Aqueous extract of leaf. Synopsis for m. Pharm dissertation



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ANTI-ANXIETY ACTIVITY OF Myristica fragrans:

AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF LEAF.


SYNOPSIS FOR

M.PHARM DISSERTATION


SUBMITTED TO

RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES,

BANGALORE, KARNATAKA.

BY

INGALE SHRIPAD JAYANT

DEPARTMENT OF PHARMACOLOGY

NARGUND COLLEGE OF PHARMACY

BANGALORE-560085

(2008-2010)

RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES BANGALORE, KARNATAKA.


ANNEXURE-II




PROFORMA FOR REGISTRATION OF SUBJECTS FOR PG DISSERTATION






1.


Name of the candidate and address(in block letters)

SHRIPAD JAYANT INGALE


NARGUND COLLEGE OF PHARMACY,

DATTATREYA NAGAR, II MAIN,100FT RING ROAD,BSK III STAGE, BANGALORE-560085




2.

Name of the institution

NARGUND COLLEGE OF PHARMACY


DATTATREYA NAGAR, II MAIN,100FT RING ROAD,BSK III STAGE, BANGALORE-560085


3.



Course of study and subject

MASTER OF PHARMACY IN

PHARMACOLOGY






4.



Date of the admission



12TH JUNE 2008


5.

6.

7

8



Title of the topic:



ANTI-ANXIETY ACTIVITY OF Myristica fragrans:

AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF LEAF.


BRIEF RESUME OF THE INTENDED WORK

6.1 NEED FOR THE STUDY

Anxiety a normal response to stress is a feeling of apprehension or fear, combined with symptoms of increased sympathetic activity. A clinical problem may arise if anxiety becomes severe or persistent, that interferes with everyday performance. Clinical subtypes on anxiety include panic disorder, agoraphobia, other phobias and generalized anxiety1. The prevalence of such syndromes in the general population is about 10-20%, and there is high rate of co-morbidity with depressive disorders2. The overall male to female ratio is 2:1.Although, the maximum prevalence of generalized anxiety and agoraphobia–panic is 50-64 age groups; the age of onset of most of anxiety disorders is in the young and adulthood (twenties and thirties). Current pharmacotherapy of anxiety revolves around the use of synthetic molecules as well as drugs obtained from the natural origin. However the drugs in current use are associated with side effect such as drowsiness, impaired motor activity, anticholinergic activity, and abusive tendencies. The search for drug with a better pharmacological profile therefore continues.

The use of Myristica fragrans as an anxiolytic has been mentioned in ayurveda, review of literature reveals that a large variety of extracts obtained from leaf exhibit different types of pharmacological activity that includes anxiogenic activity of a hexane fraction3. However the ayurvedic literature insists on the use of the aqueous extract in formulations, no experimental evidence is reported regarding the testing of such aqueous extracts.


    1. REVIEW OF LITERATURE:

The Myristica fragrans Houtt (family: Myristicaceae) is indigenous to the Malay Peninsula and Penang. It is now cultivated in many tropical countries of both the hemispheres. M.fragrans commonly known as nutmeg has aromatic, stimulant, narcotic, carminative and astringent It is used as a remedy for stomach ache, rheumatism and vomiting of pregnancy. The kernel contains a volatile oil, a fixed oil, proteins The fixed oil contains myristin and myristic acid. Nutmeg yields 5-15% of volatile oil, which contains pinene, sabinene, camphene, myristicin, elemicin, isoelemicin, eugenol, isoeugenol, methoxyeugenol, safrole, dimeric phenylpropanoids, lignans and neolignans. Eugenol, the major constituent inhibits lipid peroxidation and maintains activities of enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutamine transferase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase.3



  • Ganeshchandra Sonawane et al. Studied the behavioral effects of acetone soluble part of the n- hexane extract of the Myristica fragrans which showed anxiogenic activity3

  • JY Chung et al. Has observed anticarcinogenic activity of macelignan which was isolated from the Myristica fragrans against the Streptococcus mutants.4

  • GS Sonowane et al. Has studied anticonvulsant, cataleptic and sedative properties of n- hexane extract of acetone insoluble part of petroleum extract of Myristica fragrans seeds.5

  • Rehan Ahmed et al. Has shown mild antihyperglycemic activity using fruit of Myristica fragrans 6

  • J Shukhla et al. Where Essential oils were extracted from dried fruits of Myristica fragrans and Illicium verum by hydrodistillation method and its toxic and developmental inhibitory activities were determined against wheat flour beetle Tribolium castaneum.7

  • Tajjuddin, Shamshad Ahmed et al. Has performed the comparative study on Aphrodisiac activity of 50% ethanolic extracts of Myristica fragrans and Syzygium aromaticum in male mice.8


6.3 OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY


  1. Evaluation of antianxiety activity of aqueous extract by Open field test, Holeboard test and Rotarod apparatus.


MATERIAL AND METHODS


    1. SOURCE OF DATA:

Data will be obtained from the experimental work, which includes laboratory based animals studies and evaluation of various parameters.



