A methodology manual



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A Checklist of cultivars of Mala cluster study area



A) Coconut varieties (Cocos nucifera):

  1. Kundhiri – size of the coconut is small and it yields about hundred coconuts per bunch.

  2. Gendhaali – colour of the coconut is orange; tender coconuts are preferred for medicine.

  3. Sithaali - colour of the coconut is yellow.

  4. Padhnenma thingal – Starts yielding at the 18th month.

  5. Keththe siyaala - The outer husk of the tender coconut is edible.


B) Arecanut varities (Areca catechu):

  1. Rama adike - size of the fruit is bigger than normal; tree grows very tall. Fruit is unshelled raw.

  2. Mangala

  3. Vitla

  4. Local

  5. Singapore adike – the fruits are very small in size. Nuts are very hard.


C) Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus):

  1. Thulve

  2. Balke

  3. Mundi pelakai

  4. Rudhrakshi


D) Pepper (Piper nigrum):

  1. Paniyoor

  2. Mallige sara

  3. Local

  4. Kari munda

  5. Kudhka munchi


E) Jamoon fruit (Syzygium cuminii):

  1. Sakre jam

  2. Pannerle

  3. Punjaabi jam : white, red

  4. Huli jam


F) Punarpuli (coccum) (Garcinia indica):

  1. Red

  2. Yellow


G) Ginger (Zingiber officinale):

  1. Agar shunti

  2. Kukku shunti

  3. Shunti


H) Mango (Mangifera indica):

  1. Mundappa

  2. Gili maavu

  3. Neelam

  4. Malgova

  5. Local

  6. Nekkare

  7. Aapoos

  8. Thothapuri

  9. Pairi

  10. Gadhdhamaaru

  11. Manoranjan

  12. Godhavari : gonchal godhi, single


I) Betel (Piper betel):

  1. Gobbara balli/kolire

  2. Mundoli

  3. Ambaadi

  4. Pancholi


J) Colocasia (Colocasia sp):

  1. Kariya sevu

  2. Mara sevu

  3. Mundi

  4. Kaatu sevu


K) Lemon (Citrus sp.):

  1. Gaja limbe

  2. Local limbe

  3. Kanchi puli

  4. Mahalunga/Madhrampuli

  5. Dhodra


L) Banana (Musa sp):

  1. Surya baale (yellow)

  2. Chandra baale (red)

  3. Kadhali/Dhevu baale (2 variety)

  4. Poobaare/Rasa baale

  5. Kaatu baale

  6. Yelakki baale

  7. Mysore baale

  8. Sahasra kadhali/Munde baare (1000 fruits)

  9. Put baare

  10. Nendhra

  11. Kevandis

  12. Shilyanti

  13. Onte baale

  14. Bhoodh baale

M) Paddy varities (Oryza sativa):

  1. Hallige

  2. Athikaye

  3. Kanuve

  4. Kajakaayeme

  5. Raajakaayeme

  6. JB

  7. Mogin boldhu

  8. Kariyadhadi

  9. Gandhasalai

  10. Jeerasalai

  11. I-R-8

  12. Jaya


N) Spondias (Spondias sp.):

  1. Khaara ambade

  2. Godh ambade

  3. Ambade


O) Coffee (Coffea arabica):

  1. Robust

  2. Local


Other vegetables and fruits:

  1. Haagala

  2. Boor peere

  3. Southe

  4. Mullu southe: Aaane muttu, yelu ire, chikka mullu southe, kudhka southe, kareeta

  5. Kumbala : kempu (Cucurbita maxima), boodhu (Benicasa hispida)

  6. Thonde kai

  7. Poona kirengu (Dioscorea)

  8. Thuppa kirengu (Dioscorea)

  9. Suvarna gadde

  10. Palm oil

  11. Guava: Without seeds, hybrid.

  12. Orange: Nagpur orange

  13. Dhodle huli

  14. Maaphala

  15. Sweet lime

  16. Vanilla

  17. Clove

  18. Egg fruit

  19. Pineapple: Moris, local, without prickles

  20. Lechi

Flowers:

A) Champaka (Michelia champaka):

  1. Genda sampige

  2. Chini sampige

  3. Haladhi sampige


B) Jasmine (Jasminum sp.):

  1. Jaaji (Jasminum grandiflorum)

  2. Dhundu mallige

  3. Kasthuri mallige

  4. Mallige

  5. Muththu mallige

  6. Mundas mallige


C) Hibiscus: 25 varieties.
Livestock:

  1. Poultry:

  1. Manjole

  2. Uriye

  3. Praddige

  4. Korange

  5. Karbale

  6. Hybrid




  1. Dogs:

  1. Kaalu

  2. Maire

  3. Mangale

  4. Thoudu

  1. Mudhol honda


C) Honey Bee:

  1. Thodde

  2. Periya

  3. Maduve

  4. Kolcha : Pundi kolcha, Thatti kolcha

  5. Mujanti


Table 11. Cultivars of Paddy grown currently or in recent past in the Mala cluster study area


Sl.No.

