An Approach to Determine the Diversity and Conservation Status of Bryophytes in Northern Sindhupalchok District of Nepal Final report Submitted to Rufford Small Grant Foundation, uk nirmala Pradhan June, 2012 Summary



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6.2. Conservation Awareness

Awareness Program aims to endorse awareness, promote conservation skills in nature conservation that helps to safeguard many pristine habitats of rare and endangered bryophyte species found in their community areas. It assists communities to become more aware of the pros and cons of the issue selected and promote goodwill and public relations to bring cooperation in conservation campaigns. This kind of program also increases the ability of community members to evaluate the effectiveness of the ongoing impact on their natural surroundings.

In Nepalese perspective this kind of program keeps special significances. The knowledge on the sustainable use of forest resources is still feebly developed in this country basically due to complicated pattern of geographical variation which has created non-uniformity in resources distribution from the lowland district to the Himalayan villages. As a tradition adopted so far, peoples of mountains and higher elevations still rely on forest resources due to the lack of alternate resources available there. Many parts of the country which are tourism perspectives are facing forest depletion for tourist’s facilities. Road constructions and extension programs have led to demolish many pristine forests where bryophyte habitats are impacted seriously. Unsustainable harvesting of forest resources is the next serious impact on this lower plant group.

This study at different potential areas of the northern Sindhupalckok revealed that majority of the peoples is unaware of bryophyte conservation. Many of them were also unknown about bryophyte and its significant value in nature and mankind. Livestock rearing in mountain region is common phenomenon so they are more diverted to the foraging plants ignoring bryophytes which are not the foraging group.

These facts made this work to launch door to door awareness program at different village development committees in order to bring local people’s attentions on the significant values of bryophytes and its use for the benefits of the society if used under sustainable way.

Questionnaires were developed to this work and 10 % of the households in every visited village were selected to provide them knowledge on the use and conservation of bryophytes in their areas. They were also informed about the valuable and endangered bryophyte species found in


Total of 50 houses were selected in five different village wards. About 150 individual members of the houses were provided knowledge on bryophytes making their commitments in bryophyte conservation and sustainable use of forest resources.
Evaluation of filled out questionnaires revealed following information. Fifty questionnaires were used in five different Villages.



  1. 95 % of the peoples were completely unknown about bryophytes. They simply call this plant “Jhyau” (native language) and do not know its significance and conservation values.

  2. 3 % of the peoples mentioned their little knowledge on this plant but do not know its conservation values.

  3. Only 2 % of the peoples mentioned that these are valuable plants in nature, they also know little about its uses. They opine that the conservation of this plant can help to control landslides, flooding and maintains soil fertility.

This awareness program made all the village peoples familiarized with bryophyte, its uses and conservation significances. Now these village communities are highly interested to participate in bryophyte conservation in their areas and make its use under sustainable way. They are planning to conserve this plant together with other plants on community level.



7. RECOMMENDATION


  1. Detail information needs documented to understand the ecosystems in which different species of bryophytes grow.

  2. Documentation on the traditional uses of bryophytes by different tribal peoples in the country. This helps to develop appropriate policies on sustainable use and conservation of this plant.

  3. To evaluate the patterns of use and the economic values of bryophytes.

  4. To provide information on the uses and availability of bryophytes.

  5. There is a need to develop effective bryophyte conservation programs before more species and communities become critically endangered. Bryophyte conservation strategies are not only needed to protect the most imperiled species, but to ensure the long-term survival of all endangered and native species.

  6. It is also essential to promote consistent policies for plant conservation including bryophytes.

  7. To bring effectiveness in bryophyte conservation and familiarization. It is necessary to incorporate conservation message into primary, secondary, and adult education curricula.

  8. It has been felt essential to encourage coordinated lower plant conservation planning and management.

  9. Develop and implement guidelines and management techniques for collecting, propagating, and utilizing bryophytes in ecosystem restoration.

  10. This has been found necessary for the application of adaptive management principles

  11. Bryologists of the country should share the knowledge of bryophytes to the public especially in simple, easily understood public forums.

  12. It is also necessary to safeguarding the bryophyte habitats against invading species.

  13. Recommendations are made for conservation of important bryophyte communities and habitats, where feasible, in relation to development works

  14. Concerned authorities should think to introduce a coordinated policy of Grazing.

  15. Inadequate availability of fuel substitutes in remote areas is also causing impact on forest resources leading destruction of many significant bryophyte habitats.

