Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Warren Region


PART TWO - DECLARED RARE FLORA IN THE WARREN REGION



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PART TWO - DECLARED RARE FLORA IN THE WARREN REGION 
 
As at December 2005, 18 taxa of Declared Rare Flora (DRF) were known to be extant within the 
boundaries of the Warren Region. A recent inclusion is Meziella trifida which was previously listed as 
presumed extinct on the DRF schedule for the Region, but has recently been relocated, and is now 
included as Rare Flora. The species is ranked as Critically Endangered.  
Lambertia orbifolia and Banksia goodii were previously listed for the Warren Region but are now, as 
a result of CALM regional boundary rationalisation, included in the South Coast Region and are not 
included in this Management Program. Astartea arbuscula and Pleurophascum occidentale were 
previously listed as DRF but, on review of herbarium material and an assessment of populations and 
threats, have been removed from the schedule and are no longer included. 
A brief description of the morphology, distribution, habitat, and conservation status is provided for 
each taxon dealt with herein. Where appropriate, the impacts of threatening processes such as fire, 
mechanical disturbance, weed invasion and Phytophthora dieback disease are noted from observations 
made in the field during routine monitoring visits for this review, and from discussion with volunteers 
and CALM staff. Recommendations are made for management and protection action to ensure the 
continued survival of populations of each taxon. 
Descriptions of taxa were compiled by consulting relevant references, from direct discussion with 
botanists and through measurements and observations made from herbarium and fresh collections. 
Distributions and habitats of each taxon were recorded from CALM Rare Flora files, herbarium labels 
and field observation. Emphasis was placed on the particular habitat characteristics of locations in the 
Warren Region.  
Recommended changes (or otherwise) to the conservation status of taxa are determined from field 
observations, population and location data on CALM files and recent herbarium specimen 
information, taking into account known or surmised threats and breeding system requirements. 
Included in the program is a brief summary of the number and condition of populations for each taxon 
in the region and threats to population survival. A table for each taxon lists the location, land status, 
date of last survey, number of plants and, where appropriate, condition of each population. The list of 
known populations generally refers to those in the Warren Region only. Only populations that have 
been surveyed or have reliable recent records are included with any detail. Old records for a few taxa 
are included and noted as such when no further detail is available.  
Precise locality details are not provided here but are contained on CALM files and computer 
databases. In line with this, maps provide generalised locations only and in reality only reflect each 
taxon’s distribution within the Region. The Warren Region filing system number for each species is 
shown beneath the family name (eg WAR F4/1). 
Population numbers for each plant taxon are shown as CALM Departmental numbers (CLM #) where 
assigned, or otherwise as Regional numbers (WAR #). WA Herbarium records may indicate a wider 
range and larger number of populations but many of these historical populations have not been 
relocated and may have been destroyed since the time of collection.  
In this Management Program, several species are considered to be of highest priority for further 
survey and consideration for gazettal as DRF (see Table 5). These taxa are included in the Priority 
Flora section relevant to their current classification. 
 
 
 

 
 
Photograph of DRF species Verticordia apecta by Roger Hearn 
 
 
16

 
 
17
Asplenium obtusatum G. Forster subsp. northlandicum Brownsey 
ASPLENIACEAE 
Shore Spleenwort 
 
WAR F4/1 
This fern, which was named in the New Zealand Journal of Botany as a subspecies of Asplenium 
obtusatum by Brownsey in 1977, has a scattered, wide distribution along temperate and sub-Antarctic 
coastlines of the Southern Hemisphere. While widespread in New South Wales, Victoria and 
Tasmania, there are currently only four known populations in Western Australia. Limited survey of its 
often inaccessible coastal and island granite habitat has possibly resulted in other populations 
remaining undetected. 
Description 
Shore Spleenwort has a shortly creeping thick rhizome, covered with purplish brown scales. Leaves 
are pinnate, stout, erect, rigid to 40 cm with green stems. Leaflets are stalked, shiny, dark green with 
notched margins, up to 4.5 cm long. Sori are oblong, parallel to each other and adjacent to veins on 
each side of the midrib of each leaflet. 
Distribution and Habitat 
The subspecies is known from just four Western Australian populations between Walpole and Albany, 
growing in shallow peaty soil pockets on granitic-gneiss rock up to 200 m above the sea. In these 
areas plants are fully exposed to salt laden winds. 
Conservation Status 
Current: DRF- Vulnerable 
 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. 
No. 
 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
Last survey 
 
