Are pollen fossils useful for calibrating relaxed molecular clock dating of phylogenies? A comparative study using Myrtaceae supporting information



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Table S2. Details of fossil pollen calibrations used in the Bayesian phylogenetic analyses

Pollen Fossil

Reference

Age

Fossil location

Calibration node

Prior distribution

Myrtales crown age estimate

Wang et al., 2009

91 Ma

n/a

Root node calibration (A)

Normal
Mean - 91
St. Dev. - 2.5

Myrtaceidites mesonesus Cookson & Pike

Couper, 1960

Paleocene

New Zealand

All Myrtoideae except Xanthostemoneae and Lophostemoneae (B)

Exponential
Mean - 1.03
Offset - 61.7

Myrtaceidites tenuis Harris

Thornhill and Macphail in review

Early Eocene

Bass Strait, Tasmania

Angophora + Corymbia crown (C)

Exponential
Mean - 2.17
Offset - 45.0

Myrtaceidites eucalyptoides Cookson & Pike

Alley et al., 1996

Late Eocene

Lake Eyre and Otway Basins, South Australia

Eucalyptus crown (D)

Exponential
Mean - 0.895

Offset - 33.9



Myrtaceidites sp.

Thornhill and Macphail in review

Early Eocene

Pilbara, Western Australia

Leptospermeae crown (E)

Exponential
Mean - 1.952

Offset - 48.6



Myrtaceidites verrucosus
Stover & Partridge

Thornhill and Macphail in review

Late Eocene

Hatfield, New South Wales

Australasian Myrteae crown
(F)

Exponential
Mean - 0.895
Offset - 33.9

Myrtaceidites verrucosus

Graham, 1985; Romero and Zamaloa, 1985

Middle Eocene

Panama and Argentina

South American Myrteae crown (G)

Exponential
Mean - 3.09
Offset - 37.2

Myrtaceidites verrucosus

Pocknall, 1982

Late Oligocene

Pomahaka, New Zealand

New Zealand Myrteae crown
(H)

Exponential
Mean - 1.47
Offset - 23.03

Myrtaceidites eugeniioides Cookson & Pike

Harris, 1965

Early Eocene

Princetown, Victoria

Syzygieae + Backhousieae crown (I)

Exponential
Mean - 1.952
Offset - 48.6

Macrofossil

Reference

Age

Fossil location

Calibration node

Prior distribution

Eucalyptus fruits

Hermsen et al., 2010

Early Eocene

Patagonia, South America

Crown eucalypts (J)

Exponential
Mean - 1.844
Offset - 51.2

Corymbia fruit

Rozefelds, 1996

Early to Middle Eocene

Queensland

Crown Corymbia/Angophora (K)

Exponential
Mean - 4.744
Offset - 45

Paleomyrtinaea princetonensis
Pigg, Stockey & Maxwell

Pigg et al., 1993

Early Eocene

United States of America

Crown Myrteae (L)

Exponential
Mean - 4.066
Offset - 50.0

Tristaniandra alleyi
Peter G. Wilson & Basinger

Basinger et al., 2007

Middle Eocene

South Australia

Crown Kanieae (M)

Exponential
Mean - 3.09
Offset - 37.2

Metrosideros leaves and fruits

Pole et al., 2008

Miocene

New Zealand

Crown Metrosideros (N)

Exponential
Mean - 2.982
Offset - 20.0

Table S3. Palynological character matrix of extant and fossil taxa used in the backbone constraint analysis

Characters

1 General Shape: Prolate (0); Oblate (1)

2 Pore Number: Diporate (0); Triporate (1); Tetraporate (2); Pentaporate (3); Hexaporate (4); Monoporate (5)

3 Colpi Morphology: Asyncolpate (0) Syncolpate (1) Parasyncolpate with arcuate colpi (2) Parasyncolpate with angular colpi (3) Brevicolpate (4) Syndemicolpate (5) Parasyncolpate with inverse arcuate colpi (6) Unicolpate (7)

