A comparative Study of The Use of Environmental Friendly Household Cleaning Products in Southern California and Southern Guangdong



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A Comparative Study of The Use of Environmental Friendly Household Cleaning Products in Southern California and Southern Guangdong

  • Problems and Challenges


试比较南加州与南广东 之家庭环保化学产品

  • 并略论发展问题与挑戰



Prof. Kwan Ming Chan B.Sc. (HKU), Ph. D. (Liverpool, England) Prof. Emeritus, California State University

  • 陈钧铭教授

  • 香港大学理学士

  • 英国利物浦大学博士

  • 美国加州州立大学资优教授



Co-Authors: Prof. Sun Hui-Li and Liu Fengyang South China Sea Institute of Oceanology, Academia Sinica

  • 孙恢礼教授及刘凤艳女士

  • 南海海洋研究所

  • 中国科学院



Objectives: Why comparing two regions?

  • Both are the major gateways in the Pacific

  • Lessons learned may serve as models

  • Southern California has abundant data for modeling

  • Both are in similar geographical location with high economic power



Geographic and Economic Settings for two regions

  • 太平洋两岸环境与经贸比較



中/港 货運 $35 billion 美元 Cargoes transport



US and China -Comparison

  • 中 China 美 USA

  • GDP (per capita)

  • $4,400 $37,600

  • Purchasing power 購买力(in trillion)

  • $5.7 $10.4



Economic Structure 经济结耩

  • China USA

  • Agriculture 农业 15% 2%

  • Industry工业 51% 18%

  • Service 服务 34% 80%



Budget and Expenditure

  • China USA

  • Budget 收入(trillion)

  • 0.224 1.946

  • Expenditure支出(trillion)

  • 0.267 2.052

  • trillion =1012, 万亿



Quick Facts:Calif. Vs USA

  • Calif. USA

  • 人口Population,106 34 284

  • 屋价House value, K 211 119

  • 零售Retail sales,109 263 2460

  • 制造Manufacture, 109 379 3842

  • California is about 1/10 of USA

  • Guangdong economic power is a top-ranking province in China. GDP is about US $10,000.



加州与美国相比 Calif Vs USA

  • 多少数族裔 More minority

  • 多外国出生 More foreign born

  • 高房价 Higher median house value

  • 高收入 Higher household income

  • 高人口密度 High population density

  • Similar situation for Southern Guangdong vs China



California vs Guangdong

  • CA GD

  • 人口Population,106 34 78

  • 面积Area, 104 km2 41 18

  • 经度Latitude 32 to 42 20 to 25

  • 纬度Longitude 114 to 124W 109 to 117E

  • 海岸线Coastline, km 1935 3368

  • Guangdong has longer coastline and larger population.



Southern California Land Use 南加州用地分配

  • 农业Uncommitted (Farming, Mining) 34%

  • 住房Housing 28%

  • 休闲Open Space/Recreation 20%

  • 工商Commerce/Industry 12%

  • 其他Others 6%

  • Southern California has rapid expansion in housing



Some problems related to the expansion of urban areas

  • More waste discharges

  • Rapid change in coastal environment

  • More Red tides

  • More accidental discharges

  • Costly clean-up

  • Similar problems in both regions.





Lagoon Modification

  • Formed after ice age

  • Open to tidal flushing

  • Shellfish and artifacts from Paleo-Indians (9000-3500 years ago)

  • Catholic Missions

  • Took over from Mexico

  • in 1848



Development, Deterioration

  • 1881 Railroad line

  • Crossing Bridges

  • Coastal Highway and Freeway

  • Limited Flushing





Input source to the ocean - Southern California

  • 109 cu m/year

  • Treated waste water 1.4

  • Industrial waste 0.25

  • Surface runoff 0.6

  • Cooling water 7.7



General Characteristics of effluents, Southern California

  • in mg/liter

  • Suspended solids 335

  • BOD 120

  • COD 240

  • Oil and grease 19

  • Total Nitrogen 23

  • Phosphate 5

  • Detergent 4.8



General characteristics of storm water, Southern California

  • in mg/liter

  • Oil and grease 1.5

  • Total Nitrogen 3.9

  • Phosphate 0.43

  • Detergent 0.1



Compare storm water and effluent water

  • Oil and grease 19/1.5 =12.6

  • Total Nitrogen 23/3.9=5.9

  • Phosphate 5/.43=11.6

  • Detergent 4.8/.1=48

  • Effluent has at least 10 times more



General Characteristics of sludge discharged into coastal ocean of Southern California