  16. Adequate budgeting should be made available for improvement of institutional framework in conducting extensive research on bryophytes.

  17. Public awareness. Program is the basic requirement in conservation so its implementation should be extensive and effective.




  1. SUGGESTIONS




  1. Establishment of Bryophyte database is an essential aspect.

  2. Inclusion of Bryophyte experts in Environment Impact Assessment programs.

  3. Bryologists should be included in integrated programs on biodiversity documentation and conservation.

  4. Increasing tourism promotional activities at the expense of forest resources in Sindhupalchok needs to be supervised for proper management.

  5. Information center on existing biodiversity including bryophytes of Sindhupalchok district is equally essential.

  6. Need of effective policy has been felt to implement for sustainable use of forest resources in this district.

  7. Students should be made attracted to conduct their dissertation research on different aspects of bryophytes.

  8. Local communities should be made more aware in bryophyte conservation.

  9. Establishment of Moss Garden is the next need to flow information on bryophytes and to bring conservation consciousness.

  10. Allocation of appropriate funding to run regular monitoring program on bryophyte diversity and its changing status in northern Sindhupalchok district.


9. REFERENCES
BPP, 1995a. An Assessment of the Representation of the Terrestrial Ecosystems in the Protected

Areas System of Nepal. Biodiversity Profiles Project Publication:15. Department of National Parks and Wildlife Conservation, Ministry of Forests and Soil Conservation. His Majesty's Government of Nepal, Kathmandu.

Brummitt, R. K. &Powel, C.E., 1992. Author’s of plant names. Royal Botanic garden, Kew, UK.

Chopra, R. S. 1975. Taxonomy of Indian Mosses. Bot. Monograph 10, Pubs. & Inf. Directorate,

New Delhi, India

Dobremez, J.F., 1976. Le Népal Ecologie et Biogeography, Editions du Centre National de la

Recherche Scientifique, Paris, France.

Dobremez, J.F., 1984. Carte Ecologique du Nepal. Region Dhangarhi – Api 1:250,000. Cahiers

Nepalais Documents 10, Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, France.

Dobremez, J.F., Joshi, D.P., Shrestha, T.B. & Vigny, F., 1985. Carte Ecologique du Nepal. Region:

Nepalganj – Dailekh 1:250,000. Cahiers Nepalais Documents 12, Centre Nationale de la Recherche Scientifique, Paris, France

Eddy, A., 1988. A Handbook of Malesian Mosses I. Nat. Hist. Mus. (BM), London.

Eddy, A., 1990. A Handbook of Malesian Mosses II Nat. Hist. Mus. (BM), London.

Eddy, A., 1996. A Handbook of Malesian Mosses III. Nat. Hist. Mus. (BM), London.

Fleming, R.L., Sr., E. Fleming, Jr., & Bangdel , LN., 1976. Birds of Nepal. Kathmandu, Nepal, 24

337.

Gangulee, H. C. 1969-1980. Mosses of Eastern India and Adjacent Regions. Fasc. 1-8: 1-2145.

Published by the author, Calcutta, India

Haruta, T., 1995. Moths of Nepal. The Japan Heterocerist’s Society, Vol.13 (Supplement 3),

Tokyo, Japan, 1-160.

Kashyap, S.R., 1972. Liverworts of Western Himalayas & Panjab Plain. Research Co. Pubs, Delhi.


Khanal, B., & Smith, C., 1997. Butterflies of Kathmandu Valley. Majupuria publications,

Kathmandu, Nepal, 10- 80.

Office of District Development Committee, February, 2010. Initial Environmental Examination

(IEE) Report. District Technical Office, Chautara, Sindhupalchowk.

Long, D. G., 2006. Revision of the Genus Asterella P. Beauv. in Eurasia. Bryophytorum

Biblotheca, Band 63 in Heinrichs (eds.). pp. 1- 299.

Pande, R, 2004. Chauri production systems in upper slope areas, Sindhupalchok, Nepal.

Proceedings of the International Congress on Yak, Chengdu, Sichuan, P.R. China.

Pradhan, N., 2008. Bryoflora of Lowland Nepal: Tarai and Churia Hills, a thesis for the PhD.

Degree.

