All official volatile oils are of vegetable origin. All official volatile oils are of vegetable origin



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Definition: Nutmeg is the dried kernel of the seed of Myristica fragrans (Myristicaceae).

  • Definition: Nutmeg is the dried kernel of the seed of Myristica fragrans (Myristicaceae).

  • Geographical Sources

  • Indigenous to the Molucca Islands (Spice Islands)

  • Cultivated in Indonesia, Malaysia & the West Indies.



HISTORY

  • HISTORY

  • First Introduced to the Europeans by the Arabs.

  • Portuguese lost control of the spice trade to the Dutch, who maintained complete monopoly by destroying all trees in the neighbouring islands & preventing the export of living seeds.



Trees can be grown from fresh seed gown in the shell. The seeds germinate after about 5 weeks. When the plants are 6 months old, they are transplanted to the fields.

  • Trees can be grown from fresh seed gown in the shell. The seeds germinate after about 5 weeks. When the plants are 6 months old, they are transplanted to the fields.

  • Nutmegs are dried in the shells (process differs according to local conditions). Normally they are dried in the sun & covered at night & rainy weather. They can also be dried in the oven or over low flames.

  • When completely dried, the kernel rattles in the testa, which is then cracked & the nutmeg extracted.



Nutmeg trees are evergreen, growing up to 20 m in height.

  • Nutmeg trees are evergreen, growing up to 20 m in height.

  • Nutmegs are oval, 2-3 cm long & 2 cm broad.

  • If not heavily limed, the surface is a brown or grey brown in colour.

  • Odour: Strong & aromatic

  • Taste: Pungent and slightly bitter.



Potassium acid tartrate crystals

  • Potassium acid tartrate crystals

  • Parenchym with thin brown walls

  • Oval oil cells

  • Feathery crystals of fat

  • Few tannin cells (containing tannin & starch)



Papua nutmegs – from M. argentea (New Guinea) – little odour & a disagreeable taste.

  • Papua nutmegs – from M. argentea (New Guinea) – little odour & a disagreeable taste.

  • Bombay nutmegs – M. malabarica (India) – lack the characteristic odour of the genuine herb.



Nutmeg oil is distilled from the kernels of Myristica fragrans.

  • Nutmeg oil is distilled from the kernels of Myristica fragrans.

  • CONSTITUENTS

  • Pinene

  • Sabinene

  • Camphene

  • Dipentene

  • Safrole

  • Eugenol & eugenol derivatives

  • Myristicin – a benzene: toxic to humans (large does of nutmeg or nutmeg oil may cause convulsions).



Common mace or Banda mace consists of the dried arillus or arillode of M. fragrans.

  • Common mace or Banda mace consists of the dried arillus or arillode of M. fragrans.

  • Description: bright red colour & lacks in aroma.



CONSTITUENTS

  • CONSTITUENTS

  • Volatile oils (similar to that of nutmeg) – eugenol derivatives are the main active constituents – responsible for the anti-bacterial effects.

  • Also has 2 anti-microbial resorcinols (Malabaricone B and C)



DEFINITION: Cloves are the dried flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum (Eugenia caryophyllus), (Myrtaceaea).

  • DEFINITION: Cloves are the dried flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum (Eugenia caryophyllus), (Myrtaceaea).

  • Geographical Sources

  • Molucca or Clove Islands, Zanzibar, Pemba, Madagascar, Indonesia & Brazil.



Cloves were used in China as early as 266 BC, and by the 4th century, they were known in Europe, although very expensive.

  • Cloves were used in China as early as 266 BC, and by the 4th century, they were known in Europe, although very expensive.

  • Same as with nutmeg, the Dutch also destroyed all trees from surrounding native islands to secure a monopoly, and cultivated them only in a small group of islands.

  • In 1770, the French managed to introduce clove trees to Mauritius, and started cultivating them there, as well as in Zanzibar, Penang and Sumatra.



The flower buds are collected when the lower part turns green-crimson. The cloves are dried in the open air on mats & separated from their peduncles (forming clove stalks which are also sold commercially).

  • The flower buds are collected when the lower part turns green-crimson. The cloves are dried in the open air on mats & separated from their peduncles (forming clove stalks which are also sold commercially).

  • If left on the tree for too long, the buds open & the petals fall, leaving “brown cloves”. Later the fruits (“mother cloves”) are produced.



Cloves are 10-17.5 mm long.

  • Cloves are 10-17.5 mm long.

  • The head consists of 4 slightly projecting calyx teeth, 4 membranous petals and numerous incurved stamens around a large style.

