Canada Jamaica trees for tomorrow project cida contract No. 504/15808



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Canada
Jamaica
TREES FOR TOMORROW PROJECT
CIDA Contract No. 504/15808
Phase II
canadian executing agency
TECSULT INTERNATIONAL
BIOPHYSICAL INVENTORY MANUAL
July 2000

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
BIOPHYSICAL INVENTORY MANUAL 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Kingston, July 2000 
forestry
department
MINISTRY OF
AGRICULTURE

 

 
Table of Contents ................................................................................................................................................2
 
List of Figures ......................................................................................................................................................3
 
List of Tables .......................................................................................................................................................3
 
1. Planning...........................................................................................................................................................4
 
1.1 Photo-interpretation ...................................................................................................................................4
 
1.2 Land Use/Cover Classification...................................................................................................................4
 
1.3 Sampling Intensity and Design ..................................................................................................................9
 
1.31 Sample Unit Number............................................................................................................................9
 
1.32 Level of Inventory.............................................................................................................................. 10
 
1.33 Sample Unit Allocation ...................................................................................................................... 11
 
1.34 Sample Unit Shape ........................................................................................................................... 11
 
1.35 Sample Unit Size............................................................................................................................... 11
 
1.4 Logistic and Personnel Organisation ...................................................................................................... 12
 
1.5 Sampling Plan......................................................................................................................................... 13
 
1.51 Magnetic Declination......................................................................................................................... 13
 
1.52 Starting Point..................................................................................................................................... 15
 
2. Line and Sample Plot Establishment............................................................................................................ 15
 
2.1 Line Location........................................................................................................................................... 15
 
2.2 Line Sketch ............................................................................................................................................. 17
 
2.3 Slope Correction for Line and Plot Establishment .................................................................................. 17
 
2.4 Sample Plot Establishment..................................................................................................................... 20
 
3. Vegetation Data Recorded ........................................................................................................................... 23
 
3.1 Trees Included ........................................................................................................................................ 23
 
3.2 Tree Identification ................................................................................................................................... 23
 
3.3 Diameter Measurements ........................................................................................................................ 23
 
3.4 Tree Study with Spiegel Relascope........................................................................................................ 27
 
3.41 Spiegel Relascope ............................................................................................................................ 27
 
3.42 Diameter Measurements................................................................................................................... 30
 
3.43 Height Measurements ....................................................................................................................... 30
 
3.431 Direct Height Measurement......................................................................................................... 30
 
3.432 Indirect Height Measurement ...................................................................................................... 30
 
3.44 Basal Area Measurements................................................................................................................ 31
 
3.45 Tree Volume Studies......................................................................................................................... 33
 
3.5 Tree Defects ........................................................................................................................................... 33
 
3.6 Cull Factor............................................................................................................................................... 42
 
4. Landform Attributes ...................................................................................................................................... 43
 
4.1 Latitude and Longitude ........................................................................................................................... 43
 
4.2 Elevation ................................................................................................................................................. 43
 
4.3 Slope Position and Form ........................................................................................................................ 43
 
4.4 Slope Gradient ........................................................................................................................................ 43
 
4.5 Slope Aspect........................................................................................................................................... 44
 
5. Soils Attributes.............................................................................................................................................. 46
 
5.1 Soil Type ................................................................................................................................................. 46
 
5.2 Effective Soil Depth................................................................................................................................. 46
 
5.3 Water Erosion ......................................................................................................................................... 47
 
5.4 Texture.................................................................................................................................................... 47
 
5.5 Colour ..................................................................................................................................................... 49
 
5.6 Drainage ................................................................................................................................................. 53
 
5.7 Soil pH .................................................................................................................................................... 54
 
6. Fauna Measurements................................................................................................................................... 55
 
7. Other Land Features .................................................................................................................................... 55
 
8. Verification of Field Measurements .............................................................................................................. 55
 
9. Calculations of Data ..................................................................................................................................... 58
 
10. Mapping...................................................................................................................................................... 59
 
Table of Contents 

 

11. Appendices................................................................................................................................................. 60
 