Comments/condition 
CLM2 Chatham 
Island 
Frankland  NR 78  26/03/1997 
Healthy 
in 
accessible 
areas 
Na 
 
D’Entrecasteaux NP 
Frankland 
NP 

9/10/2001 
Relocate & survey 
Response to Disturbance 
Responses to fire, soil or other mechanical disturbance, change in soil moisture and weed invasion are 
unknown. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Unknown, probably not a threat. 
Management Requirements 
Monitor populations opportunistically and at least five year intervals. 
Conduct surveys at other suitable sites in the Region, if or when opportunities arise. 
Decline requests by rock climbers to pursue their sport on the Chatham Island’s rock faces. The ledges 
and cracks used as hand and foot holds and for securing pitons are the same as those used by the ferns. 
Relocate D’Entrecasteaux population and confirm identification (habitat description does not match 
other records.) 
Research Requirements 
None. 
References 
Brown  et al (1998); Brownsey (1977, 1998); Jones and Clemesha (1976); Robinson and Coates 
(1995); Rye and Hopper (1981) 
 

 
Apslenium obtusatum subsp. 
northlandicum  
 
 
18

 
 
19
Banksia verticillata R. Br. 
 
 
PROTEACEAE 
Granite Banksia 
WAR F4/3 
Banksia verticillata was first collected from King George Sound in December 1801 by Robert Brown 
who described the species in Transactions of the Linnaean Society of London in 1810. It is a non-
resprouting, seed obligate, fire killed Banksia that has a long reproductive cycle and is severely 
impacted by Phytophthora
Description 
Granite Banksia is a large shrub (rarely a tree) to 5 m with a thick trunk that is much branched above. 
Bark is hard, roughly fissured and grey. Leaves are whorled (internodes 1-2 cm), narrow elliptic to 
oblong, obtuse, recurved with entire margins, the upper surface glabrous, the lower surface with 
matted, crisped, white hairs and petiolate. The inflorescence is terminal with a whorl of several lateral 
branches immediately below. Flowers are golden yellow. 
Flowering period: January-April 
Distribution and Habitat 
Occurs from west of Walpole to Manypeaks in two disjunct population clusters, one in the Albany 
area and the other in the Walpole area. Plants grow on and around granite outcrops, usually in shallow 
rocky sands and loams. 
Old records for Thompson and Aldridge Coves have not been substantiated with only the closely 
related, similar species, Banksia seminuda being located there. * 
Conservation Status 
Current: DRF-Vulnerable 
 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
 
No. of plants 
 
Last survey 
 
Comments/condition 
CLM 6 
Mt. Hopkins 
Frankland 
NP 
200 
17/07/2002
 
Burnt in March 2001 
CLM 15 
Woolbales 
Frankland 
NP 
600 
13/3/1997 Severely 
impacted 
by 
 
P. cinnamomi  
CLM 20 
Aldridge Cove 
Frankland 
NP 

1994 
Not found 
CLM 21 
Thompson Cove 
Frankland 
NP 

1994 
Not found 
CLM 26 
Poison Hill 
Frankland 
NP 
2 000 
5/10/2000 
 
CLM 34 
Woolbales 
Frankland NP 

03/09/1997   
CLM 35 
Point Nuyts 
 
Frankland NP 
1200 
30/10/1997   
Response to Disturbance 
Plants are killed by fire with regeneration from canopy stored seed post fire. The species is not 
dependent on fire to trigger germination and the population structure indicates continuous recruitment. 
The species has a long juvenile period (period without seed production) and requires population 
protection from fire for a period of at least 20 years. 
Response to soil disturbance is unknown. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Highly susceptible. 
Management Requirements 
Ongoing periodic Phosphite treatment (every 3-4 years), of Woolbales and Poison Hill populations 
(including adjacent proteaceous communities). 
Adjust fire management strategies adjacent to all populations to achieve fire exclusion. 
Monitor populations on a two year cycle, particularly for disease impacts of Phytophthora and 
Zithiostroma