  • Odour: Spicy & Pungent

  • Taste: Aromatic



Heavy cuticularized epidermis

  • Heavy cuticularized epidermis

  • Numerous oil cells (shizolysigenous)

  • Calcium oxalates (cluster crystals & prisms)

  • Stomata (epidermis of sepals)

  • Starch (Fruit – “mother cloves”)

  • Lignified sclereids



14-21% Volatile oils

  • 14-21% Volatile oils

  • Mainly eugenol & isoeugenol

  • Sitosterol

  • Stigmasterol

  • Campesterol

  • Tannins

  • Triterpene acids & esters

  • Glycosides



Stimulant aromatic

  • Stimulant aromatic

  • Spice

  • For the preparation of volatile oil

  • Sesquiterpenes: potential anti-carcinogenic compounds



Oil distilled in Europe and the US normally does not need purification, while oil distilled in other areas (e.g. Madagascar) does. After purification the oil is sold with varying eugenol contents.

  • Oil distilled in Europe and the US normally does not need purification, while oil distilled in other areas (e.g. Madagascar) does. After purification the oil is sold with varying eugenol contents.

  • Oil of cloves is yellow or colourless, is slightly heavier than water.



Volatile oils – mainly eugenol & acetyleugenol

  • Volatile oils – mainly eugenol & acetyleugenol

  • Sesquiterpenes (α and β caryophyllenes)

  • Oil of clove – like other volatile/essential oils – should be stored in a well-fitted, air-tight container, & should be protected from light & heat.



Anti-septic

  • Anti-septic

  • Aromatic

  • Stimulant

  • Flavouring Agent





DEFINTION: Eucalyptus leaf consists of the whole or cut dried leaves of the older branches of Eucalyptus globulus, (Myrtaceae).

  • DEFINTION: Eucalyptus leaf consists of the whole or cut dried leaves of the older branches of Eucalyptus globulus, (Myrtaceae).

  • GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCES

  • Portugal, SA, Spain, China, Brazil, Australia, India & Paraguay.



MACROSCOPICAL

  • MACROSCOPICAL

  • Older dried leaves are grey-brown & have lateral veins. Secretory oil cells are visible in leaves held to the light.

  • MICROSCOPIC

  • Epidermal cells have a thick cuticle.

  • Anisocytic stomata

  • Mesophyll has schizogenous oil glands

  • Calcium oxalate crystals: Prisms & Cluster crystals



Volatile Oil (at least 2 %)

  • Volatile Oil (at least 2 %)

  • sesquiterpene - Anti-bacterial action against oral pathogens.



Oil of eucalyptus is distilled from the fresh leaves of various species of Eucalyptus and rectified. They are produced in the same countries which produce the dry herb.

  • Oil of eucalyptus is distilled from the fresh leaves of various species of Eucalyptus and rectified. They are produced in the same countries which produce the dry herb.

  • Only a certain amount of species produce oil suitable for medicinal use – the main criteria is a high cineole content and low amounts of phellandrene and aldehydes.

  • Suitable oils are obtained from E. polybractea, E. smithii, E. globulus and E. australiana.



CHARACTERISTICS

  • CHARACTERISTICS

  • Colourless or pale yellow liquid

  • Aromatic & camphoraceous in odour.

  • Pungent & camphoraceous in taste, which is followed by a sensation of cold.

  • CONSTITUENTS

  • At least 70 volatile oils (mainly cineole).



Alleviating the symptoms of nasopharyngeal infections

  • Alleviating the symptoms of nasopharyngeal infections

  • Treating coughs

  • Decongestant.

  • Official preparations

  • Mixtures, inhalations, lozenges and pastilles; also applied externally as ointments and liniments.



DEFINITION: Fennel consists of the dried ripe fruits of Foeniculum vulgare (Umbelliferae).

  • DEFINITION: Fennel consists of the dried ripe fruits of Foeniculum vulgare (Umbelliferae).

  • GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCES

  • Europe, India, China & Egypt. Mediterranean origin.



1-4 % Volatile oil

  • 1-4 % Volatile oil

  • trans-anethole

  • Antethole

  • Estragole

  • Fenchone

  • Flavonoids

  • Coumarins

  • Glycosides



ACTIONS

  • ACTIONS

  • Carminative

  • Expectorant

  • Aromatic

    • - All due to anethole (and fenchone)
  • USES

  • Flatulence

  • Dyspepsia

  • Chronic coughs & catarrh





Culinary purposes

  • Culinary purposes

  • Used in medicine as a flavouring

  • Carminative



DEFINITION: Caraway consists of the dried, ripe fruits of Caram carvi (Umbelliferae).