Pradhan, N. & Joshi, S.D., 2007. Species Diversity of Hornworts (Anthocerotae: Bryophytes) in

Lowland Nepal with an account of Folioceros assamicos D.C. Bhardwaj, a new report to the Country. Our Nature, Int. Biological Journ. 5: 31-36.

Pradhan, N., Khanal, B., Siwakoti, M., Thapa, B. & Thapa, G. 2009. An Assessment of the

Biodiversity in Panch Pokhari of Sindhupalchowk district of Central Nepal, sponsored by Rufford Small Grant Foundation, UK.

Prater, S.H., 1971. The books of Indian mammals. Bombay Natural History Society, Bombay,

India, 140-15

Smith, A.J.E., 1996. The Liverworts of Britain & Ireland. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, UK.

Pp. 1-362.

Tan, B., Geissier, P., Hallingback, T. & Soderstrom, L, 2000. The 2000 IUCN World Red List of



Bryophytes in Hallingback & Hodgetts (eds.) Mosses, Liverworts and Hornwort., Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan for Bryophytes, IUCN/SSC Bryophytes Specialist Group, Sweden: 77-90.
Appendix I

Species Diversity of Bryophytes of Northern Sindhupalchok district at 1300-3020 m

S.N.

Voucher

No.

Families

Latin names

Elevation (m)

Status

Remarks

Anthocerotae

1

10

Anthocerotaceae

Anthoceros chambensis Kashyap

1300

FC




2

8, 29a, 291

Anthocerotaceae

Anthoceros punctatus L.

1480- 1700

C

Black small beetle

3

288, 290

Anthocerotaceae

Phoeceros laevis (L.) Prosk.

1700

FC




Hepaticae

1

127

Aneuraceae

Riccardia multifida (Linn.) Gray

2850

R




2

3,15,

Aytoniaceae

Asterella khasiana (Griff.) Pande et al.

1430-1480

FC




3

424

Aytoniaceae

Asterella multiflora (Steph.) Pande et al.

1430

FC




4

19, 245, 310b

Aytoniaceae

Asterella wallichiana (Lehm. & Linden.) Grolle

1420-1750

FC




5

418

Aytoniaceae

Plagiochasma appendiculatum Lehm. & Linden.

1350

FC




6

247, 331

Aytoniaceae

Plagiochasma pterospermum C. Massal.

1350-1770

FC




7

417

Aytoniaceae

Reboulia hemispherica (L.) Raddi

1600

R




8

401

Cephaloziellaceae

Cephaloziella massalongi (Spruce.) K. Muell.

2000

VR




9

130, 295

Conocephalaceae

Conocephalum conicum (L.) Underw.

1890-2600

FC




10

346

Conocephalaceae

Conocephalum japonicum (Thunb.) Grolle

1800

R




11

6,31, 220a, 260a

Frullaniaceae

*Frullania dilatata (L.) Dumort.

1480-2120

C




12

405

Frullaniaceae

Frullania ericoides (Nees) Montin

1740

R




13

44

Frullaniaceae

*Frullania gracillima St.

1760

VR




14

7, 44, 254

Frullaniaceae

Frullania muscicola Steph.

1280-1840

FC




15

32a

Frullaniaceae

Frullania retusa Mitt.

1720

FC




16

7, 41, 164

Frullaniaceae

Frullania tamarisci (L.) Dumort.

1480- 1840

FC




17

446

Frullaniaceae

Frullania yunnanensis Steph.

2400

FC




18

349, 415

Geocalycaceae


Heteroscyphus argutus (Reinw. et al.) Schiffn,

1500-1800

R

Common in low land below 1000 m

19

447

Geocalycaceae


Heteroscyphus planus (Mitt.) Schiffn.

1300

R




20

302, 320

Herbertaceae

Herbertus adunca (Dicks,) Gray

1900

R




21

165b

Herbertaceae

Herbertus sp.

2440

R




22

180

Jungermanniaceae

Jamesoniella automnalis (D.C) Steph.

2440

VR




23

416

Jungermanniaceae

Jungermannia atrovirens Dumort.

2500

R




24

326, 406

Jungermanniaceae

*Jungermannia exertifolia Steph.

1765

FC

Coccinidae beetle; Black nematods

25

173b

Jungermanniaceae

*Jungermannia pumila With.