Achieve adequate seed collection (at a population genetic level) prior to burning of populations.  
Research Requirements 
Complete studies into fire and population ecology. 
Conduct molecular studies to determine minimum numbers of individuals in each population for seed 
collection 
References. 
Brown  et al (1998); Kelly and Coates (1995); George (1981, 1985); Monks et al. (1994); Robinson 
and Coates (1995); Taylor and Hopper (1988) 
 
 
Banksia verticillata  
 
 
 
20

 
 
21
Caladenia christineae Hopper & A.P. Br. 
ORCHIDACEAE 
Christine’s Spider Orchid 
 
WAR F4/5 
Caladenia christineae was first collected in 1977 by Alex George who again collected it in 1983. 
Subsequent collections were made by researchers including Stephen Hopper, Andrew Brown and 
Robert Bates. The taxon has variously been considered as a variant of Caladenia longicauda,  C. 
harringtoniae, C. serotina and C. uliginosa and at one stage was treated as a subspecies of C. 
harringtoniae. Several large new populations were located during the preparation of this report. 
Description 
Christine’s Spider Orchid is most closely related to Caladenia harringtoniae from which it can be 
distinguished by its creamy-white to pale creamy yellow, rather than deep to pale pink flowers, which 
are odourless, and its slightly earlier flowering season, peaking in mid to late October. Marginal 
fringes to the labellum are short. The species has up to four flowers and reaches a height of about 40 
cm.  
Although there is a slight overlap, Caladenia christineae appears to replace C. harringtoniae in the 
landscape as total rainfall and length of wet season decrease in the north-eastern part of the Region. It 
also occupies sites with poorer drainage, more often on the old plateau in broad wet basins and 
drainage areas, whereas C. harringtoniae is more often being found on edges of wet areas of more 
dissected landscapes, particularly the rejuvenated drainage lines of the Ravensthorpe Ramp. 
The species has been known to hybridise with Caladenia harringtoniae, C. latifolia and C. longicauda 
(mainly around the Lake Muir area).  
Flowering period: September-early November 
Distribution and Habitat 
Recorded from Yornup to Mt. Barker, growing around the margins of and in winter wet flats (often in 
standing water) in heath and sedge communities, often under mixed jarrah/marri forest and 
paperbarks. 
Conservation Status 
Current: DRF-Endangered 
 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
 
Last survey 
 
Comments/condition 
CLM 1 
Stoate/Talling 
DON  
SF 

Spring 2002 
Burnt Autumn 2004 
CLM 5 
Denbarker 
FRA 
MRWA 

29/10/1996 
Not relocated 
CLM 15 
Pardelup 
FRA 
RR 

01/01/2001 
 
CLM 3 
Muir Hwy 
FRA 
RR 
100 
11/10/1990 
 
CLM 4, 11 
& 12 
Lake Muir 
DON 
NR 
400 
22/9/1998 
Borders the northern 
edge of Lake Muir  
CLM 6 
Seaton Ross Rd 1 
DON 
SF 

13/10/1993 
Misidentification – not 
C. christineae 
CLM 7 
Seaton Ross Rd 2 
DON 
PP 
30 
Spring 2002 
 
CLM 9 
Kingston FB 
DON 
SF 
30+ 
Spring 2001 
 
CLM 10 
Corbalup Rd 
DON 
SF 
20+ 
Spring 2002 
 
CLM 13 
Tone SF 1 
DON 
SF 

31/10/1996 
 
CLM 14 
Tone SF 2 
DON 
SF 
15 
Spring 2002 
 
CLM 16 
Donnelly Mill 
Rd 
DON 
SF 

Spring 2002 
Adjacent area burnt in 
Spring 2003 
CLM 17 
Conto Rd 1 
DON 
SF 
20 
Spring 2002 
 
CLM 18 
Conto Rd 2 
DON 
SF 

Spring 2002 
 
CLM 19 
Aerial Rd 
DON 
 
60 
Spring 2003 
Not burnt for many 
years 
CLM 20 
Quenda Rd 
DON 
SF 
100 
Spring 2002 
Part burnt in 1998 
CLM 21 
Southfield Rd 
DON 
SF 

