Conservation Management Zones of Australia South Western Australia Temperate Woodlands


Vegetation profiles and management recommendations



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Vegetation profiles and management recommendations


Vegetation extent information and species lists contained in the vegetation profiles are based on analysis from the National Vegetation Information System (NVIS), including analysis of Major Vegetation Subgroups and NVIS Level V descriptions. Please see http://www.environment.gov.au/node/18930 for more information.

The management recommendations have been drawn from EPBC Act Recovery Plans, EPBC Act Ecological Communities Listing Advice and other sources. The recommendations are indicative only. Systematic reviews of management literature, consultation processes and improved Natural Resource Management program monitoring and evaluation will support development of a comprehensive set of management recommendations over time.


Eucalyptus woodlands with a shrubby understorey vegetation profile

11.92% Remaining

Commonly found species within this community


Eucalyptus salmonophloia; Eucalyptus loxophleba; Eucalyptus wandoo; Eucalyptus occidentalis; Eucalyptus accedens; Corymbia calophylla; Eucalyptus flocktoniae; Eucalyptus salubris; Eucalyptus longicornis; Allocasuarina huegeliana; Acacia acuminata; Eucalyptus astringens; Melaleuca sp.; Hakea preissii; Gastrolobium calycinum; Dianella revoluta; shrub; sedge; tussock grass; forb.

this column graph compares the pre-1750 extent of eucalyptus woodlands with a shrubby understorey within the zone with the present day extent. pre-1750 extent is 40.9 percent. present day extent is 4.9 percent.

Management recommendations


Protection

Sustainable Agricultural Practice

Rehabilitation

Fire Management

Wildlife Management

Weed Management

Feral Animal Management

Disease Management

Encourage uptake of conservation Agreements and covenants on private land. See: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au for information on covenants and private land conservation.

Protect from firewood harvesting.

Protect paddock trees.


Fence, and exclude stock from remnants.

Minimise spray drift from adjacent agricultural lands.

Maintain native vegetation remnants and paddock trees as this provides protection against dryland salinity.

Fence paddock trees. If no saplings appear after fencing and stock exclusion, then replant with tubestock from locally sourced seed.

Use shade cloth to construct artificial paddock shade and prevent stock camping under trees.

Minimise ground and surface water extraction.



Overstorey eucalypt species may not easily regenerate if sites have been previously grazed. Sites that have retained mosses and lichens are more likely to regenerate naturally.

Undertake revegetation where no natural regeneration occurs. Ensure seed and tubestock are locally sourced and attempt to replicate the structure and diversity of local, high quality remnants on similar soils and aspect.

Monitor and actively manage weed species in rehabilitation sites.


Reduce the incidence and extent of wildfire by undertaking mosaic burning, maintaining a diversity of vegetation age classes across unburnt patches.

Fire is an important ecological process to stimulate regeneration. Please consult your local Natural Resource Management region for advice on site appropriate fire regimes.



If fallen timber has been removed from remnants, replace with coarse woody debris (such as untreated railway sleepers). Fallen timber provides habitat for wildlife.

Maintain and protect mature trees as it can take 150–180 years for tree hollows to develop. Hollow provide shelter and breeding habitat for mammals and birds.

If few or no mature hollow bearing trees are present within remnants, provide nesting boxes. Monitor regularly for invasive birds and feral honey bees.

Ensure fencing is wildlife fencing –no electric fencing, and no barbed wire.



Monitor and manage weeds in remnants and surrounding agricultural lands.

Moraea fugax, M. collina and M. flaccida, Hesperantha spp. and Sparaxis spp bulb species are particularly problematic in Wandoo woodland remnants.

Manage foxes, rabbits and feral cats.

Ensure foxes and rabbits are managed simultaneously to avoid foxes switching to predation on native species or increases in rabbit populations.



Maintain strict hygiene protocols to avoid spreading Phytophthora by vehicle tyres, earthmoving machinery and boots.

Treat dieback with phosphite in early Summer, and repeat 4–5 weeks later. Sites should be treated for a wide area around an infected site.

Remove all parts of affected plants, including as much of the root system as possible.

Manage public access to control the spread of dieback.




Other shrublands vegetation profile

23.2% Remaining

Commonly found species within this community


Actinostrobus arenarius; Allocasuarina huegeliana; Allocasuarina acutivalvis; Adenanthos stictus; Leptospermum erubescens; Melaleuca uncinata; Banksia burdettii; Verticordia lepidophylla; Verticordia monadelpha; Verticordia polytricha; Verticordia plumosa; Grevillea huegelii; Grevillea pectinata; Pileanthus peduncularis; shrub; forb; grass-tree.

this column graph compares the pre-1750 extent of other shrublands within the zone with the present day extent. pre-1750 extent is 15.3 percent. present day extent is 3.6 percent.

Management recommendations


Protection

Sustainable
Agricultural
Practice

Rehabilitation

Fire
Management

Wildlife
Management

Weed
Management

Feral
Animal
Management

Disease
Management

Encourage uptake of conservation agreements and covenants on private land. See: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au for information on covenants and private land conservation.