 
Figure 1. Minimum area of land use/cover types at 1:15 000 scale....................................................................5 
Figure 2. Identification of land use/cover types at 1:15 000 scale ......................................................................6 
Figure 3. Diagram of biophysical land classification ...........................................................................................7 
Figure 4. Diagram of land use/cover types classification ....................................................................................8 
Figure 5. Starting point and sampling line design ............................................................................................ 15 
Figure 6. Method to by-pass an obstacle ......................................................................................................... 16 
Figure 7. Legend used to record the ground features on the line sketch form ................................................ 17 
Figure 8. Suunto PM clinometer....................................................................................................................... 18 
Figure 9. Establishment of sample plot, subplot and sub-subplot.................................................................... 21 
Figure 10. Example showing border trees........................................................................................................ 22 
Figure 11. Special diameter measurements..................................................................................................... 24 
Figure 11. [Continued] ...................................................................................................................................... 25 
Figure 11. [Continued] ...................................................................................................................................... 26 
Figure 12. Spiegel relascope and its components ........................................................................................... 29 
Figure 13. Diameter measurements at various heights ................................................................................... 32 
Figure 14. Defects of tree [form, straightness, health and wood appearance] ................................................ 35 
Figure 14. [Continued] ...................................................................................................................................... 36 
Figure 14. [Continued] ...................................................................................................................................... 37 
Figure 14. [Continued] ...................................................................................................................................... 38 
Figure 14. [Continued] ...................................................................................................................................... 39 
Figure 14. [Continued] ...................................................................................................................................... 40 
Figure 14. [Continued] ...................................................................................................................................... 41 
Figure 15. Types and codes of slope form and position .................................................................................. 45 
 
 
Table 1: Required sample units number based on previous inventories in Jamaica..........................................9
 
Table 2. Recommended sample units number according to the inventory type .............................................. 10
 
Table 3. Duties and equipment of each inventory crew member..................................................................... 13
 
Table 4. Magnetic declination according to the map 1:50 000 metric scale .................................................... 14
 
Table 5. Distance adjustment according to the slope ...................................................................................... 19
 
Table 6. Codification of tree defects................................................................................................................. 34
 
Table 7. Finger assessment procedure for soil texture .................................................................................... 48
 
Table 8. Munsell soil colours and corresponding codes .................................................................................. 50
 
Table 8. [Continued] ......................................................................................................................................... 51
 
Table 8. [Continued] ......................................................................................................................................... 52
 
Table 9. Definition of drainage classes [surface and internal drainage + permeability]................................... 53
 
Table 10. Allowable error according to the biophysical measurement............................................................. 57
 
 
 
 
 
 
List of Figures 
List of Tables 

 

 
                                                           
1
 UNESCO, 1973. « International Classification and Mapping of Vegetation ». Ecology Conservation 6, Unesco, Paris. 
2
 GROSSMAN, D. H., IREMONGER, S. F. and D. M. MUCHONEY. 1992. “A rapid ecological assessment of Jamaica: Phase I - An 
Island-Wide characterisation and mapping of natural communities and modified vegetation types”. The Nature Conservancy/ 
Conservation Data Centre-Jamaica/Rural Physical Planning Unit, Arlington, Virginia, 44 p. 
MUCHONEY, D. M., IREMONGER, S. F. and R. WRIGHT. 1994. A rapid ecological assessment of the Blue and John 
Crow Mountains National Park, Jamaica”. The Nature Conservancy/Conservation Data Centre-Jamaica/Jamaica 
Agricultural Development Foundation-Research Programme, Arlington, Virginia, 90 p.
 
1. Planning 
The Forest Act of 1996 mandates the Forestry Department (FD) to assess the physical and vegetative 
resources within the Forest Reserves, Crown Lands and Private Lands declared Forest Management Area 
(Appendix I: list and code of Forest Reserves and Crown Lands managed by the Forestry Department). 
The assessment of physical and vegetative resources is called a biophysical inventory. The work will be 
carried out as a low percentage stratified random sample, according to the objectives of the implementation 
of a Local Forest Management Plan (LFMP) by watershed management unit (WMU). All the activities of the 
biophysical inventory, including the office work, should be planned using the calendar shown in Appendix 
II. The duration of the work (field + office) is approximately seventeen (17) months for each watershed 
management unit.  
1.1 Photo-interpretation 
The sampling plan is based on a preliminary interpretation of 1991-92 aerial photographs 1:15 000 scale 
(Black & White and Colour), transferred digitally with Ortho-Engine to the 1968 base maps 1:12 500 imperial 
scale (Appendix III: list and code of base maps).  
When the fieldwork has been completed, the Forestry Department technical staff will finalise the photo-
interpretation by updating the 1999 photographs 1:40 000 scale (Black & White), analysing the sample plots 
recorded and digitising the new (updated) forest types. 
The land use/cover type for each minimum area is interpreted according to the forest type (Figure 1). The 
identification of forest type is made using the rules presented in Figure 2. The forest types classification used 
is discussed in the next section.  
1.2 Land Use/Cover Classification 
The basis for the vegetation classification is a hierarchical land classification at 100 000 scale (national level) 
and 10 000 scale (watershed level), as shown in Figure 3. The vegetation classification used for the photo-
interpretation also uses the same hierarchical pattern (Figure 4).  
The Forestry Department land use/cover types classification follows the International Classification of 
Vegetation (UNESCO, 1973)
1
 and is adapted from a classification for Jamaica prepared by The Nature 
Conservancy
2
. The detailed definitions and corresponding tables of the classification are presented in 
Appendix IV. 