7/10/1995 
Plants not seen since 
1995 
CLM 22 
Muir Hwy 
DON 
SHR 
94 
21/10/2003 
 
CLM 23 
Scrubiup Rd  
FRA 
PRI 
123 
15/10/2003 
 
 

Response to Disturbance 
Plants may be killed by fire when above ground parts are present (May-November). However, 
flowering is known to be stimulated by summer fire during which time plants are dormant, with many 
populations having only been seen in significant numbers the spring following summer fire. 
Response to soil disturbance is unknown. 
As the occurrence of the species is linked to wet sites, changes to water tables following changes in 
hydrology and climate change over time may have a negative impact. Increasing salinisation may also 
be a threat to several of populations.  
Response to weed invasion is unknown, but the long-term viability of populations may be vulnerable 
to annuals and perennial agricultural grasses that are able to occupy sites following fire or other 
disturbance. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Unknown. 
Management Requirements 
 
Monitor populations annually over next ten years with particular regard to impacts of salinisation and 
weed species on populations east of the main forest belt. 
Search for additional populations in areas of suitable habitat across the Region. 
Avoid late autumn, winter and early spring fuel reduction burning of areas known to contain 
populations of the species. 
Research Requirements 
Liaise with Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority staff over seed and mycelium collection and storage. 
Determine susceptibility to Phytophthora spp. 
References 
Brown  et al (1998); Hoffman and Brown (1992, 1998); Hopper and Brown (2001); Ian Wilson 
(personal communication, population data) 
 
 
 
Caladenia christineae  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
22

 
 
23
Caladenia dorrienii Domin 
ORCHIDACEAE 
Cossack Spider Orchid 
 
WAR F4/4 
Although it was first collected by James Drummond in the late 1830’s, possibly from Wandoo flats 
west of Toodyay, this species was subsequently overlooked by taxonomists and was not named until 
Domin described it in 1912, from a 1909 collection made by Dorrien-Smith between Bridgetown and 
Kojunup. It is one of many spider orchids with a complicated taxonomic history and was for many 
years regarded as a variety of Caladenia filamentosa until being restored to full species status in 1989 
by Mark Clements. The species is currently known from seven populations in the Frankland, Kojonup, 
Boyup Brook area, with three of these in the proposed Perup Nature Reserve in the Warren Region. 
Description 
Cossack Spider Orchid is a distinctive species that is distinguished by its down curved petals and 
lateral sepals, the latter crossing over in front of the ovary. Plants are generally short, rarely reaching 
20 cm high. The flower stem is slender and hairy with a narrow linear leaf clasping the base. Each 
flower has narrow linear greenish white sepals and petals with longitudinal red veins and dark 
glandular hairy tips. The dorsal sepal is 25-30 mm long and held erect. The labellum, which is white 
splashed with red dots, has two rows of closely set calli along its middle and lacks a marginal fringe, 
instead having a few irregular teeth. Plants often grow in clumps or clusters. 
Flowering period: September-November 
Distribution and Habitat 
The species is currently known from the Frankland, Kojonup, Boyup Brook area with an outlier at 
West Dale, growing in open Wandoo/Jarrah woodland over low heath on Wandoo sandy clays, 
usually in moist valley sites. 
Conservation Status 
Current: DRF-Endangered 
 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
 
Last survey 
 
Comments/condition 
CLM 6 
Keninup SF  
DON 
SF 
19 
Spring 2003 
Burnt Autumn 1996 
CLM 7 
Keninup SF 
DON 
SF 
many 
Spring 2003 
Burnt Autumn 1996 
CLM 8 
Keninup SF 
DON 
SF 

Spring 2003 
 
CLM 9 
Keninup SF 
DON 
SF 
48 
20/10/1998 
 
CLM 10 
Keninup SF 
DON 
SF 
38 
21/10/1998 
 
CLM 11 
Keninup SF 
DON 
SF 
99 
21/10/1998 
 
 
 Response to Disturbance 
Although plants are likely to be killed by fire when above ground parts are present (July-December), 
the species appears to be stimulated to flower by summer fire. Mal Graham (personal communication) 
has noted that a population which responded to one fire event with mass flowering, failed to respond 
to a second summer fire event four years later, with population numbers declining. 
Response to soil disturbance is unknown but comments below probably apply. Several populations 
have been disturbed by animal digging. 
Response to change in soil moisture may be significant as occurrence is linked to wet sites and 
changes to water tables over time may impact. Salt may also be a significant threat outside main forest 
belt. 
Response to weed invasion is unknown but the species is possibly vulnerable to annual and perennial 
grasses and weeds that are able to rapidly occupy a site after fire or other soil disturbance. CALM 
population 7 is under threat from weed invasion. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Unknown. 