Traditional Paddy Variety

Sowing Time

1

Kayame

June

2

Kavlukayame

June

3

Rajakayame

June

4

Thonnuru

June

5

Dhodre

February

6

Bolliari-small

June

7

Hambuge

June

8

Athikare

June

9

Gandhasale

June

10

Jeerasale

June

11

Peetisale

June

12

Maskathi

June

13

Suggi kayame

October; February

14

Karthi kayame

June

15

Kutti kayame

June

16

Hallige

June

17

Kanuve

June

18

Kage JB

October

19

Kattu mundai

June-October

20

Gaddu kayame

June

21

Kaje kayame




22

Kumera

June

23

Kariyadhadi

June

24

Sooranje




25

Boli ari-big

June

26

Sonpakutti

October-February

27

Sona bidhe

October

The second step is a classification of the different cropping mixes under which cultivated plants are grown, ranging from highly diverse home gardens to extensive paddy fields under a single modern breeder’s variety. The number of classes to be recognised will have to be decided upon primarily in terms of convenience. The third step is then a variety of measurements for representative fields of each class of cropping mix. These would include : (a) Diversity of cultivated plants, (b) Diversity of pests, diseases, weeds, (c) Diversity of other non-cultivated plants and animals associated with the crops, (d) Inputs into cultivation including labour, specially purchased seeds, manure, fertilizers and pesticides (e) Levels of biomass production (f) Levels of economically valuable products and by-products of cultivation. In addition, of course, there would be soil and water related measurements mentioned above.


8.2 Discussions

These would focus on how patterns and practices of cultivation have changed over time, and how these have affected the ecosystem goods and services; bads and disservices. People in Mala cluster have expressed a number of concerns, including (i) non-sustainable use of irrigation water (ii) Loss of soil fertility under continued application of chemical fertilizers (iii) death of many non-target organisms due to applications of pesticides. However, there seems to be little concern with loss of diversity of cultivars. There were many cultivars of paddy; there was little such variation in other important crops such as arecanut and coconut . Since paddy is the least paying of the crops and is losing out to other crops, there seems to be little interest in the maintenance of its cultivars, though people do recall that the traditional cultivars had better flavour and taste, although lower levels of yields. A very interesting on-going effort in Mala cluster is that of revival of organic agriculture led by one of the largest land-owners, Mr. Muniraj Ballal.


`Brahma Srushti’ and `Vishwamitra Srushti’:

Local people talk of Creation of two worlds or Srushtis, that of Brahma, the God of Creation and of Vishwamitra, a sage. The usual cultivated varieties of plants have been regarded as the `Brahma Srushti’. The wild relatives of cultivated plants, including wild pepper, wild mango, wild jack-fruit, wild cardamom, wild nutmeg etc. have been considered as `Vishwamitra Srushti’, and there have greater genetic vigour and could be cross-pollinated/ grafted with the cultivated varieties to rejuvenate and revitalize the cultivated varieties from time to time.



Table 12. Ecosystem goods/ services/ bads/ disservices associated with cultivated lands of Mala study cluster

Ecosystem goods


LSE

UG

COMMON NAME

CATEGORY

USE

M/L/B

Private tree plantations

Firewood collector

Areca

( leaves)



Firewood

Fuel

L

Private tree plantations

Firewood collector

Coconut (leaves)

Firewood

Fuel

L

Private tree plantations

Firewood collector

Cashew (branches)

Firewood

Fuel

L

Private tree plantations

Firewood collector

Rubber (branches)

Firewood

Fuel

L

Private tree plantations

Firewood collector




Leaf litter

Fuel

L

Private tree plantations

Agriculturist

Areca (stems)

Stems

Water transportation

L

Private tree plantations

Plantation owner / Outsider

Rubber

Plantation crop

Commercial product

M

Private tree plantations

Plantation owner / Outsider

Areca nut

Plantation crop

Commercial product / Local consumption

B

Private tree plantations

Plantation owner

Coconut

Plantation crop

Local consumption

L

Private tree plantations

Plantation owner / Outsider

Cashew

Plantation crop

Commercial product / local consumption

B

Private tree plantations

Plantation owner / Outsider

Pepper

Plantation crop

Commercial product / local consumption

B

Private tree plantations

Plantation owner / Outsider

Cocoa

Plantation crop

Commercial product / local consumption

B

Private tree plantations

Toddy tapper /

Plantation owner



Toddy ( from Caryota )




Mild intoxicant

B

Private tree plantations

Folk artist

Coconut leaves




Ornament

L

Agricultural land

Firewood collector

Agri-waste




Fuel

L




LSE

UG

COMMON NAME

CATEGORY

USE

M/L/B

Agricultural land/ Habitations

Agriculturist

Paddy

Crop

Local consumption

L

Agricultural land/ Habitations

Agriculturist

Sapota

Crop

Local consumption

L

Agricultural land/ Habitations

Agriculturist

Mango

Crop

Local consumption

L

Agricultural land/ Habitations

Agriculturist

Papaya

Crop

Local consumption

L

Agricultural land /

Habitations



Agriculturist

Jackfruit

Crop

Local consumption

L

Agricultural land/ Habitations

Agriculturist

Banana

Crop

Local consumption

L

Agricultural land

Agriculturist

Crabs

Apple snails



Crustacean

Molluscs


Local consumption

L

Agricultural land

Agriculturist

Morantai

(Cat fishes)



Fishes

Local consumption

L

Private tree plantaions

Outsiders

Areca plates

VA product

Commercial product

M

Private tree plantations

Outsiders

Rubber sheets

VA product

Commercial product

M

Private tree plantations

Outsiders / All local UGs

Large serving spoons (Coconut shells)

VA product

Commercial product

B

M = Marketed, L = Locally used, B = Both marketed and locally used, VA = Value added, LSE = Landscape Element (use-based), UG = User Group



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