Purchase high quality remnants into reservation.

Create buffer zones with locally found native vegetation and fence remnants.

Encourage wise water usage, and avoid over extraction of surface and ground water.



Exclude stock from remnants.

Maintain stands of native vegetation to protect against dryland salinity and water erosion.

Manage run-off, increased nutrient levels and pollution.


Reintroduce local native species where remnants are no longer capable of regeneration.

Regeneration may be more difficult in weedy sites, or where grazing has occurred. However, overstorey species may still be producing


viable seed.

Where possible, seed from the same occurrence should be used for rehabilitation. Please seek advice from your local NRM organisation if there is no viable seed


within a patch.

Monitor and actively manage weed species in


rehabilitation sites.

Develop and implement appropriate fire management plans. Please seek advice from your local NRM organisation on appropriate regimes.

Fire frequency and intensity should be minimised.

Manage highly flammable weeds and monitor for weeds after
fire disturbance.

Maintain existing fire-breaks with a minimum of soil disturbance, using herbicides or mowing wherever


possible.

Manage Phytophthora outbreaks as this affects food sources for wildlife, particularly honey possums and other small marsupials.

Many plant species are pollinated by marsupials.



Monitor and manage weeds.

Implement hygiene practices to prevent weed spread.



Manage foxes, rabbits and feral cats.

Ensure foxes and rabbits are managed simultaneously to avoid foxes switching to predation on native species or increases in rabbit populations.



Maintain strict hygiene protocols to avoid spreading Phytophthora by vehicle tyres, earthmoving
machinery
and boots.

Treat dieback with phosphite in early Summer, and repeat 4-5 weeks later. Sites should be treated for a wide area around an infected site.

Remove all parts of badly affected plants, including as much of the root system as possible.

Manage public access to control the spread of dieback.


Other Acacia tall open shrublands and shrublands vegetation profile

24.75% Remaining

Commonly found species within this community


Acacia ramulosa; Acacia neurophylla; Eucalyptus loxophleba; Acacia acuminata; Acacia murrayana; Acacia quadrimarginea; Acacia tetragonophylla; Allocasuarina dielsiana; Borya nitida; Boronia caerulescens; Ptilotus obovatus; Cephalipterum drummondii; Waitzia aurea; tussock grass; shrub; forb; sedge.

Management recommendations


this column graph compares the pre-1750 extent of other acacia tall open shrublands and shrublands within the zone with the present day extent. pre-1750 extent is 9.9 percent. present day extent is 2.4 percent.

Management recommendations


Protection

Sustainable
Agricultural
Practice

Rehabilitation

Fire
Management

Wildlife
Management

Weed
Management

Feral
Animal
Management

Disease
Management

Encourage uptake of conservation agreements and covenants on private land. See: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au for information on covenants and private land conservation.

Protect aquifers, surface waters and overland flow from over-extraction.

Where possible, buffer remnants with five to six rows of trees. Buffers protect remnants against weed and feral animal invasion, as well as chemical spray drift.


Lower total grazing pressure and exclude stock where possible.

Avoid fodder over-harvesting.

Protect from soil disturbance and water flow changes caused by livestock trampling and track construction.

Maintain native vegetation remnants as this provides protection against dryland salinity, and protects soils and water tables.



Where possible, reconnect remnants with 40 metre wide, indigenous plantings. Drainage lines and water courses make good candidates for restoration and development of wildlife corridors.

Reintroduce local native species where remnants are no longer capable of regeneration.

Regeneration may be more difficult in weedy sites, or where grazing has occurred. However, the overstorey species may still be producing viable seed.

Where possible, seed from the same occurrence should be used for rehabilitation. Please seek advice from your local NRM organisation if there is no viable seed within a patch.

Monitor and actively manage weed species in rehabilitation sites.


Develop and implement appropriate fire management plans. Please seek advice from your local NRM organisation on appropriate regimes.

Manage highly flammable weed species, such as Buffel grass,



Identify and mange key refugia and wildlife habitats.

Monitor and manage populations of native herbivores (e.g. Kangaroos).



Control weeds including pasture grasses (e.g. Buffel grass).

Manage Rubber Vine (Cryptostegia grandiflora), Mother of Millions (Bryophyllum tubiflorum), and Parkinsonia (Parkinsonia aculeata).

Prevent weeds from establishing in high value refugia and wildlife habitat.


Undertake simultaneous cat, fox and rabbit eradication, particularly following major rainfall events.

Maintain strict hygiene protocols to avoid spreading Phytophthora by vehicle tyres, earthmoving machinery and boots.

Treat dieback with phosphite in early Summer, and repeat 4–5 weeks later. Sites should be treated for a wide area around an infected site.

Remove all parts of badly affected plants, including as much of the root system as possible.

Manage public access to control the spread of dieback.




