Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Warren Region


Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback



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Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Unknown. 
Management Requirements 
Relocate the Bridgetown population and survey. 
Survey suitable sites in the Region for possible new populations. 
Research Requirements 
Determine susceptibility to Phytophthora spp. 
References 
Bentham (1878); Rye (1987a); Wilson (1993) 
64 

 
Carex tereticaulis  
 
 
65 

Cryptandra arbutiflora Fenzl var. pygmaea Rye 
RHAMNACEAE 
 
   
  WAR F4/60 
Cryptandra arbutiflora was first collected by Ernie Wittwer in 1975 from a locality stated as 
being‘...Muir Highway, 20 km E of Manjimup’ and was subsequently recollected by Tony Annels in 
Talling near Lake Muir in 1990. Searches in the Nyamup area (20 km E of Manjimup) have failed to 
relocate the original collecting site, and no habitat resembling sites where it has been found, has been 
located in that area. It is possible that the distance was estimated in miles (noting the timing of the 
collection was during the period of metrication of Australia), and then converted to kilometres, but the 
reverse conversion used accidentally. Converting twice in reverse would put the Wittwer population 
very close to the Talling population. The differences could be explained by whether the distance was 
read off a map or off an odometer, and whether the chosen point of reference for Manjimup was, for 
example, the Post Office, the intersection of Muir Highway and South West Highway, or the edge of 
town. It may well be that both collections were from the same place. 
Description 
Cryptandra arbutiflora is a low spreading shrub to 20+ cm high with shortly petiolate (0.6-0.8 mm), 
linear to narrow oblong, glabrous leaves 3-6 mm long, 0.6-2 mm wide. Flowers are white and 
crowded in leafy spikelets. Each flower is sessile to shortly petiolate with a floral tube about 1 mm 
long enlarging to 2 mm when in fruit. 
The var. pygmaea differs from other varieties of Cryptandra arbutiflora in the Region in having a 
very short flower tube (var. tubulosa about 2-3 mm; var. arbutiflora about 3-4 mm) and a very small 
stature. 
Flowering period: August-November 
Distribution and Habitat 
The species is known from five populations between Lake Muir, Rocky Gully and Tonebridge, 
growing on shallow clay around granite outcrops in heath vegetation surrounded by Jarrah forest and 
on the margins of a wetland under Eucalyptus decipiens woodland. The area surrounding Lake Muir is 
intended to become part of the Perup-Lake Muir Nature Reserve Complex and populations within this 
area are not considered to be under threat.   
Conservation Status 
Current: Priority 1 
Recommended: Priority 2 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
  
Last survey 
 
Comments/condition 
CLM 1a 
Talling (swamp) DON  SF 
(NP)  220 
4/12/1995 
 
CLM 1b 
Talling (Granite) DON  SF 
(NP) 
50 
4/12/1995 
 
WAR 101 
Rocky Gully 
DON 

na 
9/9/1995 
Relocate 
WAR 102 
Galamup NR 
DON 
NR 
na 
23/10/1997 
 
WAR 103 
Tonebridge 
 
DON - 
na 
5/9/1995 
Relocate 
Response to Disturbance 
Response to fire is unknown. 
Response to soil disturbance is unknown. 
Response to change in soil moisture is unknown. 
Response to weed invasion is unknown. 
Response to change in canopy is unknown. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Unknown. 
66 

Management Requirements 
Monitor periodically with specific emphasis on assessing response to disturbance. 
Search for further populations in areas of suitable habitat. 
Research Requirements 
Determine susceptibility to Phytophthora spp. 
Study the variety’s response to fire to determine if it is a resprouter or seed obligate and, following 
germination, determine the length of time before flowering and first seed set. 
Determine the variety’s response to other disturbance. 
References 
Rye (1995a) 
Cryptandra abutiflora var. pygmaea 
 
