Country report to the fao international technical conference



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I
NIGERIA:
COUNTRY REPORT
TO THE FAO INTERNATIONAL
TECHNICAL CONFERENCE
ON PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES
(Leipzig,1996)
Prepared by:
M.B. Sarumi
D.O. Ladipo
L. Denton
E.O. Olapade
K. Badaru
C. Ughasoro
Ibadan, June1995

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Note by FAO
This Country Report has been prepared by the national authorities in the
context of the preparatory process for the FAO International Technical
Conference on Plant Genetic Resources, Leipzig, Germany, 17-23 June 1996.
The Report is being made available by FAO as requested by the International
Technical Conference. However, the report is solely the responsibility of the
national authorities. The information in this report has not been verified by
FAO, and the opinions expressed do not necessarily represent the views or
policy of FAO.
The designations employed and the presentation of the material and maps in
this document do not imply the expression of any option whatsoever on the
part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
concerning the legal status of any country, city or area or of its authorities, or
concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries.

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Table of contents
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION AND AGRICULTURAL SECTOR
6
1.1 INTRODUCTION
6
1.2 PLANT DIVERSITY
7
1.3 MAJOR VEGETATIONAL ZONES
12
1.4 THE NEED TO CONSERVE
15
CHAPTER 2
INDIGENOUS PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES
17
2.1 FOREST GENETIC RESOURCES AND MANAGEMENT
17
2.2 WILD SPECIES AND WILD RELATIVES OF CROP PLANTS
18
2.2.1 Some Nigerian Plants of Medicinal Value
21
CHAPTER 3
CONSERVATION ACTIVITIES
23
3.1 
IN SITU CONSERVATION ACTIVITIES
23
3.2 
EX SITU COLLECTIONS
23
3.3 STORAGE FACILITIES/EQUIPMENT
26
3.4 DOCUMENTATION
26
3.5 EVALUATION AND CHARACTERIZATION
27
3.6 REGENERATION
28
3.7 FOREST GENETIC RESOURCE
28
CHAPTER 4
IN-COUNTRY USES OF PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES
30
4.1 USE OF PGR COLLECTIONS
30
4.1.1 Utilization and Food Value of Some Forest Plants
31
4.1.2 Plant Genetic Resources Conservation and Utilization Activities
at IITA and Other International Centres in Nigeria
37
4.2 CROP IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMMES AND SEED DISTRIBUTION
38
4.3 USE OF FOREST GENETIC RESOURCES
39
4.4 BENEFITS DERIVED FROM THE USE OF PLANT GENETIC RESOURCES
39
4.5 IMPROVING PGR UTILIZATION
40

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CHAPTER 5
NATIONAL GOALS, POLICIES, PROGRAMMES AND LEGISLATION
41
5.1 NATIONAL PROGRAMMES
41
5.2 TRAINING
42
5.3 NATIONAL LEGISLATION
43
5.3.1 Sale/Seed Distribution
43
5.4 OTHER POLICIES
44
5.5 TRADE, COMMERCIAL AND OTHER INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENTS
44
CHAPTER 6
INTERNATIONAL COLLABORATION
45
6.1 UNITED NATIONS INITIATIVES
45
6.2 FAO GLOBAL SYSTEM
46
6.2.1 Undertaking
46
6.2.2 International Fund
46
6.2.3 Collaboration with FAO
46
6.3 INTERNATIONAL AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH CENTRES
46
6.4 REGIONAL RESEARCH CENTRES
47
6.5 REGIONAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL INITIATIVES
47
6.6 BILATERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL INITIATIVES
47
CHAPTER 7
NATIONAL NEEDS AND OPPORTUNITIES ON PLANT
GENETIC RESOURCES CONSERVATION
49
7.1 URGENT NEEDS
51
CHAPTER 8
PROPOSALS FOR A GLOBAL PLAN OF ACTION
53
APPENDIX 1
LIST OF SOME ARABLE AND CASH CROPS OF NIGERIA
54
APPENDIX 2
56
APPENDIX 3
PLANT CONSERVATION LEGISLATION CURRENTLY
IN FORCE IN NIGERIA
95
APPENDIX 4
LIST OF SOME UNDERUTILIZED PLANTS SPECIES
FOR RESEARCH IN NIGERIA
96

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APPENDIX 5
LIST OF RESEARCH INSTITUTES
98
APPENDIX 6
99
APPENDIX 7
99
Acknowledgement
101
References
102
Abbreviations
104

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CHAPTER 1
Introduction and Agricultural Sector
1.1 INTRODUCTION
Nigeria is one of the most populous countries in Africa. It has a land mass of
over 942,000 square kilometres enclosed within longitudes 3° and 14° East of
the Greenwich Meridian and Latitudes 4° and 14°North of the Equator. It
lies on the West Coast of Africa and it is bounded on the West by the
Republic of Benin, on the East by the Cameroon and Chad Republics, on the
North by the Republic of Niger and on the South by the Atlantic Ocean. The
country has a population of more than 88.0 million people (1991 census) and
this is predicted to increase substantially by year 2000, at an estimated annual
growth rate of 3% World Bank (1987) predicts a human density of over 500
people per sq. km, by this time. This will be a tremendous pressure (human)
on the natural resources of the Country thus the need for adequate care and
proper management including the conservation of natural resources
particularly plant life. Most of Nigeria has two marked seasons. The dry
season lasting from November to March and the rainy season from April to
October. For most of the areas, the wet season constitute the main
agricultural period.
The country comprises of 30 states (see Fig. 1) including the Federal Capital
territory, Abuja and has physical (see Fig. 2) and climatic features that have
resulted in more or less parallel vegetation and ecological zones (Fig. 3) from
Sahel in the extreme North through Savannah in the middle zone to tropical
rain forest in the south (see below for details). A diversity of crops are grown
including roots and tubers in the tropical rain forests; crops of the semi arid
areas such as sorghum and millet; and Sub tropical crops such as potatoes and
vegetables (see Appendix 1). The crops are produced principally in mixed
cropping system which consist of various species both on the field and home
gardens. Variation also occur within the species. Specifically, the general relief
of Nigeria is of three highland blocks separated by the Niger/Benue
river system.
Lowlands below the 100 m contour accompany the Niger inland for 400 km
to its confluence with the Benue and from there divide following the path of
the two rivers. The lower Niger system forms a Y shape, the delta at the base
and the Niger River forming the stem and left branch.