Management Requirements 
Survey suitable sites in the eastern parts of the Region for further populations. 
Exclude late autumn, winter and early spring fuel reduction burns from known populations. 
Monitor populations for numbers flowering in years subsequent to last burn. 
Monitor populations for impact of exotic grasses, taking control measures as required. 
Research Requirements 
Liaise with Botanic Garden and Parks Authority staff over seed and mycelium collection and storage. 
Determine susceptibility to Phytophthora spp. 
Investigate the species’ reproductive biology with specific reference to the effect of fire frequency. 
References 
Brown et al (1998); Hoffman and Brown (1992, 1998); Hopper and Brown (2001) 
 
 
 
Caladenia dorrienii  
 
 
24

 
 
25
Caladenia harringtoniae Hopper & A.P. Br. 
ORCHIDACEAE 
Pink Spider Orchid 
 
WAR F4/6 
Caladenia harringtoniae was first collected by Ron Heberle in 1983 from Mt. Clarence (Albany) in 
the CALM’ South Coast Region but has since been collected from a number of locations across the 
Warren Region. In many areas it flowers only following fire and, as a consequence, a number of 
populations have not been seen since their original discovery.  
The species has been collected from about twenty eight locations in the Region, with twenty four 
populations known to still contain flowering plants. Four populations have not been relocated or are 
extinct. The species appears to be relatively well conserved but is in need of ongoing monitoring in 
relation to habitat change. 
Description 
Pink Spider Orchid has small flowers with relatively narrow, stiffly held deep pink petals and sepals 
with white margins. Marginal fringes to the labellum are short. The species has up to 3 flowers and 
reaches heights of about 40 cm. A member of the Caladenia longicauda complex, it has affinities with 
C. christineae  and  C. winfieldii but can be distinguished from C. winfieldii  in its shorter labellum 
fringes and tapering rather than slightly clubbed sepals and petals. From C. christineae it is 
distinguished by its deep pink rather than cramy white flowers. It has been found growing 
sympatrically with both and regularly hybridises with C. christineae.  
Caladenia harringtoniae appears to replace C. christineae as the total rainfall and length of wet 
season increase in the south-west of the Region. Caladenia christineae occupies sites with poorer 
drainage, more often on the old plateau in broad wet basins and drainage areas, whereas 
C. harringtoniae is more often found on edges of wet areas in more dissected landscapes, particularly 
the rejuvenated drainage lines of the Ravensthorpe Ramp. 
Flowering period: October-November 
Distribution and Habitat 
The species is found between Nannup and Albany where it occurs in a number of habitats but is most 
common in wet sites where soils are saturated for several months of the year. Melaleuca-Flooded gum 
swamps and flats, and creeklines in Jarrah and Karri forest types are all represented. 
Conservation Status 
Current: DRF-Vulnerable 
 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
 
Last survey 
 
Comments/condition 
CLM 1 
Thompson Rd 1 
DON 
RR 

Spring 2003 
Burnt Autumn 2004 
CLM 2 
Thompson Rd 2 
FRA 
SF 
67 
14/10/1998 
 
CLM 3 & 
26 
Lake 
Muir  FRA NR 43  24/9/1998 
Single 
population 
CLM 4 
Stachan 
DON 
SF 