  • DEFINITION: Caraway consists of the dried, ripe fruits of Caram carvi (Umbelliferae).

  • GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCES

  • Wild & Cultivated in Central & Northern Europe, Holland, Denmark, Germany, Russia, Finland, Poland, Hungary, Britain, Egypt, Morocco, Australia & China



A biennial herb growing up to 1 m in height.

  • A biennial herb growing up to 1 m in height.

  • Herb: Normally consists of mericarps separated from the pedicels. Fruits are slightly curved, brown & glabrous.

  • Size: 4-7 mm long, 1-3 mm wide

  • Often the stigma & style are still attached.

  • Characteristic aromatic odour & taste



Pitted sclerenchyma

  • Pitted sclerenchyma

  • secretory canals

  • Dark, red-brown cells containing a pale yellow or colourless oleoresin

  • Thick cellulose walls

  • Calcium oxalate crystals



1-7 % Volatile oils

  • 1-7 % Volatile oils

  • Carvone

  • Limonene

  • Carveole

  • 8-20 % Fixed oils

  • Proteins

  • Calcium oxalates

  • Colouring matter

  • Resin



DEFINITION: Coriander is the dried, nearly ripe fruit of Coriandrum sativum (Umbelliferae).

  • DEFINITION: Coriander is the dried, nearly ripe fruit of Coriandrum sativum (Umbelliferae).

  • GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCES

  • Indigenous to Italy. Also cultivated in Holland, Central & Eastern Europe, Mediterranean (Morocco, Malta & Egypt), China, India & Bagladesh.



Annual herb growing 0.7 m in height with white or pink flowers.

  • Annual herb growing 0.7 m in height with white or pink flowers.

  • Drug: Normally consists of whole cremocarps – straw yellow & 2-4 mm in diameter when ripe.

  • Considerable variation occurs (e.g. Indian variety > oval).

  • Apex has 2 styles.

  • Fruits have an aromatic odour & spicy taste.

  • Unripe plant: unpleasant mousy odour  same odour oil has when made from unripe fruit.



Outer pericarp: stomata & calcium oxalte prisms.

  • Outer pericarp: stomata & calcium oxalte prisms.

  • Thick sclerenchyma

  • Testa:= brown flattened cells

  • Endosperm is curved & consists of parenchymous cells containing fixed oils.



1.8 % Volatile oils

  • 1.8 % Volatile oils

  • Linalool/coriandrol

  • Pinene

  • Terpinene

  • Limonene

  • Cymene

  • Non-linalool alchols & esters

  • Flavonoids

  • Coumarins

  • Phenolic acids

  • High fat content (16-28%)

  • Protein (11-17%)



Domestic purposes (cooking - curries)

  • Domestic purposes (cooking - curries)

  • Pharmaceutically: flavouring agent & Carminative



DEFINITION: Peppermint is the dried leaves of Mentha piperita (Labiate). It should contain at least 1.2 % volatile oil.

  • DEFINITION: Peppermint is the dried leaves of Mentha piperita (Labiate). It should contain at least 1.2 % volatile oil.

  • GEOGRAPHICAL SOURCES:

  • Europe & America



All mints have a square stem & creeping rhizome.

  • All mints have a square stem & creeping rhizome.

  • Black mint, which is the most commonly cultivated variety in England, has purple stems and dark green petiolate leaves tinged with purple. Leaf blades are 3-9 cm long with a grooved petiolate up to 1 cm long.

  • Pinnate venation.

  • Glandular trichomes: bright yellow points (hand lens)

  • Small purple flowers appear in late summer.



Diacytic stomata

  • Diacytic stomata

  • Multicellular clothing trichomes

  • 2 types of glandular trichomes (one with a unicellar head; with a multicellular head).

  • Calcium oxalate is absent.



Oil of peppermint is obtained from Mentha piperita via steam distillation using the flowering tops.

  • Oil of peppermint is obtained from Mentha piperita via steam distillation using the flowering tops.

  • Oil should contain at least 44 % menthol, 15-32 & menthone and 4.5-10 % menthyl acetate.



Menthol

  • Menthol

  • Menthone & isomenthone

  • Menthyl acetate

  • Limonene

  • Cineole

  • Menthofuran

  • Pulegone

  • Cineole

  • OIL COMPOSITION: greatly

  • influenced by genetic

  • factors & seasonal variation.



OIL: anti-bacterial, cooling, carminative

  • OIL: anti-bacterial, cooling, carminative

  • HERB: Carminative



Definitions of Volatile Oils

  • Definitions of Volatile Oils

  • Methods of Production of Volatile Oils

  • Herbs containing Volatile Oils


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