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The Benue River forms the right branch. The river is navigable to ocean-
going vessels for 10 months of the year. The Jos Plateau (1,200 m) lies
between the arms of the Y and continues north to the Funtua Plateau, while
to the east are the mountains bordering Cameroun, rising to 2,419 m at
Chappel Wade, the highest point in Nigeria. To the West are the Yoruba
highlands.
In the last two decades, environmentalists in Nigeria have demonstrated the
essential link between environment, economic and social development. This
agrees with the conclusions at the 1992 global meeting on biodiversity in
Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). With this, plants are thus, well recognised to
constitute an important aspect of our environment. They are also known to
be valuable for other uses such as medicine and industrial raw materials.
Unfortunately, there is presently substantial loss of these plant genetic
resources as a result of deforestation and lack of sufficient emphasis on land-
use. We have further started to see degradation of protected areas and
conflicts of interest in the forest estate and these particularly need policy
changes and efforts at utilizing substantially available indigenous knowledge
to arrest these changes. The situation in Nigeria probably mirrors the changes
prevailing in other African countries (IUCN 1986).
National self sufficiency will be impossible to achieve, if we do not protect
and conserve the remaining valuable genetic resources for posterity. Plant
genetic resources form the basis of dynamic, diverse and adaptable agriculture;
they are fundamental to national food security thus conservating and using of
our plant genetic resources must be part of our developmental strategy.
Similarly the field of plant genetic resources has acquired global recognition,
and World wide interest has been generated in the last two decades. As a
result of this, many countries of the World have shown concern at the rate at
which genetic erosion is occuring in the World.

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1.2 PLANT DIVERSITY
Nigeria has a wide diversity of habitats, from arid areas to swamps through
many types of forests. Associated with the varied zones is an array of plant
and animal species.
There are over 4,600 plant species identified in Nigeria, ranking it eleventh in
Africa for diversity. Of these, 205 are endemic, the ninth highest number
among 42 African countries. The northern region, with mainly Sudanian
affinities, has 39 endemic species, Western and central region 38, and the
eastern region 128 endemic species. The eastern region is especially rich
around Oban (Brenan, 1978). Table 1 shows a list of threatened Nigeria
plants, by families. This was made up after the meeting of experts
(18-19 April 1989) in Ibadan under the auspices of NACGRAB, the focal
point for Nigeria activities on plant genetic resources conservation. The total
of 496 species represents over 10 per cent of the total flora as stated in
Appendix 2. This also includes some threatened wild fruit trees and
horticultural crops.
Nigerian moist forest are rich in epiphytic ferns and orchids and contain over
560 species of trees which attain heights of at least 12 m and a girth of 60 cm.
Ola-Adams (1977) considers there is a real threat of extinction through
over-exploitation of certain trees (see Table 1).

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Table 1: Threatened species of the Nigerian flora arranged by
families
Family
No. of endangered plant species
Acanthaceae
26
Adiantaceae
5
Agavaceae
2
Amarantaceae
1
Anacardiaceae
7
Annonaceae
15
Apocynaceae
19
Araceae
3
Araliaceae
1
Aristolochiaceae
3
Asclepiadaceae
2
Aspidiaceae
7
Aspleniaceae
6
Atwyriaceae
2
Balsaminaceae
1
Begoniaceae
2
Boraginaceae
4
Burseraceae
1
Butomaceae
1
Caesalpiniaceae
13
Capparidaceae
2
Caryophycaceae
2
Celastraceae
6
Combretaceae
9
Commelinaceae
3
Compositae
36
Connaraceae
6
Convolvulaceae
3
Crucifereae
1
Cucurbitaceae
6
Cyaheaceae
1
Cyperaceae
21
Dennstaediaceae
1
Dichapetalaceae
11
Ebenaceae
7
Ericaceae
2
Eriocaulaceae
3
Euphorbiaceae
31

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Family
No. of endangered plant species
Flacourtiaceae
7
Gentianaceae
2
Geraniaceae
1
Gnetaceae
1
Goodeniaceae
1
Gramineae
19
Guttiferae
4
Hypmenophylaceae
4
Hypericaceae
3
Iccinaceae
2
Guttiferae
4
Iridaceae
1
Labiatae
6
Lauraceae
2
Lecythidaceae
2
Lemnaceae
1
Lentibulariaceae
1
Liliaceae
2
Lobeliaceae
3
Loganiaceae
4
Lomariopsidaceae
2
Loranthaceae
1
Lycopodiaceae
1
Malvaceae
1
Marantaceae
1
Melastomataceae
10
Menispermaceae
2
Mimosaceae
3
Monimiaceae
2
Moraceae
9
Myristicaceae
2
Mrytaceae
1
Najadaceae
1
Ochnaceae
1
Obtoknemataceae
1
Olacaceae
1
Oleaceae
1
Onagraceae
1
Opiliaceae
1
Orchidaceae
23
Orobanchaceae
1
Oxalidaceae
2

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Family
No. of endangered plant species
Papilionaceae
8
Pedaliaceae
1
Pittosporaceae
2
Plantaginaceae
1
Podostemaceae
2
Protaceae
1
Ranunculaceae
2
Rosaceae
3
Rubiaceae
16
Rutaceae
3
Salvadoraceae
1
Santalaceae
1
Sapindaceae
8
Sapotaceae
2
Scrophulariaceae
2
Scytopetalaceae
1
Selaginellaceae
1
Simargoubaceae
2
Solanaceae
1
Sterculiaceae
4
Thelypteriodaceae
2
Thymelaeaceae
3
Tiliaceae
2
Ulmaceae
1
Umbelliferae
3
Urticaceae
2
Verbenaceae
2
Violaceae
2
Vittariaceae
1
Vochysiaceae
1
Xyridaceae
1
Zingiberaceae
2
Source: Aftern Gile et al. 1978, 1981 and National Conservation Strategy for Nigeria.