67 

Deyeuxia inaequalis Vickery  
POACEAE 
 
   
         WAR F4/197 
Deyeuxia inaequalis was described in 1940 by Joyce Vickery, from a specimen collected near the 
Warren River (Arnott’s near Manjimp) by W.M. Carne in 1923. The species was relocated near 
Manjimup by Tony Annels in 1988.  
Description 
Deyeuxia inaequalis is an annual or perennial grass to 70 cm with linear leaves 50-150 mm long by 1-
5 mm wide. The ligule is membranous, 3-5 mm long, torn at tip, tufted, hairless. The inflorescence is 
dense, cylindric and spike-like. Spikelets are 5-6 mm long, green, stalked, compressed, each with a 
single bisexual floret. Glumes are in pairs, 5-6 mm long, spreading, narrowly ovate, unequal, the 
lower glume a little longer, pointed, 1-ribbed with a rough keel. The lemma body is approx 2.5 cm 
long, firm and hardening at maturity, narrowly ovate to ovate, rough, 3-5-ribbed, the tip minutely 4-
toothed, with a bent and twisted dorsal awn arising from near the base. The awn is 3.5-4.5 mm long. 
The floret base has silky hairs. The palea is approximately 2.5 mm long, almost equal to the lemma, 2-
ribbed, 2-keeled and two-toothed. 
The species differs from Deyeuxia quadriseta in its slightly longer glumes with the lemma more or 
less half the length of the lower glume. 
Flowering period: December 
Distribution and Habitat 
The species is currently known from two collections near Manjimup. There are old records from the 
Warren and Donnelly rivers, but these have not been relocated. Plants are found in sandy loams on 
slopes. 
Conservation Status 
The Manjimup population is under threat from major weed invasion. 
Current: Priority 1 
 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
 
 Last survey 
 
Comments/condition 
WAR 100 
Manjimup (Warren 
River) 
DON Other 
Res 
na 8/12/1994 
 
WAR 101 
Lindsay FB 
 
DON SF  na  2/12/1988   
Response to Disturbance 
Response to fire is unknown. 
Response to soil disturbance is unknown. 
Response to change in soil moisture is unknown. 
Response to weed invasion is unknown. 
Response to change canopy is unknown. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Unknown, but probably not susceptible given that the related Deyeuxia drummondii is resistant to 
Phytophthora.  
Management Requirements 
Resurvey known populations. 
Monitor populations periodically, with specific regard to assessing response to disturbance. 
68 

Search for further populations in suitable habitat. 
Research Requirements 
Investigate susceptibility to Phytophthora spp. 
Determine response to disturbance. 
Determine life history i.e. Annual or perennial, how does it regenerate etc. 
References 
Wheeler (2001); Vickery (1940) 
Deyeuxia inaequalis  
 
 
 
69 

Eriochilus scaber Lindley subsp. orbifolia Hopper & A.P. Br. ms 
ORCHIDACEAE 
Round-leafed Bunny Orchid
  
WAR F4/104 
Eriochilus scaber subsp.  orbifolia was first collected by Stephen Hopper and Andrew Brown in the 
Winter of 1989 following a Summer fire near Walpole. It was then not seen again until 1994 when 
Bill Jackson relocated it in the same area, again following a fire. It will be formally described by S. 
Hopper and A. Brown in a forthcoming edition of Nuytsia
Description 
Round-leafed Bunny Orchid is a small herb to 10 cm tall with a single orbicular basal leaf, 3-20 mm 
long and one to three pale pink and white flowers. The leaf on non-flowering plants is evenly hirsute, 
discolorous, the upper surface dark green with five white longitudinal stripes. The margins and lower 
surface are red/dark maroon. The leaf of flowering plants is concolourus, yellowish green and 
glabrous with the lamina cupped around scape and similar in size to those on non-flowering plants, 8-
20 mm long by 10-15 mm wide. The scape is wiry uniformly green, sparsely hirsute. 
The leaves of non-flowering plants are darker green, hirsute and more prominently veined than those 
on flowering plants. This dimorphism in leaves of non-flowering and flowering plants is the most 
striking of any south-western orchid. 
Eriochilus scaber subsp. orbifolia differs from the subsp. scaber in its orbicular leaf, held flat on the 
ground, with a creamy green petiole, 1-3 mm above ground, rather than a narrowly ovate to ovate leaf, 
with a dark maroon or creamy green petiole, 2-12 mm above ground. 
Eriochilus scaber differs from E. tenuis in its shorter hirsute scapes usually less than 10 cm tall, its 
leaf on non-flowering plants striped above and red beneath, and its earlier flowering from July-
August. 
Flowering period: July-August 
Distribution and Habitat 
Known from two populations south-west of Crystal Springs, growing in moist, sandy soil in swales 
between consolidated sand dunes. 
Conservation Status 
Current: Priority 1 
Recommended: Priority 2 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
  
