Carl Jung (1875-1961) Numerous dreams and visions as a child

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Carl Jung (1875-1961)

  • Numerous dreams and visions as a child

  • Son of a minister. Became deeply interested in mythology, religion and philosophy

  • Many of his archetypes were derived from his own dreams and visions

  • Became close personal friend and defender of Freud

  • In 1913 split with Freud over disagreement about pan-sexuality

Major Themes and Assumptions

  • Usually identified as a psychoanalytic theorist due to his emphasis on the unconscious

  • Theory combines teleology (aims & aspirations) with causality (individual & racial history)

  • Strong emphasis on racial foundations of personality

  • De-emphasized instinctual and pan-sexual themes

Collective Unconscious

  • Most original & controversial concept in theory

  • Most powerful system in the psyche

  • Storehouse of latent memories

    • Psyche residue of evolutionary process
    • Universal to all humans
    • Contains racial history as well as pre-human and animal elements

Collective Unconscious

  • Latent memories are not inherited rather what is inherited is the predisposition to react in a selective fashion

  • Latent memories are reinforced by experience

  • Serves as a source of wisdom for the ego

  • If ego ignores the unconscious, the unconscious may disrupt the conscious process through symptoms such as phobias, delusions or hallucinations

Collective Unconscious & Archetypes

  • Structural components of the collective unconscious are the archetypes

  • Universal thought forms that contain a large element of emotion

  • Create images or visions that correspond to some aspect of the conscious situation

  • Some are generated out of experiences that are repeated over numerous generations

Collective Unconscious & Archetypes

  • May interfuse with each other

  • May penetrate into the conscious mind to form dreams, visions, myths and neurotic/psychotic symptoms

Archetype of animal instincts

  • Archetype of animal instincts

  • Responsible for unpleasant, socially unacceptable, thoughts, feelings & behaviors

  • One of the strongest archetypes

  • Balanced by the persona

  • Vital aspect of psyche; provides a 3D quality

Archetype based on social role

  • Archetype based on social role

  • Functions as the public personality

  • Purpose is to make an impression on others by concealing one’s true nature

  • If ego identifies with the persona the person becomes more conscious of the role

Jung perceived people as physiologically and psychologically bi-sexual

  • Jung perceived people as physiologically and psychologically bi-sexual

    • Anima feminine archetype in men
    • Animus male archetype in women
  • Allows for ability to comprehend and respond to opposite sex

  • Disparity between idealized archetype and real experience leads to disappointment in relationships

The Self

  • Jung's final component of the psyche

  • One of the most difficult concepts to understand

    • Not a conventional concept of self
    • Functions as a mid-point of personality
  • Exists at birth as an archetype that is a prototypal image of the latent purpose of human nature

The Self

  • Represents the culmination of our development through the unconscious process of individuation

  • Motivates behavior and search for wholeness

  • Root source of religious experience

  • Does not fully develop until middle age


  • Psychosis

    • Repressed or neglected unconscious forces
    • Unleashing of archetypal content
    • Extensive damage to ego
    • Ego can not differentiate between archetypal content and reality


  • Main goal in therapy is individuation

  • Stressed strong client/therapist relationship

  • Therapist active participant

  • Wholeness of therapist important

  • Techniques used

    • Flexible techniques tailored to client’s needs
    • Dream analysis (dream series)
    • Active imagination
    • Word association
    • First therapist to use outside homework

All the Jung Dudes

Alfred Adler (1870-1937)

  • Born 1870; Died 1937

  • As child was sickly/rickets

  • Theory was influenced by several of factors

    • Older brother (birth order)
    • Illness (striving for superiority)
    • Close relationship with father (rejected Oedipal complex)
    • War (idea of social interest)
  • Also opposed pan-sexualism

Major Themes

  • Beautifully simple theory

  • Rejects many of Freud’s ideas

  • Major assumptions

    • People are social beings
      • Behavior motivated by social urges
      • Best understood in social context
    • The creative self
      • Rejects idea of ego formed by unconscious instincts
      • Behavior is the result of subjective perception

Major Themes

  • Uniqueness of the individual

    • Holistic view
    • Each person a unique pattern of interests and traits that motivates Behavior
  • Consciousness is the center of personality

    • People aware of reason for their Behavior
    • Behavior is teleological (purposeful)
    • Behavior is designed to overcome feelings of inferiority

Core Concepts

  • Fictional Finalism

  • Superiority/Inferiority Feelings

    • Propels development

Six Core Concepts

  • Social Interest

    • We’d rather belong than get pleasure
    • Birth order influence (Freud was a firstborn!)
  • Style of Life

    • Socially Useful, Ruling, Getting, Avoiding
  • Creative Self

    • Gives life meaning

Birth Order

  • Adler focused on child’s perception of the family’s dynamics

  • Relationship with both parents seen important to development

  • Mother played critical role in early life

    • Enhances infant’s social interest
    • First to interpret society to child
    • Encourages interest in others
    • Teaches reciprocity