4 Shape of Side: Straight (0); Concave (1); Deeply Concave (2); Convex (3); Greatly Convex (4)

5 Exine Pattern: Psilate (0); Granulate (1); Granulate/Scabrate (2); Scabrate (3); Verrucate/Scabrate (4); Verrucate (5); Rugulate (6); Rugulate with pollenkit (7); Vermiculate (8); Perforate (9)

6 Apocolpial Island: Absent (0); Present (1)

7 Apocolpial Type: None (0); Closely fitting polar island (1); Small irregular polar island (2); Granules on the polar membrane (3)

8 Angles of Amb: Rounded (0); Pointed (1); Notched (2); Flat (3)

9 Colpi Type: Smooth (0); Rough (1); Broken (2); No colpi (3)

10 Inside Pattern: Psilate (0); Scabrate (1); Microscabrate (2); Granulate (3); Verrucate (4); None (5)

11 Margo exine: Absent (0); Present (1)

12 Width: 6-10 (0); 10-14 (1); 14-18 (2); 18-22 (3); 22-28 (4); 28-38 (5); 38-50 (6)

13 Length: 6-10 (0); 10-14 (1); 14-18 (2); 18-22 (3); 22-28 (4); 28-38 (5); 38-50 (6)

14 Colpi/Length %: None (0); 0-20 (1); 20-40 (2); 40-50 (3); 50-65 (4); 65-95 (5); 95-100 (6)


Extant

Taxon

Characters

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

Acca sellowiana

1

1&2

3

0

2

0&1

1

3

2

3

0

2

2

3

Acmena divaricata

0

0

7

3

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

2

6

Acmena graveolens

0

0

7

3

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

2

6

Acmena mackinnoniana

0

0

7

4

0&6

0

0

0

0&1

0

0

2

2

6

Acmena smithii

0&1

0&1

2&7

4

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

1

2

Acmenosperma claviflorum

1

1

3

0&1

3

1

1

0&1

0&1&2

0

0

2

2

2

Actinodium cunninghamii

0

1

0

2&4

0

0

0

0

3

5

0

1

1

0

Agonis flexuosa

1

1&2

1&2

1

3

0

0

0&2

0

0&1

1

1

1

4

Amomyrtus meli

1

1

4

0

2

0

0

0&3

2

3

0

4

4

2

Anetholea anisata

1

1&2

2

3

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

4

Angophora costata

1

1

2

0&1&3

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

4

4

3

Angophora hispida

1

1

2

0&1

0

1

2

0&3

0&1

0

0

4

4

3

Archirhodomyrtus beckleri

1

1

4

0&3

1

0

0

0

2

3

0

3

3

2

Arillastrum gummiferum

1

1

2&6

3&4

0&3

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

2

Asteromyrtus symphyocarpa

1

1

1

0

3

1

2

0&1

0&1

0

1

2

2

4

Babingtonia cunninghamii

1

1

5&6

0&1

0

0

0

0&1

1

0

0

1

1

1

Babingtonia densifolia

1

1

1&6

1

0

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

Babingtonia jucunda

1

1&2

0&1&5

0

0

0

0

0&1

0

0

0

1

1

0

Babingtonia tozerensis

1

1

6

4

0&3

0

0

0&1

0

0

0

1

1

3

Backhousia citriodora

1

1

2&3

0&3

0&6

0&1

0&1

0&1

0

0

0

2

2

3

Backhousia myrtifolia

1

1

2

1

0

0

0

0&1

0

0

0

2

2

4

Baeckea frutescens

1

1

5

0&1

0

0

0

0&1

0

0

0

1

1

0

Baeckea ovalifolia

1

1

0&1

1

0&3

0

0

1

0

0

0

1

1

2

Beaufortia orbifolia

1

1

2&3

0

3

1

1&2

0&1

0

0

0

3

3

3

Blepharocalyx cruckshanksii

1

1

3

3

2

1

1

0

2

3

0

2

2

3