2460

R




26

315

Lejeuneaceae

Lejeunea cavifolia (Ehrh.) Lindb.

1766 1950

FC




27

190a

Lejeuneaceae

Lejeunea flava (Sw.) Nees

2420

FC




28

157

Lepidoziaceae

Bazzania tridens (Reinw. et al.) Trev.

2440

R




29

13, 286, 341, 347

Marchantiaceae

Marchantia emarginata Reinw. et al.

1480-1800

C




30

451

Marchantiaceae

Marchantia paleacea Bertol.

1800

FC




31

429

Marchantiaceae

Marchantia polymorpha L.

1300-1650

C




32

132, 135, 141, 172

Pelliaceae

Pellia epiphylla (L.) Corda

2420-2460

R




33

211

Porellaceae

Porella arboria (Taylor) Spruce

2300

FC




34

60b,

Porellaceae

Porella denticulata (Kashyap & R.S. Chopra) J.X. Luo

2120

FC




35

274

Porellaceae

Porella nitens (Steph.) S. Hatt.

1530

R




36

222

Plagiochileaceae

Plagiochila chinensis Steph.

2460

R




37

231

Plagiochileaceae

Plagiochila denticulata Mitt.

2400

R




38

450

Plagiochileaceae

Plagiochila flexuosa Mitt.

2350

R




39

449

Plagiochileaceae

Plagiochila retusa Mitt.

2400

R




40

217a, 280

Plagiochileaceae

*Plagiochila spinulosa (Dicks.) Dumort.

1750-2300

R




41

38

Ricciaceae

Riccia himalayensis Steph.

1720

R




42

67a,

Scapaniaceae

Scapania ciliata Sande Lacey

2400

R




43

152a

Scapaniaceae

*Scapania irrigua (Nees) Nees

2400

R

Earwig (Forficula sps)

44

411

Scapaniaceae

Scapania stephani K. Muell.

2460

R




45

163, 437

Scapaniaceae

*Scapania undulata (L.) Dumort.

1950-2440

FC

Earwig (Forficula sps.)

46

310, 340

Targioniaceae

Cyathodium tuberosum Kashyap

1750- 1766

FC




47

2, 46, 63b, 256, 331b

Targioniaceae

Targionia hypophylla L.

1430-1840

C




48

154,220 176a, 258

Trichocoleaceae

Trichocolea tomentaella (Furh.) Dumort.

.2440-2460

FC




49

118, 151, 155, 286 338, 345

Wiesnerellaceae

Dumortiera hirsuta (Sw.) Nees

1765-2440

C

Common land Snail

Carabid


50

287

Wiesnerellaceae

Wiesnerella denudate Steph.

1700

R




Musci

1

402

Amblystegaceae

Calliergonella cuspida (Hedw.) Loesk.

1800

FC

White Pupa of beetle

2

344

Amblystegaceae

Campylium halleri Hedw.

1800

R

Carabid

3

441

Brachytheciaceae

Brachythecium buchananii (Hook.) A. Jaeger

1900-2000

FC




4




Bartramiaceae

Philinotis fontana (Hedw.) Brid.

2420

FC




5

444

Bartramiaceae

Philinotis hastata (Duby) Wijk & Margad

1600

R




6




Bartramiaceae

Philinotis thwaitsii Mitt.

1760

FC




7

63a

Brachytheciaceae

Bryhnia decurvans (Mitt.) Dixon

2240

R




8

238, 284

Brachytheciaceae

Eurhynchium proelongum (Hedw.) Schimp. var. rigidum

1295-1816

FC




9

327, 427

Brachytheciaceae

Eurhynchium ripariodes (Hedw.) Richs.

1750-1825

C

Nematods

(Plectus sp.)



10

67b,

Brachytheciaceae

Homalothecium nigheriensis

2400

R




11

193, 214

Bryaceae

Anomobryum auratum (Mitt.) A. Jaeger

2300-2420

C




12

42

Bryaceae

*Anomobryum julaceum (Gaertn. & al.) Schimp.

1420-1760

FC




13

431

Bryaceae

Brachymnium acuminatum Harv.

1550

FC




14

442

Bryaceae

Brachymnium capitulatum (Mitt.) Kindb.

2000







15

64c

Bryaceae

Brachymnium exile (Dozy & Molk.) Bosch & Lacey

2350

R



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