All official volatile oils are of vegetable origin. All official volatile oils are of vegetable origin



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Flavouring agent

  • Flavouring agent

  • Mild astringent

  • Oil: Carminative

  • Germicide



Definition: Dried lemon (Limonis Cortex) peel is obtained from the fruit of Citrus limon (Rutaceae).

  • Definition: Dried lemon (Limonis Cortex) peel is obtained from the fruit of Citrus limon (Rutaceae).

  • Botanical Description:

  • Small tree, growing to 3-5 m in height.

  • Geographical Sources

  • Mediterranean Regions



Lemons are collected in January, August & November, before the green colour changes to yellow.

  • Lemons are collected in January, August & November, before the green colour changes to yellow.

  • The smaller fruit, which would not be sold on the produce market, are used in the preparation of oil of lemon - the peel is removed with a sharp knife in the form of a spiral band.



Dried lemon peel occurs in spiral bands (2 cm wide; 2-3 mm thick).

  • Dried lemon peel occurs in spiral bands (2 cm wide; 2-3 mm thick).

  • The outer surface is rough & yellow; the inner surface is pulpy & white (anatomically similar to that of an orange peel).

  • Odour: Strong & characteristic

  • Taste: aromatic & bitter



CONSTITUENTS

  • CONSTITUENTS

  • Should contain at least 2.5% volatile oil

  • Vitamin C

  • Hesperidin (Flavonoid)

  • Mucilage

  • Calcium Oxalate

  • USES

  • Flavouring purposes



Definition: Lemon oil is the oil expressed from the outer part of the fresh pericarp of the ripe or nearly ripe fruit of Citrus limon (Rutaceae).

  • Definition: Lemon oil is the oil expressed from the outer part of the fresh pericarp of the ripe or nearly ripe fruit of Citrus limon (Rutaceae).

  • BP: oil should be obtained by suitable mechanical means, without the use of heat, from the fresh peel.

  • Much oil is derived via steam distillation, but this process yields oil of inferior quality.

  • Distilled oil of lemon is much cheaper than that prepared by expression. Large amounts are used for non-pharmaceutical purposes.

  • Geographical Sources:

  • Mediterranean, North & South America, Australia & parts of Africa.



i. Hand Methods

  • i. Hand Methods

  • No longer applicable to pharmaceutical oils



Machine Processes

  • Machine Processes

  • Quality is inferior to the best hand-pressed oils.

  • Machines are designed to release oils from the peel via puncture, rasting or cutting and by imitating the gentle squeezing action of the sponge method. (Superiority of the sponge method is due to the fact that there is no contact between the oil & the inner white part of the skin.

  • The newer machines extract oil more completely than the older ones and give a higher yeild

  • Distilled Oils

  • Although not official, some lemon oils are produced by distillation, mainly from the residue of the expression processes. It is much cheaper than hand-pressed or machine-made oil.



Terpenes – mainly limonene

  • Terpenes – mainly limonene

  • Sesquiterpenes

  • Aldehydes (Citral & Citronella)

  • Esters

  • Lemon oil has a tendency to resinify and should be protected from the action of air & light as much as possible.



ADULTERATION

  • ADULTERATION

  • Oil of turpentine

  • Terpenes from ‘terpeneless oil of lemon’

  • Distilled oil of lemon

  • Oil of lemon-grass

  • USES

  • Perfumery

  • Flavouring



Definition: Oil prepared by concentrating lemon oil in vacuum until most of the terpenes have been removed, or by solvent partition. The concentrate is a terpeneless oil, which has a citral content of 40-50 %.

  • Definition: Oil prepared by concentrating lemon oil in vacuum until most of the terpenes have been removed, or by solvent partition. The concentrate is a terpeneless oil, which has a citral content of 40-50 %.

  • It is equal in flavouring to 10-15 times its volume of lemon oil





CONSTITUENTS

  • CONSTITUENTS

  • Volatile oils

  • Pulegone

  • Menthone & isomenthone

  • limonene

  • Diosmin

  • Mucilage

  • Resin

  • Calcium oxalates

  • Buchu camphor – Responsible for the diuretic action

  • USES/ACTIONS

  • Diuretic

  • Urinary Tract Anti-Septic – Used for UTI’s



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