Bad indicators: widespread & variable



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Bad indicators: widespread & variable

  • Bad indicators: widespread & variable

  • Diffs. genetic (adaptations?) or environmental (phenotypic plasticity?)

  • How evaluate?



How evaluate?

  • How evaluate?

  • Common garden experiment:



Common garden expts.

  • Common garden expts.

  • 1920s: Turesson (Sweden)

  • Widespread European sp.

    • Ex, hawkweed (Hieracium)


Described ecotypes:

  • Described ecotypes:



1920s: Clausen, Keck, Hiesey (California)

  • 1920s: Clausen, Keck, Hiesey (California)

  • Widespread (elev. gradient)



Ex, Potentilla glandulosa

  • Ex, Potentilla glandulosa

    • Ecotypes named (subspecies)


Some sp. form ecophenes:



Pygmy seeds on normal soil?

  • Pygmy seeds on normal soil?



Ecocline: continuous variation

  • Ecocline: continuous variation



Ecotypic traits

  • Ecotypic traits

    • Morphology: stature, leaf/floral traits, etc.


Ecotypic traits

  • Ecotypic traits

    • Morphology: stature, leaf/floral traits, etc.
    • Phenology: timing life


Ex. ecophysiological ecotypes: alpine sorrel (Oxyria digyna).

  • Ex. ecophysiological ecotypes: alpine sorrel (Oxyria digyna).

  • Arctic (hi latitude) & alpine (hi altitude) tundra



Ex: Agrostis tenuis (bentgrass) England

  • Ex: Agrostis tenuis (bentgrass) England

  • Pasture grass: Roman metal mines



Ex:

  • Ex:

    • Ecotypes: few


Ecotypes: not always

  • Ecotypes: not always

  • Ex, foothill pine (Pinus sabiniana): normal vs. serpentine soils



Serpentine: lots Mg, Ni, Cr (little Ca)

  • Serpentine: lots Mg, Ni, Cr (little Ca)

  • Soil:

    • low N, P
    • high Cr, Ni
    • low Ca/Mg ratio


Ecotype on serpentine? No.

  • Ecotype on serpentine? No.



Phenotype = genotype + current env.

  • Phenotype = genotype + current env.

  • Acclimation: Temp.



Ex, Senecio vulgaris (groundsel)

  • Ex, Senecio vulgaris (groundsel)

  • Germ. dif. temps.

  • Grown same temp. 80 d.



Revegetation/reforestation

  • Revegetation/reforestation



Ex, who am I?

  • Ex, who am I?



5 “seed zones”

  • 5 “seed zones”



Often info not avail.

  • Often info not avail.

  • Solution: collect seeds locally!





Growth form: how plant builds

  • Growth form: how plant builds



Raunkiaer growth form system

  • Raunkiaer growth form system



Includes:

  • Includes:

    • size, lifespan, woodiness
    • Nutrition (parasite, etc.)


Includes:



Includes:

  • Includes:

    • Phenology
    • location


Main Raunkiaer categories (7):

  • Main Raunkiaer categories (7):

    • 1) Phanerophyte: bud >50 cm


Main Raunkiaer categories (7):

  • Main Raunkiaer categories (7):

    • 2) Chamaephyte: bud <50


Main Raunkiaer categories (7):

  • Main Raunkiaer categories (7):

    • 3) Hemicryptophyte: bud


Main Raunkiaer categories (7):

  • Main Raunkiaer categories (7):

    • 4) Cryptophyte (geophyte): below-ground bud (ex, bulb plants)


Main Raunkiaer categories (7):

  • Main Raunkiaer categories (7):

    • 5) Therophyte: seed overwinters (annuals)


Main Raunkiaer categories (7):

  • Main Raunkiaer categories (7):

    • 6) Liana: woody vine


Main Raunkiaer categories (7):

  • Main Raunkiaer categories (7):

    • 7) Epiphyte: germinates &


Effect on host:

  • Effect on host:

    • None (commensalism: 1 benefits, other unaffected)
    • (+,0)


Effect on host:

  • Effect on host:

    • Positive. Canopy roots (host): roots in epiphyte mats
    • Mutualism: (


Negative: Parasites (tap host)

    • Negative: Parasites (tap host)
  • Parasitism. (+,-)



Holoparasites: No chlorophyll.

  • Holoparasites: No chlorophyll.

  • Haustoria (mod. roots)



Hemiparasites: Chlorophyll-- water & nutrients from host xylem

  • Hemiparasites: Chlorophyll-- water & nutrients from host xylem

  • Ex, Who am I? (Lab #2)




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