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1.3 MAJOR VEGETATIONAL ZONES
The need for a detailed description of Nigerian vegetation cannot be over
emphasised considering that the vegetation of Nigeria is particularly rich as it
falls within five broad biogeographical units, or phytochoria, as described by
White (1983). These are shown on Fig. 4.
The zones include: the Sahel, Sudan Savanna (Northern and Southern types
and the forest zones however, a detailed vegetation analysis reveals a clear
picture of the vegetation of Nigeria. The zones include:
- Guinea-Congolian regional centre of endomism
- Guinea-Congolia/Sudania regional transition zone
- Sudanian regional centre of endomism
- Sahel regional transition zone
- Afromontane archipelago-like regional centre of endomism
In general the vegetation zones correspond to climatic zones, with
adjustments for edaphic conditions (particularly drainage) and biotic factors
The distribution of vegetation depends chiefly on the fact that the climate
becomes drier with increasing distance from the sea The operative factors
affecting the distribution of vegetation are the duration and severity of the
dry seasons.
The major vegetation formations are lowland rain forest, a mosaic of lowland
rain forest, woodland and secondary grassland, Sudanian woodlands, plateau
and montane vegetation. Sahel vegetation, herbaceous, swamp and aquatic
vegetation and mangroves. Four-fifths of the land area is savanna and wooded
savanna, the remainder being mainly forest in origin (Ola-Adams and
Iyamabo, 1977). Most of Nigeria's rain forests, which fall within the
Congolian sub-unit of the Guinea-Congolian biogeographic zone, have now
been cleared, and forest remains only in small isolated reserves. All the major
vegetation types have been extensively modified.
Lowland rain forests
Inland from the coast the lowland rain forest zone prevails for 96 km
northwards. The forest covers an area of 103,600 sq. km. There is no single-
canopy layer; crowns exist at all levels giving a completely irregular structure.
The families Leguminosae (e.g. Brachystegia), Meliaceae (Guarea, Khaya),

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Sapotaceae (Chrysophyllum, Mimusops), Sterculiacene (Cola, Mansonia,
Sterculia), and Ulmaceae (Celtis, Holoptelae), are particularly well represented
in this forest area.
Freshwater swamp forests
These forests are the most extensive edaphic forest type, and, since other
forests are being degraded, will soon become the most extensive forest type in
Nigeria with more than 1,900,000 ha. They are bordering inland mangrove
forest, and the largest concentration is in the Niger delta. Main species are
Oxystigma mannii, Symphonia globulifera, and communities of
moncotyledons like 
Pandanus candelabrum and Raphia spp.
In the freshwater swamps for example in Mamu Forest Reserve, the main
canopy is rather open and in the gaps dense tangles of shrubs and Lianes form
an almost impenetrable undergrowth.
Mosaic of lowland rain forest, Isoberlinia woodland and grassland
This vegetation mosaic of forest and forest-derived Savanna stretches across
Nigeria from east to West. Derived Savanna vegetation has been induced by
the activities of farms in clearing forest land, thereby admitting a grassy
ground-layer which encourages fire. The evidence that the derived savanna
zone once was originally rain forest and would revert to it if protected against
fires and cultivation is given by certain relictual and indicator species, and by
the survival of patches of a rain forest type on areas distant from streams. Oil
palms 
(Elaeis guineensis) are a characteristic relict in this zone. The common
woody species are 
Daniellia oliveri, Diallum guineense, Albizia
adianthifoliam, Lophira lanceolata, and Hymnocardia acida. Characteristic
trees of the relict forest are 
Celtis zenkeri, Anthonotha macrophylla, and
Ireculia africana. The common grasses in this zone are species of Andropogon
and Loudetia arundinacea. The dry season is about 3 months, mean annual
rainfall is 1,440 mm-1,780 mm.
Sudanian woodlands
North of the valleys of the Niger and Benue Rivers, woodland savanna
predominates. Undisturbed woodland savanna is characterised by low and
open woodland and by a ground-cover of coarse grasses which are burnt
annually. Fringing forests occur in the river valleys. White's (1983) Sudanian
woodland zone is often subdivided by other authors into the Guinea savanna
zone (with north and south facies) and the Sudan zone (Maps). Some of the

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common woody species in the southern Guinea savanna are 
Daniella oliveri,
Diospyros elliotti, Ceiba pentandra, Prosopis africana and Nauclea latifolia.
The dry season lasts 4 to 5 months and rainfall is 1,140 mm-1,520 mm.
In the northern part of the Guinea zone the common woody species are
Isoberlinia doka, Albizia zygia, Cola hispida, Ecythrophleum sauveolens,
Annona senegalensis, and Ficus exasperata. The common grasses are species of
Schizachyrlum, Loudetla, Ctenium and Andropogon. The dry season lasts 5
to 6 months and mean annual rainfall is 1,020 mm - 1,140 mm.
Mangrove swamp forests
These extend over 970,000 ha approximately, stretching along the sandy
beaches, creeks and lagoons from the Cameroon to Benin coast. They are
characterised by three species of 
Rhizophora: R. racemosa, the most common
species, 
R. harrisonil and R. mangle.
Wetlands
In Nigeria the coastal wetlands are the most extensive. In the west there are
large lagoonal systems with mangrove swamps, palm-pandan swamps and reed
swamps, of which the Lagos and Lekki lagoons are the best known and most
important (Burgis and Symoens, 1984). In the east, the Niger Delta and
Cross Estuary both have large areas of mangrove forest and both have
permanent and seasonal inundated freshwater swamp forest. Inland there are
flood plains on many rivers as a consequence of the increasing seasonality of
the rainfall in passing north. In the Sudanian zone, forest on the levees is
inundated at the time of flooding, as are the broad grasslands behind them.
Elsewhere in the north, away from rivers, there are other seasonal wetlands.
These are mainly clay based pans and ponds which fill with water in most
years.