Blepharocalyx salicifolius

1

1

4

0&3

2

0

0

0

2

3

0

1

1

2

Blepharocalyx tweediei

1

1

4

0&3

2

0

0

0

2

3

0

1

1

2

Callistemon polandii

1

1

3

0&3

0&3

1

1

0&1

0

0

0

2

2

3

Calothamnus validus

1

1

2

1&2

3

0

0

0&2

0

0

0

2

1

4

Calyptranthes concinna

1

1

4

3

2

0

0

0

2

1

0

2

2

2

Calyptranthes pallens

1

1

4

3

2

0

0

0

0

1

0

2

2

2

Calytrix tetragona

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

3

0

0

0

2

2

4

Campomanesia guazumifolia

1

1

4

3&4

2

0

0

0&1

2

2

0

3

3

2

Chamelaucium uncinatum

1

1

0

3

0

0

0

0

3

5

0

4

3

1

Choricarpia subargentea

1

1

2

1

3

0

0

0

0&1

0&1

0

2

2

4

Cloezia floribunda

1

1

1&2

1

0

0

0

0&3

0

0

0

1

1

4

Corymbia variegata

1

1

2

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

4

4

4

Darwinia fascicularis

1

1

0

0&1&3

0&3

0

0

0

3

5

0

3

3

1

Decaspermum humile

1

1

3

0&1

1&5

0

0

0

2

1

0

2

1

2

Eucalyptopsis papuana

1

1&2

3

4

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

2

Eucalyptus curtisii

1

1

2

4

3

0&1

0&1&2

0

0

0

0

2

2

3

Eucalyptus globulus

1

1

3

0&3

3

0

0

0

1&2

0&2

0

3

3

2

Eugenia uniflora

1

1

3&4

3&4

0&2

0

0

0

2

1

0

2

3

2

Euryomyrtus ramosissima

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

4

Heteropyxis natalensis

1

1

3

0

0&3

0&1

0&2

2

0&1

0&1

0

2

2

3

Hexachlamys edulis

1

1

4

3

2

0

0

0&1

2

3

0

2

2

2

Homalocalyx aurea

1

1

1

0&3

3

0&1

0&2

0&1

2

3&4

1

3

3

3

Homoranthus darwinioides

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

5

0

3

3

0

Kjellbergiodendron celebicum

1

1

2

3

3

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

2

3

Kunzea capitata

1

1&2

1

0&3

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

2

2

4

Legrandia concinna

1

1

4

0&3

0&2

0

0

0

2

3

0

3

3

2

Leptospermum scoparium

1

1&2

1&2

3

1&3

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

4

Leptospermum spectabile

1

1

1

3

1&3

0

0

1

0&1

0

1

2

2

3

Leptospermum trinervium

1

1

1

3

1&3

0

0

0

0&1

0

1

2

2

4

Lindsayomyrtus racemoides

1

1

1

3

0&3

0

0

0

2

0&3

1

1

1

3

Lophomyrtus bullata

1

1&2

4

3

3

0

0

0

2

1

0

2

2

2

Lophostemon confertus

1

1

2

3

3

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

3

Luma apiculata

1

1

4

3&4

2

0

0

0

2

1

0

1

1

2

Lysicarpus angustifolius

1

1

2

3

3

0

0

0&1

0

0

0

2

1

4

Melaleuca nesophila

1

1

3

3

3

1

1

0&1

1

0

0

1

1

2

Melaleuca viridiflora

1

1

2&3

3&4

2

1

1

0

0&1

0

0

2

2

2

Metrosideros carminea

1

1

2

1

0

1

2

0

0

0

0

1

1

3

Metrosideros diffusa

1

1

3

0&3

0&3

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

1

2

Metrosideros macropus

1

1

2

0&3

0&3

0&1

0&1

0&1

0

0&5

0

2

2

3

Metrosideros nervulosa

1

1

3

0

0

1

1

0&3

0

0

0