 

Figure 1. Minimum area of land use/cover types at 1:15 000 scale 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

Figure 2. Identification of land use/cover types at 1:15 000 scale 
 
 
 
 
 
 

 

Figure 3. Diagram of biophysical land classification 
 
 
 
 
 

 

Figure 4. Diagram of land use/cover types classification 
   
 
 

 

 
Table 1: Required sample units number based on previous inventories in Jamaica  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
                                                           
3
 GRAY, K.M. and G.A. SYMES, 1972. “Forestry Development and Watershed Management in the Upland Regions, Jamaica: Forest 
Inventory of Jamaica”. UNDP/FAO Technical Report 3, Kingston, 175 p. + maps. 
SWEDFOREST CONSULTING AB, 1981. “The hardwood sawmill project - A. First Stage-Wood Supply”. General report + 
appendices + maps. FIDCO/Forest Departement, Kingston. 
JOHNSON, M.S., ALDER, D. and M.E. JEFFERSON, 1981. “Inventory of Carib pine in central and eastern Jamaica - Report”. Land 
Resources Development Centre/ODA, Project report 81, Surrey, UK, 61 p. 
EVELYN, O., 1982. “An Inventory of the Hardwoods and other Pine Plantations of FIDCO’s Estate in Eastern Jamaica”. FIDCO, 
Kingston, p. 27 + appendices. 
1.3 Sampling Intensity and Design 
Preliminary planning is essential to the success of any forest inventory. This involves the determination of 
the number of samples required, their shape and size and how they are to be located. 
Designing an inventory requires knowledge of the variation of the forest parameters. The primary parameter 
is volume. This knowledge is acquired by one of two methods: 
♦  An analysis of all existing and available forest inventories. 
♦  Where no forest inventories have ever been carried out, a pilot or preliminary survey is done. 
1.31 Sample Unit Number 
Four (4) main forest inventory reports are available for the calculation of coefficient of variation of forest 
volume per hectare for Jamaica
3

Table 1 shows the number of required sample units for the forest inventory in Jamaica. The required sample 
units number is calculated with the following formula: 
 
   
n = t
2
  CV
2
 
 
   
          E
2
  
where  n: Required Number of Sample Units 
 
   
 
 
 
t : “Student t” value (at probability level = 95%, 
α = 5 %) 
 
   
 
 
 
CV: Coefficient of Variation (in % of mean) 
 
   
 
 
 
E: Allowable Error (in % of mean). 
 
[Pr obability = 95 % , α  = 5 % ]
Requir ed Sample Units Number  [based on pr evious inventor ies]
Allowable
Natur al For est
For est Plantations
Er r or
Gr ay &  Symes
Swedfor est Gr ay &  Symes
Johnson
Evelyn
(% )
UNDP/FAO
Consulting
UNDP/FAO
L RDC-ODA
FIDCO
(1972)
(1981)
(1972)
(1981)
(1982)
1
28557
10147
42483
19705
8114
2
7139
2537
10621
4926
2028
3
3173
1127
4720
2189
902
4
1785
634
2655
1232
507
5
1142
406
1699
788
325
6
793
282
1180
547
225
7
583
207
867
402
166
8
446
159
664
308
127
9
353
125
524
243
100
10
286
101
425
197
81
15
127
45
189
88
36
20
71
25
106
49
20

 
10
 
 
Table 2. Recommended sample units number according to the inventory type 
  



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