Cpdna rbcL sequences for Biodiverse analyses Final Report



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17Spatial and phylogenetic analyses results and discussion

Generic phylogenetic corrected weighted endemism


For the New Zealand archipelago generic phylogenetic CWE has most primary and secondary endemism concentrated in the northern offshore islands (Kermadec and Three Kings islands) and the upper North Island areas of Surville Cliffs, Karikari Peninsula, Great Barrier Island, and greater Auckland area (Appendix 3C). Randomisations showed that primary and secondary areas of generic phylogenetic CWE for the northern offshore Kermadec and Three Kings islands, along with northern North Island areas of Surville Cliffs and Karikari Peninsula, are significantly greater than expected from random. The majority of primary and secondary areas of CWE on the main New Zealand islands were not significantly different from random. In the South Island, the majority of cells with significantly higher values of phylogenetic CWE than expected from random occurred in inner montane basins and eastern areas, and cells with significantly less CWE than expected from random were scattered throughout the island. In the North Island, the majority of cells with significantly less generic phylogenetic CWE than expected from random occurred in the lower half of the island.

For the main New Zealand islands, generic phylogenetic diversity (Appendix 3A) shows high richness in the North Island and parts of the upper South Island. The general pattern is decreasing richness with increasing latitude. Generic phylogenetic CWE for the main New Zealand islands is very similar to generic phylogenetic CWE for the New Zealand archipelago (Appendix 3B, 3C). The main differences are additional primary cells on the main New Zealand islands being associated with Surville Cliffs, Kaitaia, Great Barrier Island and greater Auckland area, and new single primary cells on the Volcanic Plateau and near Wellington City. No South Island cells were part of the top 1% for generic phylogenetic endemism.


Phylogenetic diversity and endemism at genus level


In the genus-level analyses of phylogenetic diversity (PD) few cells with significantly high PD were indicated by randomisation analysis (Appendix 4). Those few that were indicated were mostly in the northern and central North Island or in the southern South Island (blue cells in Appendix 4A). However, cells with significantly low values of PD were distributed more or less throughout the archipelago (red cells in Appendix 4A). Many more cells had significantly high values of PWE (blue cells in Appendix 4B) than had significantly high PD. The most prevalent concentrations of PWE cells were in the northern North Island, Three Kings Islands and Kermadec Islands but a number of areas also appeared in the South Island. Areas with significantly low values of PWE were less frequent than were significantly low values of PD, and were entirely absent from the northern North Island but still frequent in the central and southern North Island and the South Island.

Phylogenetic diversity and endemism at species level


Few cells with significantly high PD were observed in the species level analysis and all of these occurred in the central or northern North Island (blue cells in Appendix 5A). Cells with significantly low PD were scattered throughout the northern North Island but much more frequent and contiguous in the southern North Island and South Island, Stewart Island and Chatham and subantarctic islands (red cells in Appendix 5A). Cells with significantly high PWE were most frequent in the northern North Island, Kermadec Islands and Three Kings Islands and found in scattered patches throughout the southern North Island and South Island (blue cells in Appendix 5B). Cells with significantly low CWE were common in the lower North Island and throughout the South Island (red cells in Appendix 5B). A cluster of cells on Stewart Island and one cell from the Chatham Islands had high PWE, and Auckland and Antipodes islands each had a single low PWE cell.

Genus-level categorical analyses of neo- and palaeo-endemism


The New Zealand archipelago has a relatively even distribution of genus-level endemism types with similar numbers of neo- and palaeo-endemics (Appendix 4C, D). Detailed analyses revealed there are some distinct patterns and a two-sample Bootstrap Kolmogorov-Smirnov test confirmed differences among the distribution of endemism types between the North and South islands (D = 0.4251, p-value < 0.001). The North Island is biased toward palaeo-endemics, including mixed-endemics being strongly skewed toward palaeo-endemics, and neo-endemics are poorly represented (Appendix 4C, E). The South Island has similar numbers of neo- and palaeo-endemics and a more even distribution of mixed-endemics (Appendix 4C, F). The offshore islands, with the exception of the Antipodes Islands, all show cells with high levels of endemism with a latitudinal trend of increasing neo-endemics with increasing latitude (Appendix 4C, G). The northern Kermadec and Three Kings islands have only mixed-endemic cells, the mid-latitude Chatham Islands have neo- and mixed-endemic cells, the Snares have mixed-endemic cells, and the southernmost subantarctic islands, Auckland and Campbell islands, have only neo-endemic cells.

Species-level categorical analyses of neo- and palaeo-endemism


The analyses of species-level endemism for the New Zealand archipelago revealed a predominance of neo- and palaeo-endemics (Appendix 5C, D). There are some well-defined geographic patterns and a two-sample Bootstrap Kolmogorov-Smirnov test confirmed differences in endemism types between the North and South islands (D = 0.8665, p-value < 0.001). In the northern North Island there are extensive areas of palaeo-endemism, accompanied by only a few neo- and mixed-endemism cells (Appendix 5C, E). The South Island is dominated by extensive and contiguous areas of neo-endemism in the northern South Island and southern South Island (Appendix 5C, F). Stewart Island is a hotspot of neo-endemism. The offshore islands are all hotspots of endemism, with the northernmost Kermadec and Three Kings islands comprising mixed- and palaeo-endemics, whereas the Chatham and subantarctic islands are dominated by neo-endemics (Appendix 5C, G).
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