1/11/1994 
 
CLM 6 
Palgarup Rd 
DON 
SF 

Spring 2003 
 
CLM 8 
Karri Valley 
DON 
SF 

17/10/1990 Not 
seen 
recently 
CLM 9 
Iffley FB 
DON 
SF 

Spring 2003 
Possibly extinct 
CLM 11 
SW Hwy 
FRA 
RR 

29/10/1990 
Not relocated 
CLM 12 
Hill Rd. West 
DON 
SF 

Spring 2002 
 
CLM 14 
Mattaband Rd 
FRA 
SF 
12 
12/10/1998 
 
CLM 16 
Poorginup Rd 
FRA 
SF 
20+ 
Spring 2002 
 
CLM 17 
Long 2 Rd 
FRA 
SF 

14/10/1997 
 
CLM 18 
Bevan Rd. 2 
FRA 
SF 
68 
17/10/1997 
 
CLM 19 
Brumby Rd 
FRA 
SF 
390 
20/10/1997 
 
CLM 20 
Bevan Rd. 2 
FRA 
SF 
41 
17/10/1997 
 
CLM 21 
Conto Rd 
DON 
SF 

Spring 2003 
 
CLM 22 
Moriarty Rd 
DON 
SF 

Spring 2002 
 
CLM 23 
Sears Rd 
DON 
SF 
13 
Spring 2002 
 
CLM 24 
Beedelup Falls 
DON 
NP 

Spring 2004 
 
CLM 27 
Carter Rd 
DON 
SF 

Spring 2002 
 

 
 
26
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
 
Last survey 
 
Comments/condition 
CLM 28 
Tine Mines Rd 
DON 
SF 
20+ 
Spring 2002 
 
CLM 29 
Swamp Rd 
DON 
SF 

Spring 2002 
 
CLM 30 
SW Hwy/Seaton 
Ross Rd 
DON RR  0 
Spring 
2002 
 
CLM 31 
Thomspon Rd 3 
DON 
SF 
30+ 
Spring 2003 
Burnt Autumn 2004 
CLM 32 
Hiker Rd 
FRA 
UCL 
38 
16/10/1997 
 
CLM 33 
Spring Block 
FRA 
SF 
47 
22/10/1997 
 
CLM 34 
Graphite Block 
DON 
SF 

3/10/1997 
 
CLM 36 
Poorginup Rd. 
DON 
SF 
20+ 
Spring 2002 
 
 
Response to Disturbance 
Plants are killed by fire during their active growing period (May-November). However, flowering is 
known to be stimulated by summer fire (December-April), with most populations having only been 
seen in any numbers in the spring following a summer fire. 
Response to soil disturbance is unknown but comments below probably apply. 
As the species is linked to wet sites, significant changes to water tables over time may impact on the 
long-term viability of populations. 
Response to weed invasion is unknown but the species is probably vulnerable to annuals that are able 
to rapidly occupy a site following fire or other soil disturbance. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Unknown. 
Management Requirements 
Monitor populations every 4 to 5 years, preferably after a wet winter. 
Avoid late autumn, winter and early spring fuel reduction burns of swamps known to contain 
populations of this taxon.  
Research Requirements 
Liaise with Botanic Garden and Parks Authority staff over seed and mycelium collection and storage. 
Determine susceptibility to Phytophthora spp. 
References 
Brown  et al (1998); Hoffman and Brown (1992, 1998); Robinson and Coates (1995); Hopper and 
Brown (2001) 

Caladenia harringtoniae  
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
27

 
 
28
Caladenia winfieldii Hopper & A.P. Br.  
ORCHIDACEAE 
Majestic Spider Orchid 
WAR F4/23 
Caladenia winfieldii was first discovered by the late Harry Winfield (after whom it is named) in the 
1960’s and was relocated and collected by Stephen Hopper and Andrew Brown in 1987. The species 
is confined to a single known population, consisting of two subpopulations, in State forest south-east 
of Manjimup. Originally, Harry Winfield had also seen the species at a site about two kilometres to 
the southwest of the current population and a collection was made by Tony Annels in 1969 from an 
area some 15 km south of the current area. However, searches over several years have failed to locate 
the species at either site.  
The species is the subject to recovery actions contained in a separate Interim Recovery Plan. The 
larger part of the population is contained inside exclusion fencing. Hand pollination has been carried 
out to produce seed for long term storage and development of propagation techniques. Feral pigs, that 
in the past did a great deal of damage to the site, have been removed. 
Description 
An erect herb 30-60 cm tall with, pale to deep pink flowers, the colour darkening towards apex of 
labellum. Fringe segments are slender to 6 mm long. 
Caladenia winfieldii differs from C. harringtoniae, with which it occasionally grows, in having 
somewhat broader petals, clubbed sepals, a longer labellum, taller, broader column and uniformly 
pink colouration. 
Flowering period: October-November 
Distribution and Habitat 
The species is currently known from a single area. Old Herbarium collections indicate that there may 
have been another population 15 km south west of the Strachan population but this has not been 
relocated.  
Caladenia winfieldii occurs in a broad swampy depression adjacent to a drainage line, growing in grey 
sandy loam, rich in humus under Eucalyptus rudis,  Melaleuca preissiana and Banksia littoralis low 
woodland over tall scrub of Xanthorrhoea preissiiAcacia saligna and Hakea varia with a low scrub 
and herb layer. Plants apparently favour the protection of shrubs and are most often found at the base 
of and in the skirts of Xanthorrhoea preissii
Conservation Status 
Current: DRF-Endangered 
 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
 