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1.4 THE NEED TO CONSERVE
Over the years, increased awareness of the importance and potential value of
plant genetic resources in Nigeria has led to the establishment of the National
Centre for Genetic Resources and Biotechnology (NACGRAB) in Nigeria.
There have been increasing rate of disturbance of the Nation's fragile
ecosystem due to various land use problems. Prominent among the factors
identified was deforestation through timber exploitation, over grazing, bush
burning, forest monoculture (plantation), construction of new towns, roads,
airport etc. All these have contributed to climatic changes and likewise
advance of the Sahara desert. Further, the introduction and wide spread use
of genetically improved crops varieties has resulted in the neglect of traditional
varieties or land races of our important food crops. This situation is
continuing with more forest exploitation by local and foreign exploiters. A
number of indigenous species occuring in restricted major vegetational zones
habitats spread all over the country are further facing threat of extinction.
Investigation revealed that a total of four hundred and ninety individual
species representing one hundred and twelve families are currently involved.
Other species may be detected in future, as various NGO's continue to work
actively in the field. The need to conserve and protect our valuable plant
genetic resources for the improvement of our agricultural programmes, the
ultimate of which is to have enough food for local use can not be over
emphasized.
According to the Federal Office of Statistics, between 1970-1981, production
of the seven principal commodities, Sorghum, Millet, Maize, Rice, Cassava,
Yam, and Cocoyam declined at an average annual rate of 1%. The aggregate
decline of the three main root crops during this period reached 50%. The
situation is even more serious with the disappearance from market of
important indigenous food crops.
During the oil boom, production of all crops declined by two thirds and
agricultural exports of some commodities diminished considerably. So also,
many crops especially legumes, cereals, tuber crops and others suffered
immensely from pest and disease attacks in the last decade. These disease
attacks include cassava moisaic (CMV), black sigatoka of Musa spp.; blast of
rice; rice stem borer, rust and downy mildew of maize among others. This
disease of maize and indeed of other crops have become so important that
research efforts within the National Agricultural Research systems (NARS),
and International Research Centres now concentrate on them. The need for a
diverse plant genetic resources including wild relatives become crucial to the
development of improved and resistant plant types.

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With the exception of a few tree crops plantations and some large scale
irrigation schemes that were developed in the 1970's, the agricultural
cropping systems have been restricted to traditional small holdings. About
55% of the farms in Nigeria are thus below one hectare and about 90% are
below four hectares. Farms are smaller in the Southern States, where 80% of
the farms are below on hectare. In the middle belt and Northern States of the
country,
71% and 49% of the farms are below one hectare respectively. Yester years the
seed production at the National level was somehow erratic and the
involvement and introduction of hybrid maize by the International Institute
for Tropical Agriculture (I.I.T.A.) triggered the formation of the first
Nigerian private seed company, thus heralding private sector participation. It
is envisaged that the seed supply system would be improved, more so with the
advent of the National seed/plant quarantine improvement project (NSPQ).

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CHAPTER 2
Indigenous Plant Genetic Resources
2.1 FOREST GENETIC RESOURCES AND MANAGEMENT
The high forest zone of the country occupies 14% of the total land area and
account for 2.1 million hectares of forest reserves. The Savanna zones of the
country occupy 86.0% of the total land area and has 7.5 million hectares of
forest reserve.
Moist evergreen forest which becomes deciduous towards the north provide
most of the country's timber and is rich in such species like 
Triplochiton
scleroxylon, Terminalia ivorensis; Terminalia superba, Kyaya grandifoliola,
Kyaya ivorensis; Entandrophragma spp; Milicia (Syn Chlorophora) excelsa;
Naucles diderrichi, Loyoa trichilioides, Terrieta utillis, Tieghemella heckelii,
Pericopsis eleta, Mansonia altissima.
The rest of the country's forest is in the Northern Savanna comprises of
Derived Savanna, Guinea Savanna, Sudan Savanna and Sahel Savanna and
Species such as 
Parkia biglobosa, Prosopis africana and Vitellaria parkia.
Conservation backed by legislation of Natural Vegetation and modified
ecosystems started in 1937. However, there are currently a total of 12 plant
Conservation legislation in force in Nigeria (see Appendix 3). The latest of
this effort however is the 1992 Environmental impact assessment decree (86)
which is geared towards minimising the effect of Nigerian diverse structural
development on the ecosystem and its diversity.
The first of the 12 existing strict Natural Reserves (SNRs) was established as
far back as 1919. These SNRs which are part of the States forest reserve are
the responsibility of the Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria (FRIN).
Artificial forest regeneration with exotic and indigenous tree species was
embarked upon to augment forest wood supply (FAO/UNDP 1981).
The first plantations were established in southern Nigeria with exotic species
like 
Tectona grandis, Gmelina arborea, Pinus spp and indigenous species like
Nauclea diderrichii, Terminalia spp (Table 1). Later afforestation went up
North with species useful for environmental protection in sand dune fixation