Birth Order: The First Born

  • Inexperienced parents spend inordinate amount of time with the child

  • Dethroned by arrival of second child

  • Experiences loss of singular position

    • If excessively pampered, resentment will emerge
    • As oldest child inherits position of responsibility
    • Understands both significance and exercise of power
  • Interested in preserving tradition

  • As adult

    • Organized, responsible, conservative

Birth Order: The Second Born

  • Shares personal time and attention

  • Unconcerned with loss of power

  • If older child is supportive develops efforts to excel

  • If older child is resentful develops irrationally high goals and tend to fail

  • Typically strives in opposite direction of oldest child

Birth Order: The Middle Child

  • Often believes self to be in unfair position

  • Strives to establish themselves outside the family

  • Thrive on personal relationships

  • Often manipulative and have strong negotiation skills

Birth Order: The Youngest Child

  • Often overindulged

  • Since no younger competition may be self assured and high achiever

  • If over-pampered may become dependent and manipulative

Birth Order: The Only Child

  • First born who is never dethroned

  • Influenced by adults and matures early

  • May experience difficulty in social situations

  • Develops rich imagination and creativity

  • Does not learn to share

  • As an adult has low social interest and may discourage easily


  • Neurosis

    • Traceable back to early childhood
    • Exaggerated feelings of inferiority
    • Means of calling attention to self rather than what they are doing
    • Perceive selves as superior being
      • Have “right” to impose on others
      • Have right to blame others


  • Psychosis

    • Intense, exaggerated feelings of inferiority
    • Imaginary goals
      • Become reality and separates person from social interest
      • Goals only achievable through hallucinations and delusions


  • Goals of psychotherapy

    • Establish collaborative relationship based on respect
    • Gain comprehensive understanding of client’s lifestyle
      • Dynamics of family constellation
      • Childhood disorders
      • Day/night dreams
      • Early memories
      • Exogenous factors (what was present at onset of disorder)
      • Basic mistakes (irrational ideas in style of life)


  • Goals of psychotherapy

    • Explain client’s lifestyle
    • Assist the client in new options
  • Therapeutic relationship

    • Viewed as partnership
    • Supportive
    • Empathy & understanding openly expressed

Karen Horney (1855-1952)

  • Raised by a family headed by a dominant father

    • Father felt women were inferior
    • Did not support her decision to be a physician (U. of Berlin)
  • Trained with Karl Abrahams, follower of Freud

  • Became dissatisfied with orthodox psychoanalysis

Major Themes

  • Influenced by Freud, Adler

  • Particular interest in female psychology

    • Rejected Freud’s idea of penis envy
    • Felt female psychology based on lack of confidence and overemphasis on love relationship
    • Socio-cultural view; personality shaped by texture of society
  • Rejected Freud’s idea of inborn aggression

The Evolution of the Self

  • Rejected Freud’s stages and divisions of personality

  • All people have an innate capacity and desire to self actualize

  • Four representations of the self

    • Real self
    • Actual self
    • Self image
    • Ideal self

The Evolution of the Self

  • Real self

    • An innate set of potentials
    • Develops naturally in a facilitating environment
    • Serves as the deep, inner source of growth
  • Actual self

    • The self we are at any particular point in time

The Evolution of the Self

  • Self image

    • Formed from our perception of our experiences
    • May not coincide with our actual self or potential of our real self
    • Contains set of beliefs, values, and attitudes that define our standards and expectations
    • Ultimately we act upon our self image
  • Ideal self

    • That which we desire to be
    • Or if irrational, that which we must be


  • Parents exert a long-term influence on personality

    • Children at birth a need for security
    • Are totally dependent on parents to meet needs
    • Parents can facilitate self realization, or impede healthy development


  • Basic anxiety

    • Develop when parents do not meet child’s needs
    • Characterized by
      • Helplessness, Aggressiveness, Detachment
    • Child may institute strategies to fight basic anxiety
    • These strategies may achieve drive status and become permanent aspect of personality

Reaction to Basic Anxiety

  • When basic anxiety arises

    • Real self repressed/replaced by idealized image
    • Power/potential of real self becomes unconscious
  • Unconscious solutions employed to resolve basic anxiety

    • Moving Towards People
      • The world exists to serve me
    • Moving Against People
      • I am a superior being who should be heeded by all
    • Moving Away from People
      • I don’t need anyone


  • Goals

    • Resolve inner conflicts
    • Acquire personal sense of responsibility
    • Achieve inner independence
    • Develop spontaneous feeling
    • Develop wholeheartedness
      • To be without pretense
      • To be emotionally secure


  • Course of psychotherapy

    • First Stage
      • Recognition of neurotic trends
      • Client recognizes driving force in disturbance
    • Second Stage
      • Discover causes, manifestations & consequences
      • Strengthen willingness to work on disturbance
    • Third Stage
      • Discover inter-relationship with other parts of the personality
      • Work on strengthening personality and lessening conflict

Contributions & Criticisms

  • Criticisms

    • Borrowed too heavily from Freud, Jung and Adler
    • Little empirical support
    • Emphasis of theory is on unhealthy individuals

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