10.2 Important breeds of Cattle (Bos indicus)
For the past 50 years, cattle have been imported from the Northern Hemisphere. The crossbreeding of local cattle with Holstein-Friesian, Ayrshire, Brown Swiss, Jersey, Guernsey, red Dane, milking shorthorn, and the Australian Illawara shorthorn has been encouraged at the government level. It is estimated that purebred animals constitute only 20-25 % of the total cattle population. Quality livestock is bred in government and military dairy farms. Artificial insemination facilities for cattle are available in many parts of the country. Table 10.1 above gives information regarding the status of livestock in Pakistan. The description of some important breeds of cattle is given below:
Synonyms: Grey Sindhi, White Sindhi, Thari
A relation of this breed is the Cutchi, which originates from Cutch on the northwest border of India and Pakistan. The home of the breed is the Tharparkar district of Hyderabad and even India. This is an arid area and in drought years cattle move to the surrounding regions where they have interbred with Kankrej, red Sindhi, and Gir and Nagori cattle. Its habitat is situated just outside the tropics and is very arid. The rainfall averages 203 mm (8 inches) per annum. These are strongly built, medium-sized animals with comparatively short, straight limbs and good feet. The skin is pigmented and thin, and the hair is fine and short. The coat colour is usually white or grey with a light grey stripe along the top line. In the male, the grey colour may deepen with age, particularly on the face and hindquarters. Black and red-coloured cattle are also seen. The hump is moderately well developed and firm; the dewlap is of medium size; the sheath in the male is semi-pendulous and of moderate length and the naval flap in the female is prominent.
Average weight of male = 950 lbs.
Average weight of female = 890 lbs.
Average milk yield in 300 days 3500 lbs.
This is one of the best dual-purpose work-milk breeds found in Pakistan and the Indian subcontinent. It will milk under very poor feeding conditions and has great powers of endurance and resistance to poor feeding and to drought conditions. Several of these cattle have been exported particularly to Zaire, Iran, Sri Lanka, and the Philippines.
Synonyms: Malir, red Karachi, Sindhi
The original breed was founded at Malir outside Karachi, Hyderabad and Lusbella district. In Pakistan, it is believed that this breed is derived from hill-type cattle. It is somewhat similar to the Sahiwal. The home of the breed is now around Karachi, just outside the tropics where the climate is sub-tropical and semi-arid. The red Sindhi is a medium to small animal with a deep compact frame. The coat colour is usually red varying from dark red to dun yellow, often with specks of white on the dewlap and the forehead. The horns are thick at the base and laterally emerge and curve upwards.
Average weight of male = 925 lbs.
Average weight of female = 750 lbs.
Average milk yield in 300 days 4000 lbs.
This species is considered one of the best dairy breeds in Pakistan, though it is occasionally used for light work. It has been exported to India, China, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Brazil, Mauritius, Thailand, Philippines, Afghanistan, Turkey, Korea, East Africa, USA, Australia, Egypt, Iraq, and Japan.
This breed originates from district Sahiwal of the Punjab province. The climate of its original habitat is hot and arid. It is a large, heavily built fleshy animal. The coat colour is varied, although reddish dun is common. Other coat colours are pale reds; dark brown and almost black flecked with white. The head is broad and massive in the male and the ears are of medium size with black hair on the fringes.
Average male weight = 1000-1400 lbs.
Average female weight = 600-950 lbs.
Average milk yield in 300 days is 7000 lbs.
This is the best dairy breed of Pakistan and has been exported to Turkey, Malaysia, and Kenya. In Jamaica, it has been crossed with the Jersey breed to produce the Jamaica Hope breed. In East Africa, it has been widely used to upgrade the small East African Zebu cattle. The Sahiwal breed can also be used for beef and work purposes.
Rojhan cattle are bred in Bakht Baidar Khan and G.B. Isani. These are small animals with a red and white spotted coat (considerable variation in spot size, tight skin, small and alert ears, small pointed hors, short neck, proportionately large hump, and extended dewlap). Their thin tail usually ends in a white switch. They have a small, tucked up udder. Milk yield is very low. T he adult male weighs 300-350 kg and the female 230-280 kg. Male stock is very suitable for draught work in hilly and sub-hilly areas.
This breed is from the districts of Tharparkar and Badin in the Sindh province. It also extends along the Rann of Kutch to the northern part of Gujrat in India. Its small strain is locally named Kutchi or Wadhiari and is found in the Thatta and Sanghar districts of Sindh. The body colour of the Kankrej cattle varies from silver-grey to a darker-grey. Males are darker at the shoulders, hump and hindquarters. The forehead is broad and slightly concave in the centre. The nose is slightly upturned, and the ears are large and pendulous. The hors is strong and lyre-shaped. Females weigh 350-400 kg, have a medium-sized udder and are good milk producers. Kankrej bullocks are prized as fast and powerful draught animals. Adult males weigh 500-650 kg. As both good milk producers and strong workers, Kankrej cattle serve a dual purpose.
10.3 Breeds of Goats (Capra hircus) and Sheep (Ovis aries )
Goats belong to the family Bovidae and genus Capra. The domesticated goat of West Asia is Capra hircus. Goat breeds have been documented from various parts of the country, including Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas. Most are small to medium in size. Some of the breeds carry exactly the same name given to the breeds of sheep found in the same area. Most goats in Pakistan are usually raised for meat and hair production, although some breeds are good milk producers. None of the breeds seems to have been specifically developed as the dairy or meat type, so goats serve as multi-purpose animals, and at a very low level of performance. The teddy goat, imported from Bangladesh, is spread all over Pakistan, and is popular due to its prolific rate of growth, less demand for feed and the easy marketing of mutton. In general, the inadequate availability of feed is the major factor responsible for low productivity. There is a need for a new classification system of goat breeds in this country in order to eliminate some of the names and overlapping of characteristics in the present long list of breeds described in Appendix F.
Sheep are reared throughout Pakistan and have a wide range of climatic adaptability - from the desert to the snowy mountains in the north of the country. Sheep are used for wool and mutton. The characteristics and description of the sheep of Pakistan is given in Appendix F.