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and shelterbelts as well as fuel woods, poles, pulp and paper, these include:
Acacia spp; Dalbergia spp; Gmelina arborea; Pinus spp and Eucalyptus spp.
Under the fourth National Development Plan, affore-station was proposed
with the use of indigenous forest tree species like 
Nauclea diderrichii, Kyaya
ivorensis, Lovoa trichilioides, Triplochiton scleroxylon, Milicia
(Syn. Chlorophora) 
excelsa, Terimnalia ivorensis and Terminalia superba.
However, biological problems such as inadequate seeds supply and insect pest
problems like 
Hypsipyla robusta (Moore) on the Kyaya species, and the
Dhytolema lata on the Milicia (syn. Chlorophora) excelsa prevented the use of
the indigenous species.
2.2 WILD SPECIES AND WILD RELATIVES OF CROP PLANTS
Genetic variability is the basic tool used by plant breeder in Crop
improvement. The basic source of such variability exists both in the advance
and primitive cultivars as well as in the wild and weedy relatives of the
cultivated species.
Out of six species of the genus 
Oryza that are known to occur in Nigeria,
O. sativa L. the white rice, is perhaps the most familiar, O. glabberima which
is indigenous to Nigeria and West Africa is now growing wild and appears to
have disappeared. In much the same manner, an upland variety of 
O. sativa
widely cultivated in the Western part of Nigeria some decades ago appears to
have disappeared from the farms and are only found in government
experimental stations. 
Oryza perennis. O. longistaminata, O. puntata and
O. tissenantus represents the wild rice of Nigeria. These at present are
considered to have no economic value but constitute part of the genetic
diversity in the genus 
Oryza in Nigeria.
With regard to the edible yams, six species of the genus 
Dioscorea namely
D. alata, D. bulbifera, D. cayensis, D. dumentorum, D. esculenta and
D. rotundata occur naturally in Nigeria. Each of these has wild types and
show considerable genetic diversity. But only
 D. cayensis, D. esculenta, and
D. rotundata are popularly cultivated and received more attention from both
the research scientists and the farmers.
Most of the fruits and vegetables in regular cultivation in Nigeria are exotic
species. The indigenous species are still under-exploited and exist as wild in
the forests. There are over 20 such under utilized vegetables and fruits
species (Appendix 4).

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Such local vegetable are thus classified as follows:
- Wild but harvested mainly in times of scarcity of the non common ones
- Wild but usually harvested from the Wild as a regular practice
- Semi wild or protected on farm and fallow land
Cocoa
The cacao tree 
(Theobroma cacao) belongs to the family Sterculiacene and
about 22 species are known in this genus. It is a cash crop produced largely by
peasant farmers for export in order to earn foreign exchange. It is an
important industrial raw material.
Cocoa was first introduced into West Africa in 1822 by the Portuguese. The
earliest introduced cacao type was the amelonado. This population still
accounts for more than 60% of all planting in Nigeria (Williams, 1986). The
amelonado populations are rather uniform genetically and were susceptible to
the Cocoa Swollen Sheet virus.
Several species of the genus 
Theobroma e.g. T. bicolor, T. Grandiflora,
T. speciosum, T. subincana. Herrains are maintained in live gene bank of the
Cocoa Research Institute of Nigeria (CRIN). Some of these possess some
desirable qualities like high butter fat content and thick pod wall that cannot
be penetrated by phytophthora pod rot which can be incorporated into
commercial cocoa.
Cola
Only two species of 
Cola, C. acuminata and C. nitida are presently of major
economic importance in Nigeria. These two species are closely related and are
separated mainly on the basis of their leaf spices, external features of the pod
and number of seed cotyledons.
Apart from the two species mentioned above, other species of the genus Cola
maintained by CRIN at present are:
-
C. verticillata (Thonn) (Stapf and A. Chev)
-
C. millenni (K. Schunn)
-
C. interitia  (K. Schun)
-
C. gigantea (A. Chev)
-
C. vallanyi (Cernu)

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Coffee
The cultivated coffee species belong to the genus 
Coffenin the family
Rubiaceae. There are about 90-100 species in the genus but the cultivated
ones are 
C. arabica. C. canephora, C. liberica, C. stenophyilla and C. Excelsa,
C. arabica is the most important Coffee in World trade but it is a minor crop
in Nigeria. Most of the coffee produced in Nigeria is the 
C. canephora.
Other species of coffee being maintained by CRIN at present are, 
C. liberice,
C. stenophylla and C. excelsa. Also interspecific hybrids (between C. arabica
and 
C. canephora) are being maintained to assess their performance for
quality and disease resistance/tolerance.
Cashew
The Cashew plant (
Anacardium occidentals L.) belongs to the family
Anacardiaceae. The local germplasm of the crop covers a wide range of
genetic diversity owing to the out crossing potential inherent in the crop.
Apart from the local germplasm, exotic materials were also introduced from
India and Brazil. The germplasm (both local and exotic) are now being used
as breeding materials at CRIN.
Tea
The tea plant 
(Gmellia sinensis) is native to South East Asia, with the leaves
being the economic part. All earlier introduced germplasm of the crop has
been collected and cuttings raised from them. Later introductions were made
from major Tea growing countries in Africa especially Kenya. There are
23†clones of tea imported by CRIN from the Kisumu tea genepool in Kenya.
Wild fruits and Food trees are well known values of the forests. They provide
fruits and their associated nutritional values which enhances rural and urban
health, while the food trees, particularly leafy - vegetables (plant proteins)
serve as coup condiments. These species are more common in the high forests,
especially in the wetter areas, but various other species are also known in the
savanna or even in the drier Sahel savannas (see Appendix 4) for their values.
For germplasm conservation, particularly in the case of the wild relatives of
cultivated crops research efforts is crucial. An inventory of the flora as now
constituted will indicate critical areas to be conserved 
in situ. Only recently
the Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria cooperated with the National
Centre for germplasm conservation (NACGRAB) on evaluating the problems
of endangered plants. It is envisaged that a "Red Data Book" will be kept at

