All official volatile oils are of vegetable origin. All official volatile oils are of vegetable origin



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Cultivation practices also play an important factor to the yield & quality of the final product.

  • Fertilization and the amounts of N, P and K have been studied for various species.

  • The watering regiment also plays an important role.



  • Because of the volatile nature of the constituents of essential oils, the composition of the product obtained by steam distillation is often different from the constituents originally found in the secretory organs of the plant.

    • Because of the volatile nature of the constituents of essential oils, the composition of the product obtained by steam distillation is often different from the constituents originally found in the secretory organs of the plant.

    • During steam distillation, the water, acidity and tempereature may induce hydrolysis of the esters. Rearrangements, isomerizations, racemiazations, oxidations and other reactions also occur, all of which change the composition.



    Definition: Ginger is the peeled or unpeeled rhizome of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae).

    • Definition: Ginger is the peeled or unpeeled rhizome of Zingiber officinale (Zingiberaceae).

    • Common Names: Jamaican ginger, Ginger



    GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCES

    • GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCES

      • Jamaica
      • China
      • India Africa
    • HISTORY

    • Cultivated in India from the earliest times. Used by Greeks and Romans and was a common article of commerce in the European Middle Ages.



    Grows well in subtropical temperatures with high rainfall.

    • Grows well in subtropical temperatures with high rainfall.

    • Grown by vegetative means.

    • Mulching or is necessary as the plant rapidly exhausts minerals from the soil.

    • When the stems wither, the rhizomes are ready for collection.

    • Dried.



    Scraped/peeled herb has little resemblance to the fresh herb (loss in weight & shrinkage).

    • Scraped/peeled herb has little resemblance to the fresh herb (loss in weight & shrinkage).

    • Occurs in branched pieces “hands” or “races”.

    • Buds

    • No cork

    • Aromatic odour & pungent taste.

    • Unscraped rhizome: resembles scraped herb –

    • Covered with cork (brownish layers)



    Cork cells – high starch content

    • Cork cells – high starch content

    • Cork cells are absent in the scraped drug.

    • Outer zone of flattened parenchyma & inner zone of normal parenchyma.

    • Oil cells scattered in the cortex.



    Volatile oils (1 – 2%)

    • Volatile oils (1 – 2%)

      • Camphene
      • Cineole
      • Citral
      • Borneol
    • Gingerol – pungent component – Anti-inflammatory

    • Shogaols – increases bile secretion

    • Sesquiterpene HC’s

      • Zingiberene & Zingiberol (Sesquiterpene alcohol)
    • Resins

    • Starch

    • Mucilage



    VARIETIES

    • VARIETIES

      • Chinese Ginger – sliced
      • African ginger – darker (cortex is grey – black in colour); lacks the odour but more pungent than Jamaican herb.
    • ALLIED DRUGS

      • Japanese ginger – Z. mioga
      • Preserved ginger – undried rhizomes preserved by boiling in syrup.
    • ADULTERANTS

      • Spent ginger
      • Vegetable adulterants (detected with microscopical examination).


    ACTIONS

    • ACTIONS

    • Carminative

    • Stimulant

    • Anti-emetic

    • Anti-bacterial & Anti-fungal

    • Sesquiterpene lactones – Anti-ulcer

    • Gingerol – pungent component – Anti-inflammatory

    • Shogaols– increases bile secretion & enhanced GIT activity

    • USES

    • Motion Sickness

    • Morning Sickness





    DEFINITION: Cardamom consists of the dried, nearly dried ripe fruits of Elettaria cardamomum var miniscula (Zingiberaceae).

    • DEFINITION: Cardamom consists of the dried, nearly dried ripe fruits of Elettaria cardamomum var miniscula (Zingiberaceae).

    • PARTS USED: Seeds (should be kept in the fruit until ready to be used – Prevents loss of volatile oils).

    • (3RD most expensive spice).



    GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCES

    • GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCES

      • Sri Lanka
      • India
      • Guatemala
    • HISTORY

      • Traditional Indian ceremonies


    Mainly obtained from cultivated plants (propagated by seedlings or vegetatively [problematic due to virus infection]).

    • Mainly obtained from cultivated plants (propagated by seedlings or vegetatively [problematic due to virus infection]).

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