All official volatile oils are of vegetable origin. All official volatile oils are of vegetable origin



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Capsules on the same plant ripen at different times – important to collect them before they split.



Fruits are dried slowly (outdoors or indoors).

  • Fruits are dried slowly (outdoors or indoors).

  • Too rapid drying – capsules split & shed seeds

  • Calyx at the apex of the stalk and the stalk at the base may be removed.

  • Fruits are graded with a sift into ‘longs’, ‘mediums’, ‘shorts’ & ‘tiny’.

  • If they have been sulphur – bleached (improved colour), it will be aired outdoors before packed for transport.



Plant is reed-like - > 4 m, with long leaves growing from the rhizome.

  • Plant is reed-like - > 4 m, with long leaves growing from the rhizome.

  • Fruits – capsular: inferior, ovoid, 1-2 cm long.

  • Apex: shortly beaked & shows floral remains.

  • Base: rounded & shows the remain of a stalk.

  • Internally the capsule is 3-celled; each cell contains x2 row of seeds.

  • Each seed: Slightly angular, 4mm long & 3 mm broad.

  • Colour: dark red-brown (fully ripe seeds)  paler in unripe seeds.

  • Strong, pleasant, aromatic odour

  • Pungent taste



Oil cells

  • Oil cells

  • Predominant Parenchyma (yellow colour)

  • Cells containing silica

  • Starch grains



ADULTERATION

  • ADULTERATION

    • Powdered drug adulterated with the fruit pericarp (powdered).
  • ALLIED HERBS

    • Official variety – E. cardamomum var miniscula
    • Other: E. cardamomum var major (more elongated & sometimes 4 cm long with dark brown pericarps)
    • Amomum aromaticum (Bengal cardamom)
    • Amomum subulatum (Nepal cardamom)
    • Amomum cardamomum (Java cardamom)


2.8 – 6.2 % volatile oil

  • 2.8 – 6.2 % volatile oil

  • Abundant starch (up to 50%)

  • Fixed oil (1 – 10%)

  • Calcium oxalate



Flavouring agent (curries & biscuits)

  • Flavouring agent (curries & biscuits)

  • Liqueur manufacture

  • Small amount is used for pharmaceutical manufacture (Compound Tincture of Cardamom).



DEFINITION: Cinnamon is the dried bark of Cinnamomum zeylanicum (Lauraceae).



Grown from seed

  • Grown from seed

  • Cut down when 2-3 years old.

  • After 5-6 shoots grow from the stump (18 months), shoots are harvested, trimmed and fermented.

  • Bark is removed.

  • Peeled bark is then stretched over a suitable stick

  • Outer cortex is removed.



Individually scraped barks are placed inside each other.

  • Individually scraped barks are placed inside each other.

  • Compound quills are dried on wooden frames in the open air without exposure to direct sunlight.

  • Sorted into grades.



Normally received in shorter lengths known as ‘cigar lengths’.

  • Normally received in shorter lengths known as ‘cigar lengths’.

  • Consists of a single or double compound quill about 6-10 mm diameter of varying length.

  • Thickness of the quill varies according to grade (good quality: Not > 0.5mm), bark: 10-40mm.

  • External surface: is yellow-brown, shining, wavy lines (pericycle fibres) and occasional scars & holes (leave/twig positions).

  • Inner surface: darker, longitudinally striated.

  • Odour: fragrant

  • Taste: Warm, sweet & aromatic



Transverse: absence of epidermis & cork

  • Transverse: absence of epidermis & cork

  • Sclereids (thickened lignified pitted walls)

  • Secondary phloem is composed of phloem parenchyma containing oil & mucilage cells, phloem fibres & medullary rays.

  • Some phloem parenchyma contain tannins.

  • Secretion cells: volatile oils and mucilage

  • Calcium oxalates



Volatile oils (at least 1.2 %)

  • Volatile oils (at least 1.2 %)

  • Phlobaphenes

  • Mucilage

  • Calcium Oxalate

  • Starch



Adulterants



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