Characteristics of Threatened Communities



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Limestone Pomaderris Shrubland Community


The Limestone Pomaderris Shrubland Community is a low, dense, closed shrubland occurring on steep slopes on marble-derived soils in East Gippsland. It is characterized by a unique assemblage of plants. The community is dominated by the relatively rare Limestone Pomaderris (Pomaderris oraria subsp. calcicola) and Silver Bundy (Eucalyptus nortonii), together with Drooping She-oak (Allocasuaurina verticillata). Other rare species include Marble Daisy-bush (Olearia astroloba), Winged Everlasting (Helichrysum adnatum = Ozothamnus adnatus) and Dense Bush-pea (Pultenaea densifolia).

This community has been recorded from only one part of Victoria: an area of about 40 ha at Marble Gully near ‘Bindi’ in east Gippsland and is associated with its limestone geology. The available habitat for this community is extremely limited, being on public land because of land clearance, and with this geology. It occurs on steep slopes (>30°) with a north to north-westerly aspect at an altitude of about 600 m ASL, often in close proximity to Dry Rainforest. Sites have light reddish, skeletal soils. The community appears to require extended periods without fire.



Lowland Riverine Fish Community of the Southern Murray-Darling Basin


The Lowland Riverine Fish Community of the southern Murray-Darling Basin is characteristic of the geographical area that defines its distribution, and by a selected suite of native fish taxa that is typical of and largely restricted to the area.

The geographical area that delineates this fish assemblage can be broadly defined as the lowland river reaches and associated floodplains of the Murray River tributaries in Victoria that drain the northern slopes of the Great Dividing Range, together with the lowland section and floodplain of the Murray River upstream of the South Australian border. The major streams involved are: the Mitta Mitta, Ovens, Broken, Goulburn, Campaspe, Loddon and Avoca Rivers. Whilst this community mainly occurs in the lowland river reaches, some species may also occur (at least at certain times) in both the slope and upland river reaches.

The fish fauna is predominantly characterized by the following native fish species: Agassiz’s Chanda Perch (Ambassis agassizii), Silver Perch (Bidyanus bidyanus), Murray Hardyhead (Craterocephalus fluviatilis), Non-specked Hardyhead (Craterocephalus stercusmuscarum fulvus), Flat-headed Galaxias (Galaxias rostratus), Western Carp Gudgeons (Hypseleotris klunzingeri, now considered to be a species complex), Trout Cod (Maccullochella macquariensis), Murray Cod (Maccullochella peelii, previously Maccullochella peelii peelii), Golden Perch (Macquaria ambigua), Macquarie Perch (Macquaria australasica), Murray Rainbow Fish (Melanotaenia fluviatilis), Southern Purple-spotted Gudgeon (Mogurnda adspersa), Bony Bream (Nematalosa erebi), Flat-headed Gudgeon (Philypnodon grandiceps) and Freshwater Catfish (Tandanus tandanus). Other widespread or uncommon species may also occur over parts of the distribution of this community: Southern Pigmy Perch (Nannoperca australis), River Blackfish (Gadopsis marmoratus), Two-spined Blackfish (Gadopsis bispinosus), Australian Smelt (Retropinna semoni), Short-headed Lamprey (Mordacia mordax), Short-finned Eel (Anguilla australis), Broad-finned Galaxias (Galaxias brevipinnis) and Barred Galaxias (Galaxias fuscus).

Many of these constituent species have undergone significant reductions in range and abundance since European settlement. There have been considerable changes to habitats throughout the distribution of this community, caused by a range of factors, and the introduction of alien fish species within the range of the community, such as Brown Trout (Salmo trutta), Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Carp (Cyprinus carpio), Goldfish (Carassius auratus), Tench (Tinca tinca), Oriental Weatherloach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus), Eastern Gambusia (Gambusia holbrooki) and Redfin Perch (Perca fluviatilis).


Montane Swamp Community


The Montane Swamp Complex is a mosaic of usually treeless, drainage-line vegetation, with a large number of herbaceous species, and characteristically found on sites subject to appreciable cold air drainage.

The dominant shrub is Mountain Baeckea (Baeckea utilis). Other important species are Fen Sedge (Carex gaudichaudiana), Slender Twig-rush (Baumea gunnii), Graceful Fescue (Festuca asperula), Spreading Rope-rush (Empodisma minus), Tussock-grass (Poa costiniana), Alpine Water-fern (Blechnum penna-marina = B. penna-marina subsp. alpina), and Sphagnum Moss (Sphagnum cristatum). The Montane Swamp Community may be co-dominated by Myrtle Teatree (Leptospermum myrtifolium), with an understorey of heathy shrubs dominated by Coral Heath (Epacris microphylla = E. microphylla var. microphylla), Drumstick Heath (E. breviflora) and Small-fruit Hakea (Hakea microcarpa). The ground cover contains a diversity of sedges, grasses, forbs and ferns including Common Bog-sedge (Schoenus apogon), Slender Twig-sedge (Baloskion australe), Tall Sedge (Carex appressa), Mountain Club-sedge (Isolepis subtilissima), Rush (Juncus spp.) and Mountain Woodruff (Asperula gunnii).On drier sites, eucalypts including Snow Gum (Eucalyptus pauciflora = E. pauciflora subsp. pauciflora), Black Sallee (E. stellulata) and Candlebark (E. rubida) are occasionally recorded.

The community is restricted to several tributaries of the western headwaters of the Tambo River east of Benambra in East Gippsland. There were only seven known localities totalling 44 hectares at the time of listing (1988), the largest being 21 ha in area.

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