Last 
survey 
 
Comments/condition 
CLM 1 
Long Point Road 
FRA 
NP 
na 
3/8/1998 
 
CLM 2a 
Crystal Springs 1 
FRA 
NP 
200 
6/8/1994 
 
CLM 2b 
Crystal Springs 2 
 
FRA NP 
50 
12/8/1994 
 
Response to Disturbance 
Plants are killed by fire when above ground parts are in active growth (April to October). Plants 
flower in the winter following a hot summer fire. 
Response to soil disturbance is unknown. 
Response to change in soil moisture is unknown. However, as the subspecies occurs in winter moist 
flats, the drying out of these areas is likely to have a negative affect. 
Response to weed invasion is unknown. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Unknown. 
Management Requirements 
70 

Resurvey and monitor populations periodically, particularly following summer fire. 
Search for further populations in areas of suitable habitat 
Avoid late autumn, winter and early spring burning of populations. 
Research Requirements 
Determine susceptibility to Phytophthora spp. 
Liaise with Botanic Gardens and Parks Authority staff over seed and mycelium collection and storage. 
References 
Hoffman and Brown (1992, 1998); Hopper and Brown (in press)  
 
Eriochilus scaber subsp. orbifolia ms 
 
71 

Eryngium sp. Lake Muir (E. Wittwer 2293) 
APIACEAE 
 
                         WAR F4/166 
Although originally placed with the eastern Eryngium vesiculosum this species has now been 
confirmed as a uniquely Western Australian taxon. It was, until relocated by Greg Keighery and Neil 
Gibson in 1997, known from a single collection made by Wittwer in 1980. Subsequently, two 
additional populations have been located.  
Description 
Eryngium sp. Lake Muir is a perennial near-prostrate herb to 150 mm with small leaves 100-150 mm 
long by 3-4 mm wide, each pinnatisect (three lobed), with lobes entire, terminating in sharp spines. 
The inflorescence is an ovoid to globular head-like umbel, 5-12 mm long by 5-8 mm wide, excluding 
the inner and outer bracts. Flowers are sessile, bisexual, pale green. The six to ten outer bracts are pale 
green, narrowly ovate, 3-18 mm long by 1-1.5 mm wide. The pungent inner bracts are similar but 
smaller.  
The species resembles a small thistle, with spiny bracts and flowers in globular heads. 
Eryngium sp. Lake Muir differs from Eryngium pinnatifidum in its narrower three lobed, rather than 
many lobed (pinnatifid) leaf, shorter and narrower floral bracts, green flowers and smaller stature. 
Flowering period: December-January 
Distribution and Habitat 
The species is known from the Lake Muir area, growing in winter wet saline grey clay flats, typically 
with Melaleuca cuticularis and often with another priority taxon, Apodasima ceramophila ms. 
Conservation Status 
 
Current: Priority 1 
Recommended: Priority 2  
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
 
No. of plants 
  
Last survey 
 
Comments/condition 
WAR 100 
Neeranup Rd. 
DON 
NP 
1000 
15/12/2003 
 
WAR 101 
Swamp Rd. 1 
DON 
NP 
50 
15/12/2003 
 
WAR 102 
Swamp Rd. 2 
 
DON NP  1000 
15/12/2003  
Response to Disturbance 
Response to fire is unknown. 
Response to soil disturbance is unknown. 
Response to change in soil moisture is unknown. 
Response to weed invasion is unknown. 
Response to change canopy is unknown. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Unknown. 
Management Requirements 
Conduct surveys in the Lake Muir/Unicup/Frankland area to determine the conservation status of the 
species. 
Obtain seed collections for storage at CALM’s Threatened Flora Seed Centre. 
Research Requirements 
Investigate the species’ response to disturbances and susceptibility to Phytophthora spp. 
72 

