Contribution of woody habitat islands to the conservation of birds and their potential ecological functions in an extensive Colombian rangeland



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Electronic Supplementary Material for

Contribution of woody habitat islands to the conservation of birds and their potential ecological functions in an extensive Colombian rangeland

Juan C. Muñoz, Raf Aerts, Koen W. Thijs, Pablo R. Stevenson, Bart Muys, Cagan H. Sekercioglu



Fig. A.1 Location of 50 400-m² vegetation sampling plots and bird count stations in gallery forests (black circle), tree islands (white circle) and hedges (cross) in the Llanos Orientales, central Colombia (3°36' N, 73°43' W, http://goo.gl/maps/qSRlk). Image © 2012 U.S. Geological Survey, DigitalGlobe and GeoEye by way of Google Earth.

Fig. A.2 Woody habitats in the Llanos Orientales, central Colombia: (a) gallery forest, (b) tree islands, and (c) hedges that act as living fences

Fig. A.3 The 12 most abundant bird species in woody habitats (gallery forest, tree islands and hedges) in the Llanos Orientales, central Colombia based on 200 point counts in 2011

Table A.1 Woody plant species observed in (F) gallery forests, (TI) tree islands, and (H) hedges in the Llanos Orientales savanna, Colombia

Table A.2 Bird species observed in (F) gallery forests, (TI) tree islands, and (H) hedges in the Llanos Orientales savanna, Colombia

Table A.3 Average characteristics of gallery forests, tree islands, and hedges in the Llanos Orientales savanna, Colombia, with indication of pairwise differences (bold letters) according to non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA by ranks

Table A.4 Relation between plant and bird community composition (NMS scores) and tree, bird and abiotic variables in the Llanos Orientales savanna, Colombia, based on Spearman rank correlations



Fig. A.1 Location of 50 400-m² vegetation sampling plots and bird count stations in gallery forests (●), tree islands (○) and hedges (×) in the Llanos Orientales, central Colombia (3°36' N, 73°43' W, http://goo.gl/maps/qSRlk). Image © 2012 U.S. Geological Survey, DigitalGlobe & GeoEye by way of Google Earth. Inset shows location in Colombia.



Fig. A.2 Woody habitats in the Llanos Orientales, central Colombia: (A) gallery forest, (B) tree islands, and (C) hedges that act as living fences. Note the open structure of the tree islands and the accessibility of these tree islands for cattle.



Fig. A.3 The 12 most abundant bird species in woody habitats (gallery forest, tree islands and hedges) in the Llanos Orientales, central Colombia, based on 200 point counts in 2011: 1 Cyanocorax violaceus, 2 Crotophaga ani, 3 Tyrannus melancholicus,
4 Ramphocelus carbo, 5 Pteroglossus castanotis, 6 Gymnomystax mexicanus, 7 Amazona ochrocephala, 8 Manacus manacus, 9 Buteo magnirostris, 10 Pitangus sulphuratus,
11 Thraupis palmarum, 12 Amazona amazonica. The length of each species is given in cm, representing the length from the tip of the bill to the tip of the tail. Preferred habitat is indicated as (FOR) forest, (WO) woodland, (SHR) shrubs, and (SAV) savanna. Illustrations adapted from Princeton University Press. Republication permission of illustrations requested.

Table A.1 Woody plant species observed in (F) gallery forests, (TI) tree islands, and (H) hedges in the Llanos Orientales savanna, Colombia







F

TI

H

Anacardiaceae

Tapirira guianensis Aubl.

+

+

+

Annonaceae

Annona muricata L.

+










Guatteria ferruginea A.St.-Hill.

+

+







Guatteria metensis R.E.Fr.

+

+

+




Rollinia edulis Planch. & Triana

+

+

+




Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart.

+

+

+

Apocynaceae

Aspidosperma sp.

+










Forsteronia cf. affinis Müll.Arg.

+










Himatanthus articulatus (Vahl) Woodson

+

+







Lacmellea gracilis (Müll.Arg.) Markgr.

+










Odontadenia cf. puncticulosa (Rich.) Pulle

+

+




Araliaceae

Dendropanax arboreus (L.) Decne. & Planch.

+










Schefflera morototoni (Aubl.) Maguire, Steyerm. & Frodin

+

+

+

Arecaceae

Acrocomia aculeata (Jacq.) Lodd. ex Mart.




+







Attalea insignis (Mart.) Drude

+










Attalea maripa (Aubl.) Mart.

+

+







Euterpe precatoria Mart.

+










Mauritia flexuosa L.f.

+










Socratea exorrhiza (Mart.) H.Wendl.

+







Asteraceae

Piptocoma discolor (Kunth) Aristeg.

+




+

Bignoniaceae

Jacaranda copaia subsp. spectabilis (Mart. ex DC.) A.H.Gentry

+










Jacaranda obtusifolia Bonpl.

+

+

+

Bixaceae

Bixa urucurana Willd.

+










Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willd.) Spreng.

+

+




Bombacaceae

Ochroma pyramidale (Cav. ex Lam.) Urb.

+







Boraginaceae

Cordia nodosa Lam.

+







Burseraceae

Burseraceae sp.

+










Protium llanorum Cuatrec.

+

+

+




Protium sagotianum Marchand

+










Trattinnickia cf. rhoifolia Willd.

+




+

Calophyllaceae

Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess.

+







Chrysobalanaceae

Hirtella cf. bullata Benth.

+

+

+




Hirtella cf. elongata Mart. & Zucc.

+

+







Licania subarachnophylla Cuatrec.

+

+




Clusiaceae

Clusia columnaris Engl.

+




+




Garcinia macrophylla Mart.

+







Connaraceae

Connarus sp. 1

+

+




Dichapetalaceae

Tapura amazonica Poepp.

+







Dilleniaceae

Curatella americana L.

+

+

+




Davilla nitida (Vahl) Kubitzki

+

+




Elaeocarpaceae

Sloanea guianensis (Aubl.) Benth.

+







Erythroxylaceae

Erythroxylum cf. cataractarum Spruce ex Peyr.

+

+

+














































































































































F

TI

H

Euphorbiaceae

Alchornea discolor Poepp.

+

+

+




Alchornea triplinervia (Spreng.) Müll.Arg.

+

+







Sapium cf. jenmanii Hemsl.

+

+

+

Fabaceae

Fabaceae sp.

+

+




Caesalpinoideae

Bauhinia tarapotensis Benth.

+










Hymenaea courbaril L.

+










Senna bacillaris (L.f.) H.S.Irwin & Barneby




+




Faboideae

Deguelia scandens Aubl.

+










Machaerium humboldtianum Vogel

+










Ormosia sp.

+










Swartzia cf. trianae Benth.

+

+




Mimosoideae

Enterolobium schomburgkii (Benth.) Benth.

+










Inga acreana Harms

+










Inga cf. alba (Sw.) Willd.

+

+







Inga cf. sapindoides Willd.

+







Hypericaceae

Vismia cayennensis (Jacq.) Pers.

+

+

+




Vismia guianensis (Aubl.) Pers.

+

+







Vismia macrophylla Kunth

+




+




Vismia sp.




+

+

Lacistemataceae

Lacistema aggregatum (P.J.Bergius) Rusby

+

+



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