  • in mg/liter

  • Suspended solids 5

  • Oil and grease 760

  • Total Nitrogen 590

  • Phosphate 130

  • Detergent 4.8



General characteristics of silt in storm water of Southern California

  • in mg/liter

  • Oil and grease 1.5

  • Total Nitrogen 3.9

  • Phosphate 2

  • Detergent .1



Compare sludge and silt in storm water

  • Oil and grease 760/1.5 =507

  • Total Nitrogen 590/3.9 =151

  • Phosphate 130/2= 65

  • Detergent 4.8/.1= 48

  • Sludge has at least 50 times more



Mass emission rate of wastewater discharged in Southern California

  • in metric tons/year

  • Suspended solids 278,000

  • BOD 291,000

  • COD 675,000

  • Oil and grease 65,000

  • Total Nitrogen 85,400

  • Phosphate 13,300

  • Detergent 7,600



Sample of the best selling detergents – from EBay



Detergent Phosphates

  • Form: sodium tri-polyphosphate

  • About 30-40% of Phosphorus in waste water from cleaning products

  • To-day, there are non-P detergent, but most still have 6-8% P



Action of Phosphates

  • Peptize and help dirt suspension

  • Aid in germ killing

  • Buffer the pH in removal of fatty soils

  • Make surfactant more effective by breaking up surfactant polymeric units.



Basic Components (about 90% by weight)

  • Surfactant -

  • Bipolar organic to lift off grease by lowering surface tension

  • Builder – Phosphates

  • Soften water by removing Ca and Mg



Other components

  • Silicate – corrosion inhibitor

  • Carboxymethylcellulose – anti-redeposition agent to keep removed dirt from resettling onto clothes during the washing cycle



Other Common Chemicals in the detergents

  • 2-butoxyethanol

  • Malic Acid

  • Diethylene Glycol Monbutyl Ether (lysol)

  • Isobutane

  • NTA (nitrilotriactate) –subsituted for P



Undesirable effect of highly alkaline chemicals

  • Higher alkaline – alter fabrics

  • Skin or internal organ damage

  • Higher cost

  • Interaction with trace metals, increase in transmission, may cause birth defects



Tea Tree - Melaleuca Alternifolia(natural product as cleanser)

  • Other Common Names: Manuka, Melaleuca alternifolia

  • Range: Australia - New South Wales, Queensland; East Indies.

  • Haitat: Swamps by the coast. Requires a fertile, well-drained moisture retentive lime-free soil in full sun.

  • An essential oil is obtained from the leaves. It is strongly germicidal and is also used in dentistry, deodorants, soaps, mouthwashes etc



Top 5 Brands/Companies of detergent in China

  • Diao/Zhejang Nice Chemical Co.

  • Omo/Unilever China Ltd.

  • Liby/Guangzhou Liby Co., Ltd

  • Qiqiang/Shangxi Nafine Chemicals Ltd

  • Tide/Procter & Gamble (Guangzhou) Ltd

  • Most are in joint-venture with foreign companies, similar in chemical composition



Outlook

  • China had the highest GDP growth, nearly 8%.

  • GDP per capita in China is nearly $1,000

  • Retail sales growth of 8.8%

  • China is undergoing another phase of more environmental conscientious



Development of friendly household chemicals markets

  • Thirty-eight million urban families currently can afford to spend the nearly US $12,000 

  • Over 70% of the World’s top retailers – Wall Mart, Carrefour, Metro, etc are now in China. 

  • The market for toiletries and cosmetics has passed US $3 billion and is expected to reach US $22 billion by 2013. 



The challenge of environmental friendly household chemicals

  • Advertising - Television is the dominant medium with over 1 billion daily viewers

  • Use of local natural products for improvement of antiseptic and fragrance

  • Improvement of tertiary sewage treatment to remove phosphate

  • Use of soap in general cleaning





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