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NACGRAB and at the FRIN Herbarium to help conservation work,
especially as it relates to the needs and requirements of breeders in all areas of
agricultural research. Lack of adequate knowledge of the variations in
taxonomic status of Nigerian flora poses additional complications for effective
genetic conservation, and utilization. However, the preparation of a
comprehensive flora will adequately bridge this gap.
In the case of vegetation, studies have shown that some, particularly the
wetlands, are ecologically fragile. They thus need special attention. Because of
the present erosion of the resources of these vegetation however coastal
vegetation, mangrove, swamp forest and ripalan forest, moist lowland forest
and the highlands need stricter conservation. Recent work on the delineation
of strict Nature Reserves (SNR) within the forest reserves is a welcome
development. The problem of security in these SNR's however is great.
2.2.1 Some Nigerian Plants of Medicinal Value
In the early days, man confronted with various diseases had discovered by trial
and error a wealth of useful the rapeutic agents in plants. Today over
300†chemical compounds have been extracted from West African trees.  For
instance, Gedulin, a beautiful crystalline compounds obtained from
Entandrophragma angolence has been ascertained as a strong work expeller.
Another compound extracted from 
Rauvolfia vomitorra has been proved very
effective in sending most people to deep sleep. Some radio-active compounds
had been monitored from 
Carica papaya. Apart from modern scientists, the
herbalist treasures all plants in his garden. For example the obnoxious weeds
Chromolaena odorata (Eupatorium odoratum) and Ageratum conyzoides
have been found very effective in the treatment of fresh cuts. 
Ageratum
conyzoides have been found very effective as anti-poison among the Yorubas,
(Gbile 1950).
The use of herbs by the natives as anti-infective agents, anti-malaria drugs,
anti-cancer, flavouring and sweetening agents, cardiovascular, and nervous
systems, poteolytic ferments, steroidal alkaloids, and other ailments have been
discussed (Gbile 1985; Gbile, Soladoye and Adesina 1989).
Gbile (1987) among others identified 
Euphorbia hirta used for diarrhoea,
Cassia alafa as purgative, Talnum to prevent arbortion, flowers of Ageratum
conyzoides pounded with local soap for sickle cell anaemia and the latex of
Ficus exaspirata for boils.
In ethnomedicine, leaves of 
Vernonia amygdalina (Ewuro) taken as vegetable
are recommended as anti-hypertensive. The leaves of 
Persea americana,
Ocimum gratissium (Efinrin), Fiscus platyphilla, Parkia biglobosa, Vitellaria

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paradoxa, Morinda lucida (oruwo), Allium stivum to mention but a few, are
of great medicinal value.
For anti-diabetic, Pourat (1977) identified 
Valcinium myrtrillis leaves,
Andasonia digitata and Gladiolus psittacinus as anti-asthmatic.
The seeds of 
Ricinus cummunis (laraa) could be used as anti-fertility. Gbile
(1991) observed that a seed swallowed after menstrual flow is believed to have
anti-fertility effect. Same is true of the powered extract of the fruit of
Lagenaria brevitlora (tagiri).
Most of the mentioned species are not receiving effective attention by the
people any more because of modern medicine. They are all existing in the
wild. They have been forgotten. The onus of preserving our wild flora to
make the local sourcing of pharmaceutical products a reality, rests not only on
foresters but also on every one of us.

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CHAPTER 3
Conservation Activities
3.1
IN SITU CONSERVATION ACTIVITIES
The country has 12 strict Natural Reserves (SNRs), the establishment and
maintenance of which are backed by government legislation. Other form of
in situ conservation e.g. botanical garden, arboreta etc. are maintained by
Universities and tertiary institutions in the country. According to government
regulation, there is total ban on exploitation of these in the 
in situ conserved
areas. But because of problems involved in the implementation of the
government legislation, illegal exploitation and felling of forest trees are
carried out in the reserved areas.
While efforts are needed to ensure the protection and enforcement, it is
desirable that other strict forest reserves are created.
3.2
EX SITU COLLECTIONS
Although a large number of Institutions in Nigeria maintain some forms of
plant germplasm, it soon became clear that the System being operated had
series of inadequacies, some of which are the following:
- Only a few of the research institutes had definite projects concerned
specifically with the collection and maintenance of germplasm.
- The research institutes and a few universities based collectors tend to
collect and maintain only those crop plants in which they had research
interest, the genetic coverage was therefore usually narrow.
- Exploration for collection were conducted in isolation by the various
interest groups without coordination giving rise to wasteful duplication
of efforts.
- The originators of the genetic resource materials were invariably plant
breeders working in problems solving, result oriented research
establishments and who therefore had the tendency to regard germplasm as
mere tools and not as resources to be salvaged from extinction. There was

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therefore, the practice to select the "useful", materials and neglect the
'useless' ones thus exposing the latter to the danger of genetic erosion.
It was with these inadequacies in the background, coupled with the need to
provide centralized facilities for long term storage of germplasm that the
Nigerian Federal government in July 1986 set up the National Centre for
Genetic resources and Biotechnology.
The Centre is expected among other things to:
- Collect, characterize, evaluate and maintain plant germplasm and foster its
utilization.
- Organise and co-ordinate local germplasm explorations.
- Co-ordinate the maintenance and utilization of the existing plant
germplasm in the research institutes.
- Co-ordinate and facilitate the exchange of plant genetic resources
materials.
- Serve as the national authority for the validation, registration and release
of new crop varieties and maintain a national register of all crop varieties
in the country.
- Promote training opportunities to personnel connected with germplasm
collection, maintenance and multiplication as well as others in the area of
vegetation conservation.
- Operating as the Central organ of the country for liaison with
International bodies such as the International Plant Genetic Resources
Institute (IPGRI), FAO, UNDP, ICRAF, IITA, concerning Plant Genetic
resources.
- Advise government on matters concerning plant genetic resources and
Vegetation Conservation.
NACGRAB since its inception has a total collection of approximately
2,500 accessions consisting of both indigenous and exotic germplasm mainly
of food crops, vegetables, tuber, fodder, industrial, medicinal and forest
plants.
Most of our exotic materials were received from organisations like
International Crops research institute for the Semi arid tropics (ICRISAT),
the International Centre for Maize and Wheat Improvement (CMMYT),
Centre for Agricultural Research in Dry Areas (ICARDA) and ICRAF which
is now together with NACGRAB in the collection and conservation of
Irvingia and Vernonia amygdalina.