Mallee with a dense shrubby understorey vegetation profile

49.38% Remaining

Commonly found species within this community


Eucalyptus eremophila; Eucalyptus redunca; Eucalyptus tetragona; Eucalyptus oleosa; Allocasuarina acutivalvis; Adenanthos flavidiflorus; Melaleuca uncinata; Melaleuca pungens; Melaleuca scapigera; Melaleuca viminea; Melaleuca scabra; Melaleuca concinna; Banksia repens; Banksia media; Banksia prostrata; Grevillea sp.; Hakea sp.; Acacia bidentata; shrub; forb; tussock grass.

this column graph compares the pre-1750 extent of mallee with a dense shrubby understorey within the zone with the present day extent. pre-1750 extent is 8.5 percent. present day extent is 4.2 percent.

Management recommendations


Protection

Sustainable
Agricultural
Practice

Rehabilitation

Fire
Management

Wildlife
Management

Weed
Management

Feral
Animal
Management

Disease
Management

Encourage uptake of conservation agreements and covenants on private land. See: http://www.dpaw.wa.gov.au for information
on covenants
and private
land conservation.

Close or fence artificial sources of water in conservation reserves as these attract feral species


and trampling.

Protect, and where appropriate, fence important wildlife habitat including


for Malleefowl.

Manage total grazing pressure.

Where possible, exclude stock from remnants to enable regeneration of over and understorey species.

Create windbreaks with mallee species to reduce the impacts of soil erosion.

Reduce tillage in zones around remnants.

Avoid creating new access tracks and roads through remnants.


Undertake restoration where there are few mature overstorey species.

Choose mallee species that occur on similar soils and slope aspect. Match the relative abundance of different species according to intact remnant patches.

Manage wildlife corridors between remnant patches.

Create buffer zones around remnants by revegetating previously cleared lands with mallee and ground storey species.



Use mosaic burning techniques. Target mosaic burns at different age classes of vegetation to maintain age diversity between, and within, remnant patches.

Avoid clearing roadsides for firebreaks.

Discourage
broad-scale burning for agricultural purposes in Malleefowl habitat.


Monitor and manage populations of native herbivores (e.g. Kangaroos).

Avoid grain spillage when transporting through Malleefowl habitat as this attracts birds to the roadside.

Erect signs warning drivers that Malleefowl may be on the road.


Actively manage weeds when undertaking restoration to ensure weeds do not compete for soil moisture with vulnerable native replantings.

A 1-metre radius weed free buffer should be maintained around native woody plants. Use spot control to maintain this.

Apply herbicides to actively growing weeds and avoid spray drift.

Do not leave areas of bare ground to avoid wind and water erosion of soils. Retain some weed cover and stagger removal and replacement with native grasses.



Control foxes and rabbit simultaneously to avoid foxes switching to predation on native species or increases in rabbit populations.

All herbivore populations should be closely monitored and excluded from revegetation sites. Livestock, deer, rabbits and kangaroos should be managed to avoid the destruction of young seedlings.





Low closed forest or tall closed shrublands (including Acacia, Melaleuca and Banksia) vegetation profile

15.61% Remaining

Commonly found species within this community


Allocasuarina campestris; Eucalyptus loxophleba; Acacia resinomarginea; Melaleuca uncinata; Allocasuarina acutivalvis; Acacia stereophylla; Dryandra sp.; Leptospermum erubescens; Lachnostachys ferruginea; Baeckea grandis; Borya nitida; forb; shrub; grass-tree.

a column graph comparing the pre-1750 extent of low closed forest or tall closed shrublands (including acacia, melaleuca and banksia) within the zone with the present day extent. pre-1750 extent is 6.8 percent. present day extent is 1.1 percent.

Management recommendations


Protection

Sustainable
Agricultural
Practice

Rehabilitation

Fire
Management

Wildlife
Management

Weed
Management

Feral
Animal
Management

Disease
Management

Protect remnants from further clearing for peri-urban development, mining and fire breaks.

Buffer remnants with locally found species to protect remnants from weed and feral animal incursion, and chemical spray drift.



Avoid herbicide and fertiliser application in adjacent crops and pastures.




Fire intervals should be of a minimum of 10 years or more.

Overly frequent prescribed burns diminish regeneration capacity, and impact negatively on the health and population levels of ground


dwelling fauna.

Soil movement during firebreak maintenance can increase the incidence of Phytophthora. Ensure hygiene protocols are in place to avoid


Phytophthora spread.




African lovegrass, perennial Veldt Grass and Bridal Creeper should be actively monitored
and managed.

Concentrations of phosphorus support weed proliferation and lead to weeds outcompeting native flora (which is adapted to low


fertility soil).

Rabbits, cats and foxes should be managed simultaneously.

Mice, rats, goats and pigs should also be managed. Pigs are a major cause of the spread of Phytophthora.



Maintain strict hygiene protocols to avoid spreading Phytophthora by vehicle tyres, earthmoving
machinery
and boots.

Treat dieback with phosphite in early Summer, and repeat 4–5 weeks later. Sites should be treated for a wide area around an infected site. Ensuring spraying is accompanied by weed management.

Remove all parts of badly affected plants, including as much of the root system as possible.

Manage public access to control the spread of dieback.



Impacts of
Phytophthora can increase following fire.






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