines Tomaniivi Nature

Reserve and Wabu Forest Reserve with other

contiguous forests forming a single forest block. This

covers the upper slopes of Tomaniivi or Mt Victoria,

Fiji’s highest mountain, and extends on to the lower

slopes in the north-east. Tomaniivi contains a

significant proportion of the highest-altitude montane

forest in Fiji, an important habitat for birds and other

biodiversity. The forest on Tomaniivi is classified as

lowland to 700 m, upland (montane) forest between

700 m and 850 m, and cloud forest (montane cloud

forest) from 850 m to the summit at 1,324 m. In the

lower valley of the Wabu creek, dense stands of Dakua

form an unbroken canopy in places. The boundaries

of the IBA encompass the entirety of these two

reserves. To the south are forestry plantations and

agriculture. To the west the forest is patchy and

mostly logged, extending to the Nausori Highlands,

but retains many interesting bird species, notably a

high population density of Black-faced Shrikebills.

To the east, the forest continues along the central Viti

Levu highlands and is patchy and degraded but is

currently still contiguous with the next IBA,

Rairaimatuku Highlands. The nearest village, Navai,

is situated on the road at the base of the Tomaniivi

trail but other villages also have land-ownership

rights over the IBA. These land-owners lease the

reserves to the government. The land tenure includes

part of one large Native Reserve, 53 Native Lands

(totalling about 14,125 ha), two Crown Lands (2,016

ha) and one Freehold (1,282 ha).

Birds

A1 Globally threatened species



[Red-throated Lorikeet (CR) – second-last known

site (last recorded in 1991); may still occur]

FJ07 GREATER TOMANIIVI

Other names

 Tomaniivi Nature Reserve; Wabu Forest Reserve; Tomaniivi = Mt Victoria



Coordinates

 17°37’S, 178°2’E (central Viti Levu)  



Area

 175 km


2

  

Altitude

 500–1,324 m

Status

 Contains Tomaniivi Nature Reserve (13 km

2

) and Wabu Forest Reserve (11 km



2

), both leased by the

Department of Forestry.

IBA criteria

 A1 (globally threatened birds); A2 (restricted-range birds)

Important Bird Areas in Fiji – Site accounts

Viti Levu



F J 0 7

N a d a r i v a t u

Navai

N a s i r i t i



Mo nasavu

Dam


Tomaniivi

( M t   Vi c t o r i a )

0

2

4



km

33



Long-legged Warbler (EN) – largest known

population (12 pairs in 1 km

2

)



Friendly Ground-dove (VU) – uncommon



Black-faced Shrikebill (VU) – common at

Tomaniivi and uncommon at Wabu





Pink-billed Parrotfinch (VU) – uncommon or rare

at both Tomaniivi and Wabu





Masked Shining Parrot (NT) – common at lower

altitudes, uncommon in montane forest

A2 Restricted-range species

24 species (out of 25 on Viti Levu), including all

three endemic to Viti Levu. See Appendix 2.

Greater Tomaniivi is perhaps the best hope for Red-

throated Lorikeet surviving anywhere in the world

but ongoing surveys are still required to confirm its

current status. The population of Long-legged

Warblers may be much larger than currently known

but, again, requires further fieldwork.

s

s



s

s

Other biodiversity



Tomaniivi supports several threatened plants, some

of which are endemic to the mountain, e.g. Schefflera



costata (VU). Recent PABITRA (IAS/Dept Forestry/

BirdLife/WCS) surveys at Wabu discovered the tree



Acmopyle sahniana (CR), Fijian Blossom-bat (VU)

and an insectivorous bat, probably Polynesian

Sheath-tail-bat (EN). Herpetological surveys have

found very few reptiles or amphibians (but include

the endemic Fijian Tree Frog (NT) and Green Tree

Skink), perhaps because the site is relatively cold.

s

s

s



s

Conservation

Tomaniivi Nature Reserve and Wabu Forest Reserve

are protected by government and their conservation

future should be secure. There remains, however, the

problem of invasive alien species. Alien plants spread

up the trail to the summit and mongoose are found

even in the most remote parts of Wabu. The impact of

invasive alien species on Fijian birds is poorly known

but this IBA may have historically supported colonies

of Collared Petrels which are now extirpated from Viti

Levu as a result of mongoose predation. More

importantly, the recent decline and possible extinction

of Red-throated Lorikeet has no clear explanation but

may be caused by chronic predation by Black Rats.

Rats could be controlled at Greater Tomaniivi but this

would be expensive and best justified if nesting Red-

throated Lorikeets could be found. More survey work

is required for this species. A second potential problem

is the protection status of forest reserves which allows

them to be managed in a way which could include

logging. The Wabu Forest Reserve is of such

international importance that it warrants a

management plan forbidding any such activities or an

upgrade in status to nature reserve. Tomaniivi/Mt

Victoria is uniquely placed to attract tourists wishing

to climb the short (but steep) trail to the summit. The

village of Navai and other local villages and land-

owners have created a small tourism industry to

accommodate and guide visitors who wish to climb

the mountain. This could be developed to include more

conservation awareness for both the tourists and the

villages, and to improve the income generated from

the reserves. Access to Wabu is authorised only by

permission of the Department of Forestry.

s

s



s

s

References



B

IRD


L

IFE


 I

NTERNATIONAL

 Fiji Programme IBA project field

reports Nos 2, 11 and 18.

G

O

F (1998) Botanical Biodiversity in Fiji. Technical Group 3,



Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan. Suva: Department

of Environment. Unpublished report.

S

WINNERTON



, K. 

AND


 M

ALJKOVIC


, A. (2002) The Red-throated

Lorikeet  Charmosyna amabilis in the Fiji Islands. Suva:

National Trust for Fiji and World Parrot Trust.

Unpublished report.

USP (2003) PABITRA Survey report – Wabu November 2003.

Suva: University of the South Pacific. Unpublished report.

Important Bird Areas in Fiji – Site accounts

Wabu Forest Reserve.

(

PHOTO


: G

UY

 D



UTSON

/B

IRD



L

IFE


)

Pink-billed Parrotfinch 

Erythrura kleinschmidti.

(

PHOTO



: B

AVARI


 T

HAMAN


/P

ATRICK


 P

IKACHA


)

34

s

s



s

s

Summary



The Rairaimatuku Highlands qualifies as an IBA as

it is one of only three known sites for the Long-legged

Warbler (EN). It is a large area of montane forest

supporting all the other threatened and endemic

species on Viti Levu, but the extremely rare Red-

throated Lorikeet (CR) has not been seen for some

years. Some of the area receives partial protection as

a watershed for Fiji’s largest hydro-electric dams.

s

s

s



s

Site description

Rairaimatuku is part of Viti Levu’s large central

plateau. The majority of the IBA is high-altitude

lowland rainforest, with areas of montane forest at

higher altitudes, especially in exposed locations on

steep slopes. Extensive areas of unlogged forest

remain but much of the road-side forest on flatter

gradients has been logged and, in some places, logging

roads extend far from the public highways. There are

a number of small villages in the area, surrounded by

small areas of agriculture, forestry plantations and

secondary forest. Patchy and degraded forest extends

west to the previous IBA of Greater Tomaniivi and,

much more patchily, south to the next IBA, Sovi

1   2   3   4


Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©azkurs.org 2016
rəhbərliyinə müraciət

    Ana səhifə