7.2 METHOD OF COLLECTION OF DATA:
The data collected is based on animal experimentation as per the parameters studied under each animal model. The sampling procedure and collection of data is as follows.
METHODOLOGY:
HOLE BOARD TEST:

ANIMALS:

Species

Mice

Strain

Albino

No of animals in each group

N=10

No of groups

four

Vehicle of herbal drugs

Distilled water

Vehicle of standard drugs

Distilled water

Water and food

Ad. libitum

DRUGS AND TREATMENT:


Group I: vehicle control

Group II: diazepam

Group III: test drug dose I

GroupIV: test drug dose II



OPEN FIELD TEST:

ANIMALS:

Species

Mice

Strain

Albino

No of animals in each group

N=10

No of groups

four

Vehicle of herbal drugs

Distilled water

Vehicle of standard drugs

Distilled water

Water and food

Ad. libitum

DRUGS AND TREATMENT:


Group I: vehicle control

Group II: diazepam

Group III: test drug dose I

GroupIV: test drug dose II



ROTAROD APPARATUS:

ANIMALS:

Species

Mice

Strain

Albino

No of animals in each group

N=10

No of groups

four

Vehicle of herbal drugs

Distilled water

Vehicle of standard drugs

Distilled water

Water and food

Ad. libitum

DRUGS AND TREATMENT:

Group I: vehicle control

Group II: diazepam

Group III: test drug dose I

Group IV: test drug dose II



STASTICAL ANALYSIS

The data will be analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA).


7.3 Does the study require any investigation to be conducted on patients

Or other humans or animals? If so please describe briefly
Yes, The above study requires investigation on animals. The effect of drug will be studied on

various parameters using rat and mice as animal model.


7.4 Has ethical clearance been obtained from your institution in case of 7.3?

Applied for institutional animal ethics committee of Nargund college of pharmacy.


REFRENCE:

  1. Morgan K, Clarke D, Longitudinal trends in the late life insomnia: implications for prescribing. Age ageing. 1997; 26:179-184.

  2. Judd LL, et al. Comorbidity as a fundamental feature of generalized anxiety disorders: results from the national comorbidity study (NCS). Acta psychiatrica Scandinavica. 1998; (suppl.393): 6-11.

  3. Sonawane G, Sarveiya V, Kasture V, Kasture SB. Behavioral actions of Myristica fragrans seeds. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2001; 33: 417-424.

  4. Chung JY, Choo JH, Lee MH. Anticarcinogenic activity of macelignan which was isolated from the Myristica fragrans against the Streptococcus mutants. Phytomedicine. 2006;13:261-266

  5. Sonawane GS, Palekar RC, Kasture VS, Kasture SB. Anticonvulsant and behavioural actions of Myristica fragrans seeds. Indian Journal of Pharmacology. 2002; 34:332-338.

  6. Ahmad Rehan, et al. Mild Antihyperglycemic activity in Eclipta alba, Berberis aristata, Betula utilis, Cedrus deodara, Myristica fragrans and Terminalia chebula. India Journal of Science and Technology.2008; 1:5.



  1. Shukhla J, Tripathi SP, Chaubey MK. Toxicity of Myristica fragrans and Illicium verum essential oil against flour beetle Tribolium casteneum Herbst. Electronic Journal of Environmental Agricultural and Food Chemistry.2008; 7:3059-3064.

  2. Tajjudin, Shamshad Ahmad. Aphrodisiac activity of 50% ethanolic extracts of Myristica fragrans and Syzygium aromaticum (L) Merr. Perry (clove) in male mice: a comparative study. BMC Complementary and alternative medicine.2003; 3:1-6.

  3. Liester GR. The use of a plus- maze to measure anxiety in mouse. Psychopharmacology.1987; 92:180-185.

  4. Bhattacharya SK, Satyan KS. Experimental Methods For the evaluation of Psychotropic agents in rodents: I-Anti-anxiety agents. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology 1997. June; 35:565-575.

  5. Vogel H Gerhard, Vogel Wolfgang H , Schlkens Bernward A, Sandow Jurgen, Muller Gunter, Vogel Wolfgang F. Drug Discovery and Evaluation, Pharmacological Assay.[CD-ROM] Second ed. Verlag Berlin Heidelberg: Springer; 2002






9

SIGNATURE OF THE CANDIDATE





10

REMARKS OF THE GUIDE

Recommended


11

NAME AND DESIGNATION









11.1:- GUIDE

Dr. H J. HRISHIKESHAVAN PhD

PROFESSOR AND HEAD

DEPT. OF PHARMACOLOGY

NARGUND COLLEGE OF PHARMACY,

Bangalore-560085.





11.2:- SIGNATURE





11.3:- CO-GUIDE






11.4:- SIGNATURE






11.5:- HEAD OF THE DEPT.

Dr. H J. HRISHIKESHAVAN PhD

PROFESSOR AND HEAD

DEPT. OF PHARMACOLOGY

NARGUND COLLEGE OF PHARMACY,



Bangalore-560085.






11.6:- SIGNATURE



12

REMARKS OF THE PRINCIPAL







12.1 :- SIGNATURE







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