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These accessions are maintained both on the field as living collections and
seeds in the storage rooms. Plant Genetic Resources Conservation activities at
the Centre is being funded under the National Rolling Plan by the Federal
government. However, there will be need for adequate funding of the
programme for the realisation of the set objectives.
Routine activities of field genebank maintenance, seed processing and
viability testing prior to storage are on-going activities at the Centre.
Collaborative evaluation and characterization of some economic crops like
Wheat and Barley with relevant research/Institutes are a continuous exercise.
The Centre in Collaboration with International Centre for Research in
Agroforestry (ICRAF) is engaged in collection of endangered indigenous
forest species.
Materials collected are many and variable they include indigenous species and
various number of regional and global collections of the country major and
under-utilized crops. The National Genebank Centre collaborates with all the
national institutional genebanks and maintains useful duplicates of material
stored in institutional genebanks.
There are many materials which have been collected by the National genebank
but so far, they are all treated equally without any preferential emphasis on
any, yet. While the Centre Collection programme is still being intensified, the
level of utilization of collected materials is still relatively low. This situation
can be attributed to low level of Scientific support staff of the Centre and
genetic improvement programme in general in the country. For example, the
country has no commercial plant breeding companies, and the very few seed
companies available carry out limited breeding activities.
The National genebank is still relatively young and he structure and function
is not static and may continue to change within national policy and demand.
In the main time, the present function appears appropriate but would like to
collaborate with other international genebanks on long-term storage
activities, if satisfactory conditions could be worked out. The national
genebank centre does not at present maintain any botanical garden, or
arboreta but recalcitrant plant species and forest trees are been maintained as
live genebank and also used as environmental protection tools. While the
government consider botanical gardens and arboreta as important but lack of
adequate fund; trained manpower; equipment and materials make it
impossible to embark on their establishment.

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3.3 STORAGE FACILITIES/EQUIPMENT
Equipment received from UNDP/FAO/IPRI physically installed and being
put to use include a prefabricated long term storage room maintained at -
20°C and relative humidity of 15%. There is a modified room for short term
storage which is maintained at 15°C and 30% RH. There are also a few
freezers and refrigerators used for additional storage. The two storage facilities
have in built dehumidifiers.
The long term storage room has our base collections whilst the short term
storage room contains our active collections. All seeds are stored in
hermetically scaled cans and air tight containers, at the appropriate moisture
content level. Functional laboratories at the Centre include germplasm
extraction room, threshing room viability/germination room. Processing
equipment includes seed dusters, ovens, incubators, seed separators and
balances. Nigeria being a member of ECOWAS would readily accommodate
germplasm from the Sub-region for safe-keeping on terms agreeable to the
parties.
Aside from the above mentioned storage facilities, botanical gardens,
arboreta, field genebanks and other storage measures are employed but they
are mainly for educational maintenance in tertiary institutions. A national
botanical garden and arboretum is planned for Abuja. The Muritala
Mohamed botanical garden in Lagos is another established botanical garden
by an NGO in 1990.
3.4 DOCUMENTATION
Presently all our documentation is being done manually. All samples are
supported with passport data reflecting source and all necessary information
in respect of indigenous knowledge. Evaluation, characterization, breeders'
record are entered separately in registers, which users can readily have access
to.
There is no computer facility for documentation and evaluation exercises and
we recognise the need for acquisition of computer and communication
facilities for proper documentation and evaluation at this Centre.
All samples are accompanied with passport data, characterization data,
evaluation data, indigenous and breeders' records in the process of

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documentation. Also preliminary evaluation data are registered in the passport
data and 80% of the samples are documented.
Although, Computer is not available for documentation, the users of
germplasm collected have easy access to the samples through the passport data
information.
The country genetic resources bank does not exchange any data with other
genebank on regional or a crop basis. Also the national genebank has no 
in
situ collections but those being currently maintained by research institutes are
evaluated and described under the institutes' breeding programme.
In situ collections are being documented at the Forestry Research Institute of
Nigeria, Ibadan in vouchers. It is adequate but it is still open to natural
vagaries of paper degeneration etc. and loss of information (e.g. the 1969
Large Tree plot record is spoilt due to rain water). This could be overcome by
the provision of software and hardware. This could be cost effective and it
would be considered a priority.
Documentation as regards wild relative collections is not yet effected because
there is lack of Scientific support staff.
Since there is no Computer, the documentation records are not duplicated.
3.5 EVALUATION AND CHARACTERIZATION
A clear distinction is made between the characterization and evaluation of
germplasm samples while the national programme is engaged in the
preliminary evaluation of germplasm samples, assistance in the area of detail
characterization and evaluation according to international guideline is sought
from relevant national sister organisations.
Farmers are involved in the evaluation of collections through request in
respect of indigenous information.
A sizeable percentage of our germplasm samples are evaluated and
characterized through the aid of International descriptors.
Most of our preliminary evaluation are done at the locality of the genebank.
However, other evaluations such as biochemical, physiological responses,
microbiological data, disease and pest susceptibility, nutritional aspect and

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genetic finger printing are not being carried out, because of lack of
equipment and personnel.
The international collaboration would help to achieve better result through
dissemination and exchange of information and documentation at the
regional level.
The genetic resources held 
in situ have never been evaluated. However, the
Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, and the Obafemi Awolowo University,
Ile-Ife have plans to effect this. The approach is inadequate and greater
emphasis is needed on the acquisition of outside assistance.
3.6 REGENERATION
The National genebank is in its infancy, consequently, regeneration of
accession has not commenced, however, regeneration in the future will be
conducted according to international recommended procedures by the IPGRI.
To ensure the genetic purity and prevent genetic drift during regeneration,
trained technical staff will be required.
The country will intend to go on storing materials that it cannot regenerate
for the purpose of posterity. National genebank (NACGRAB) will be able to
regeneration when fully on stream.
3.7 FOREST GENETIC RESOURCE
West African Hardwood Improvement Project (WAHIP) based at Forestry
Research Institute of Nigeria (FRIN) in Ibadan is the programme aimed at
exploration of the natural distribution of the main native forest species.
Presently, WAHIP is working on 
Triplochiton scleroxylon (Obeche) and
three other species. Also, 
Irvingia sp. and other lesser known forest species are
not left out in this project. The above mentioned species of forest tree can be
found in the forest transition zones. There are also programmes and activities
on genetic conservation through combined 
in situ conservation area network
and 
ex situ conservation measures such as seed storage and ex situ
conservation stands.
There is no programme for characterization, evaluation, study of intra-
specific diversity through provenance and progeny trials. Also there is no

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genetic marker studies. Likewise, there is no national information system on
forest genetic resources.