Last survey 
 
Comments/condition 
CLM 1 
Strachan 
DON 
SF 
133 
1/1/1998 
 
 
Response to Disturbance 
Plants are likely to be killed by fire during their active growing period (May – November). However, 
flowering is thought to be stimulated by summer fire (December – April) when plants are dormant. 
Response to mechanical disturbance is unknown but is probably as the same as its response to fire. If 
vegetative parts are removed before the tuber is fully replaced in early summer plants are likely to be 
damaged or killed. 
Susceptibility to weed invasion is unknown but weeds probably suppress growth. 
Prior to fencing, some grazing was impacting on the species.  
The species is apparently dependent upon shelter provided by other plants that possibly protect it from 
grazing. 
The species is dependent on winter soil saturation for flowering to occur. 

Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Presumed not susceptible, though dieback-caused changes to the site have been identified as a threat 
through loss of canopy protection and changes to site hydrology. 
Management Requirements 
For detail see Interim Recovery Plan 15. 
Exclude fire during the active growing period of the species between May and late November. 
No planned burn for period of IRP. 
Collect seed and liaise with Botanic Garden and Parks Authority staff regarding cryogenic storage. 
Inspect community health and orchid population numbers annually. 
Protect from disturbance during operations. 
Monitor for pig activity. 
Research Requirements 
Survey for additional populations in areas of suitable habitat. 
Monitor the effects of grazing control on that part of the population that has been fenced. 
References 
Brown et al (1998); Hoffman and Brown (1992); Holland et al. (1996); Hopper and Brown (2001) 
Caladenia winfieldii  
 
 
 
29

 
 
30
Conostylis misera Endl. 
HAEMODORACEAE 
Grass Conostylis 
  WAR F4/133 
Conostylis misera was first collected from the Porongurup Range in 1840 and described by Endlicher 
in 1846. It is mainly known from CALM’s South Coast Region but in 1986 was collected from Lake 
Kwornicup, in the northwest part of the Warren Region. 
Description 
Grass Conostylis is a small tufted prostrate perennial herb which generally grows in colonial groups, 
forming mats up to 400 mm across. The soft green flat leaves (5-18 cm long, 2-6 mm wide) are falcate 
and striate, with thin glabrous margins. The old leaves often remain attached to the plant and appear 
blackened and twisted. The relatively large flowers are conspicuous, solitary with a 3 cm scape and 
two to three acuminate, spreading sheathing bracts. The bright yellow flowers have a perianth tube 12-
19 mm long with lobes to 18 mm. Flowers and fruits are covered with an indumentum of short 
branched hairs mixed with longer hairs.  
The species is distinguished from other members of the genus by its short, ± glabrous soft leaves and 
large, usually solitary flowers. The perianth enlarges to 20 mm long when in fruit. 
Flowering period: October-November 
Distribution and Habitat 
Plants occur in seasonally waterlogged, but not inundated, brown sandy clay loam flats from north of 
the Stirling Range to Narrikup and across to South Stirling. In CALM’s South Coast Region where the 
species is more common it has disappeared from several sites and is under threat by weed invasion 
and "black spot" disease. Only one record is known for the Warren region at Kwornicup Lake.  
Conservation Status 
Current: DRF-Vulnerable 
 