3

3

3

Micromyrtus ciliata

1

1

2

0&3

0

0

0

0&1

0

0

0

1

1

3

Myrceugenia leptospermoides

1

1

4

0

2

0

0

0

2

3

0

1

2

2

Myrciaria vexator

1

1

4

3&4

3

0

0

0

2

3

0

2

2

2

Myrteola nummularia

1

1

4

0

2

0

0

0

2

3

0

2

2

2

Myrtus communis

1

1

4

3

2

0

0

0

2

3

0

1

1

2

Neomyrtus pedunculata

1

1

4

0&1&3

0&3

0

0

0

2

1

0

2

2

2

Ochrosperma lineare

1

1

1

2

3

0

0

0&1

1

5

1

1

0

5

Ochrosperma oligomerum

1

1

1

2

3

0

0

0&1

1

5

1

0

0

4

Osbornia octodonta

1

1

1&3

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

2

4

Pericalymma ellipticum

1

1

1

0&1

1&3

0

0

1

0

0

1

3

3

4

Pileanthus filifolius

0

0

7

0

0

0

0

0&3

0

0

0

5

3

6

Pilidiostigma papuanum

1

1

4

4

2

0

0

0

2

3

0

3

3

2

Piliocalyx concinnus

1

1

2

3

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

2

2

Pimenta racemosa

1

1&2

3

3

0

0

0

0

0&1

0

0

1

2

2

Psidium cattleianum

1

1

4

4

0

0

0

0

2

1

0

4

4

2

Psiloxylon mauritianum

1

1&2

3

3

0&3

1

1

0

0

0

0

1

1

2

Qualea grandiflora

1

0&1

4

0&4

3

0

0

0&3

1

1

0

4

4

1

Rhodamnia argentea

1

1

4

3

2

0

0

0

2

1

0

1

1

2

Rhodomyrtus macrocarpa

1

1

4

3&4

2

0

0

0

2

3

0

4

4

2

Sphaerantia chartacea

1

1

3

3

5

0

0

1

1

0

0

1

1

3

Stockwellia quadrifida

1

1

2

4

3

0

0

0&1

0&1

0

0

1

1

2

Syncarpia glomulifera

1

1

2

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

2

4

Syzygium aromaticum

1

1

3

3

0&3

1

1

0

1&2

0

0

2

2

2

Syzygium australe

1

1

2

1&3

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

4

Syzygium cumini

1

1

3

0&3

0

1

2

1

0&1

0

0

1

1

3

Syzygium maire

1

1

3

0&3

0

1

1

0

1

0

0

1

1

2

Syzygium samarangense

1

1

2

4

0

0

0

0

0&2

0

0

1

1

3

Syzygium wilsonii

1

1&2

3

0

3

1

1

0&1

0

0

0

2

1

3

Tepualia stipularis

0

0

7

3

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

3

1

6

Thaleropia queenslandica

1

1

0

1

0

0

0

0

3

5

0

0

0

0

Thryptomene saxicola

0&1

0&1

6

4

3

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

2

Tristania neriifolia

1

1

1&3

0

0

0

0

0&1

0

5

0

0

0

0

Tristaniopsis laurina

1

1&2

3&6

0&3

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

1

2

Ugni molinae

0&1

0&1

4

3&4

2

0

0

0&2

2

3

0

1

1

1

Uromyrtus australis

1

1

4

4

2

0

0

0&1

2

3

0

1

1

1

Verticordia pennigera

1

1&2

0

1

0

0

0

0

3

5

0

3

3

1

Vochysia hondurensis

1

1

4

0

3

0

0

3

3

1

0

?

?

?

Waterhousea floribunda

1

1

2&3

0&3&4

0&3

0&1

0&2

0

0&1

0

0

1

1

3

Waterhousea hedraiophylla

1

1

2

0

0

0

0

0

0&1

0

0

1

1

3

Xanthomyrtus papuana

1

1&2

2

0&3

0&3

0

0

0

0

0&1

0

2

1

3

Xanthostemon chrysanthus

1

1

2

3

2

1

1

0

0

0

0

2

2

2

1   2   3


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