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CHAPTER 4
In-Country Uses of Plant Genetic Resources
4.1 USE OF PGR COLLECTIONS
The use of plant genetic resources has been by National Research Institutes,
and International Centres residing in Nigeria. Improvements with local
germplasm include crops such as cowpea, maize, cassava, soyabean and rice.
The exploitation of genetic resources has over the years contributed
significantly in the development of Nigerian Agriculture especially in the area
of food crops. Through a process of selection from a large pool of cowpea.
(Vigna unguiculata) a photo periodically insensitive, disease and pests
resistant, high yielding variety, the Ife Brown has been developed in Nigeria.
The cultivation of this variety is now widespread in the country. Several
varieties of hybrid maize have also been developed locally through the
combination of desirable characters of several maize varieties. Research in this
area has advanced to the point that high yielding hybrid maize varieties which
are resistant to some location, specific diseases as well as others adopted to
diverse ecological conditions in Nigeria have been produced and are being
used extensively. Extensive selection of cassava has also yielded varieties which
are resistant or tolerant to the two major cassava diseases, namely: bacteria
blight and cassava mosaic disease.
With regard to soybean, the cultivation of which was until the last decade or
so, confined to the middle belt region of Nigeria, a large number of varieties
which are non-shatering, sufficiently promiscuous photo periodically intensive
and reasonably high yielding have been developed for cultivation in most
parts of the country. In Forestry, the exploitation of clonal genetic variation
has also been done in Obeche 
(Triplochiton scleroxylon) at FRIN.
The genetic resources of maize, beans, soyabeans, rice, sorghum and cassava
are most frequently used in national projects. Most of the in-country users of
materials are from national research institutes and universities e.g. National
Cereals Research Institute (NCRI) - Rice; Institute of Agricultural Research
and Training (IAR&T) - Cowpea; Maize; National Root Crop Research
Institute (NCRI) - cassava; Institute of Agricultural Research (IAR) -
Sorghum, millet; National Horticultural Research Institute (NIHORT) -
vegetables etc. An average of four scientists/professionals from each institute

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use the national genebank's germplasm for breeding and research
programmes.
The national genebank is a service organisation, therefore, germplasm are not
provided for commercial ventures. However, there is an indirect linkage
between the national genebank and commercial organisations through the
National Seed Service (NSS).
Most of our germplasm are under-utilized because there are not many active
national breeding programmes and the existing ones are limited to their
mandate crops due to dearth of personnel and inadequate funding.
The local farmers get their materials through the National Seed Service and
the Agricultural Development Programmes (ADPs) e.g. cassava, maize,
cowpea and sorghum. However, improved material of crops like yam, and
most of the other staple crops are not available to farmers.
International Institute for Tropical Agriculture (IITA) which is an
international organisation also assists the national programme in the area of
supply of promising and high yielding crop varieties - for agricultural
development and research programmes.
4.1.1 Utilization and Food Value of Some Forest Plants
Table 2 shows a list of some wild edible plants in Nigeria. They include trees
or tree components, herbs, shrubs and clibers within the forest zone of
Nigeria.
Edible wild plants which could be used as leafy vegetables, edible fruits and
seeds and starch roots and tubers include the following:
1.
Leafy vegetables e.g. 
Boerhavia difusa, Portulaca oleraceae, Ceiba
pendandra, Cyrtosperma senegalensis, Asgostasia Emilia sonchifoia,
Moringa plerygosperma.
2.
Species e.g. 
Piper guineensis, Monodora tennifolia, Aframomum
melgueta.
3.
Fresh fruits and juices e.g.
 Annonidium mannil, Antrocanyon kaneana,
Canarium schweinfurthii, Carpolobia lutea, Chrysophyllum albidum,
Chriysophyllum perpulchrum, Dialium guineensis, Saba florida,
Landolphis owariensis, Antrocaryon micraster, Sorindea wamekel,
Trichoscypha acuminata, Dissotis grandiflora.
4.
Soup Condiment e.g. 
Pentacletnra macrophylia, Brachystegia spp. Irvinvia
gabonensis var, dukis, Irvingia gabonensis var excelsa.

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5.
Sweetners e.g. 
Dissotis grandiflora, Dioscoreophyllum cumminisii and
Syncepalum dufficum.
Analyses of some of the edible wild plants show their nutritional importance.
Most of the edible plants have high contents of protein fats, carbohydrates
and minerals (Table 2).
The calcium and iron determinations of fresh samples of some edible wild
vegetation obtained by Keshinro (1986) are as follows:
% ca
Iron (mg/g dry sample)
Lactuca taraxacifolia (Yanrin)
0.736-0.00
0.436-0.05
Senecio biafrae (Woorowo)
0.619-0.28
0.479-0.08
Struchium sparganophora (Ewuro odo)
0.827-0.45
0.437-0.09
Solanum nigrum (Efo Odu)
0.788-0.33
0.443-0.19
Some of edible wild plants also contain high Beta carotene (in micrograms) -
Trianthema portulacastrum leaves (6,160), Moringa oleifera leaves, raw
(11,920), 
Solanum nigrum leaves (3,660) and Spondias mombin, fruit,
raw (1,000).
Beta carotene, as a precursor of vitamin A is known to be important for both
visual and reproductive integrity of animal species including man
(Oguntona).
Table 2: Some wild edible plants in Nigeria and their uses
Name

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templates -> Chapter The State of Forest Genetic Resources Conservation and Management
SoW1 -> Country report to the fao international technical conference
templates -> Forestry practices that maintain genetic diversity over the longer term will be required as an integral component of sustainable forest management
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