Known populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
Last 
survey 
 
 
Comments/condition 
CLM 18 
Kwornicup Lake 
FRA 
NR 
na 
9/10/1986 
 
Relocate 
Response to Disturbance 
The species is thought to re-establish successfully from seed after fire. 
Plants may be out-competed by weeds. 
As the species occurs on seasonally inundated wetlands it is likely to be susceptible to changes in 
hydrology and climate. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Unknown 
Management Requirements 
Relocate the Warren population which has not been seen since 1986. 
Search areas of suitable habitat for further populations. 
Research Requirements 
None 
References 
Brown et al (1998); Hopper et al. (1987); Robinson and Coates (1995) 

 
Conostylis misera  
 
 
 
31

 
 
32
Diuris drummondii Lindley 
ORCHIDACEAE 
Tall Donkey Orchid 
WAR F4/8 
Described by Lindley in 1840, this species has a confused taxonomic history and has at various timed 
been placed with Diuris laxiflora and D. emarginata. It was reinstated by Mark Clements in 1989. 
Description 
Diuris drummondii is the last flowering and tallest of the Western Australian donkey orchids, ranging 
from 50-105 cm high. Plants have three to seven or more widely spaced pale yellow flowers and 
sometimes form dense colonies of hundreds of individuals. Flowering predominantly occurs following 
Summer fire and in the absence of fire is often sporadic. Some populations, however, flower every 
year e.g. Lake Muir. 
Tall Donkey Orchid differs from the related Diuris emarginata in its more robust habit, generally later 
flowering period and larger flowers. 
Flowering period: Late November-January 
Distribution and Habitat 
The species is recorded from a wide geographical range between Northampton and Walpole, growing 
in low lying depressions and swamps that contain water well into summer. In the Warren Region it 
has been found in peat swamps on the South Coast with Banksia littoralis,  Lepidosperma effusum
Baumea articulata and  Haloragis brownii and in similar habitat in the Lake Muir area with the 
addition of a Eucalyptus rudis, a range of Melaleuca species and sedges. It has also been recorded 
from swamps with sandy clay bases.  One exception to this (CLM 5) was when a single plant was 
found growing on a track well clear of water; however the track passes through swamps both north 
and south of the recorded plant and it is possibly the result of transported seed. 
Closely occurring populations within in the Lake Muir system may represent a single population of 
widely dispersed individuals. 
Conservation Status 
Current: DRF-Vulnerable 
 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
 
Last survey 
 
Comments/condition 
CLM 1 
Muir Hwy 1 
DON 
NR/RR 
40+ 
25/11/1997 
 
CLM 2 
Buranganup Rd 
DON 
SF 

13/12/1994 
 
CLM 3 
Lake Muir Rd 
DON 
SF 

6/1/1994 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
CLM 4 
Bangalup Rd 
FRA 
SHRes/PP 
100 5/12/1994  Three 
sub-populations 
CLM 5 
Yornup 
DON 
Rail Res 

14/12/1994 
 
CLM 7 
Lake Muir 1 
DON 
NR 

23/12/1991 
 
CLM 8 
Kodjinup NR 1 
DON 
NR 
166 
23/12/1993 
 
CLM 9 
Lake Muir 2 
DON 
NR/RR 
40 
20/12/1993 
 
CLM 10 
Frankland River 
Bridge 
FRA SHI 
15 8/11/1992  
CLM 11 
Walpole-
Nornalup NP 
FRA 
NP 

4/9/1997 
Based upon a single 
visit. No collection was 
made and not seen since 
CLM 12 
Lake Muir 3 
DON 
NR 
20+ 
5/12/1997 
 
CLM 14 
Owingup NR 1 
FRA 
NR 

22/12/1995 
 
CLM 15 
Owingup NR 2 
FRA 
NR 
300 
22/12/1995 
 
CLM 17 
Kodjinup NR 2 
DON 
NR 

15/12/1997 
 
CLM 18 
Muir Hwy 2 
DON 
RR 
20 
25/11/1997 
 
CLM 19 
Muir Hwy 3 
DON 
RR 

25/11/1997 
 
CLM 22 
Lake Muir 4 
DON 
NR 
20 
8/12/1997 
 
CLM 23 
Geordinup Rd 
DON 
NR 
200 
8/12/1997 



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