References 
None 
 
Eyrngium sp. Lake Muir 
 
73 

Hydatella australis Diels 
HYDATELLACEAE 
 
          WAR F4/142 
Hydatella australis was first collected in the Warren region in 1994 during fieldwork for this program. 
At that time it was placed with H. sessilis ms before returning to H. australis. Although searched for 
widely across the Region it has only been found in three locations. 
Description 
Hydatella australis is a tufted, annual, monoecious, emergent semiaquatic moss-like herb that grows 
in a reddish sward to 10 mm tall. Older plants have up to forty leaves, each filiform, terete to 13 mm 
long. Flowers develop in a sessile/sub-sessile or very short (to 1 mm) capitula that contains either 
male or female flowers. Fruit is smooth, hyaline. 
Some Trithuria species that are common in swamps in the area are also of a similar height and grow 
as reddish moss like swards, but differ in having male and female flowers on the same inflorescence 
and three ribbed fruit. 
Flowering period: September-November 
Distribution and Habitat 
The species is known from one extant population in the Warren Region, growing in a winter wet 
swamp in black clay, germinating and developing as the surface water recedes. 
Conservation Status 
Current: Priority 1 
Recommended: Priority 2 
Despite searching similar sites close to the known population and other suitable habitat widely across 
the region over two years, no further populations have been located. 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land 
status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
  
Last 
survey 
 
Comments/condition 
WAR 100 
Perup NR 
DON 
NR 
10,000+ 
11/10/1994 
 
WAR 101 
Yarnup NR 
DON 
NR 
<100 
10/1999 
 
WAR 102 
Kodjinup NR 
 
DON NR <500  10/1999  
Response to Disturbance 
The species is unlikely to be affected by fire in its known habitat. 
Response to soil disturbance is unknown, but the fragile nature of the habitat and the plants life cycle 
would indicate that any mechanical or other disturbance that changes the floor of the lake could be 
deleterious to the species. Field observation indicates the species germinates and completes its life 
cycle in the period between the presence of shallow water over its habitat and drying out in early 
summer. Changes to this regime could be deleterious to the species. Further clearing in the catchment 
may result in the creation of a permanent water body (a situation common in the area) and loss of the 
species. Drainage for salinity management could also be deleterious to the species.  
Response to weed invasion is unknown, but is probably deleterious to the species. 
Susceptibility to Phytophthora Dieback 
Unknown. 
Management Requirements 
Monitor disturbance in the area of populations, particularly for impacts of works on road shoulders 
above lake and, possible impacts of table drain overflow and erosion into the lake. Liaise with the 
Local Authority as required to protect the population from siltation. 
Search for further populations in areas of suitable habitat across the Region. 
74 

Research Requirements 
Determine susceptibility to Phytophthora spp. 
Investigate response to disturbance. 
References 
Gibson and Keighery (2000) 
 
Hydatella australis  
 
75 

Pentapogon quadrifidus (Labill.) Baill. var. quadrifidus 
POACEAE 
 
                         WAR F4/205 
Pentapogon quadrifidus is a monotypic species that is endemic to Australia. It was originally placed 
in the genus Agrostis and named A. quadrifida by Labillaridiere in 1805 from his collection “in capite 
Van-Diemen”. It was then moved into the genus Pentapogon  and submerged into P.  billardieri by 
Robert Brown in 1810 and was split into two varieties (billardieri and parviflorus) by Bentham in 
1878. It was moved into Stipa by Mueller in 1873 under several named forms and was finally 
reinstated as a species of Pentapogon by Baillon in 1893. Bentham’s var. parviflorus was reinstated 
by Morris in 1990. Pentapogon quadrifidus, which is known from several other Australian states, was 
discovered in WA by Terry Macfarlane, Rod Annels and Roger Hearn when investigating a site for 
other species in this program.  
Description 
Pentapogon quadrifidus is a loosely tufted annual or short-lived perennial to 0.7 m high. The leaf 
sheath encloses the culm and is striate, glabrous or pubescent with hairs about 0.5 mm long. The 
ligule is membranous, 1-2 mm long and subulate while the blade is tightly rolled, pilose with hairs to 
1 mm long with the flag usually glabrous. The inflorescence is a compact dense much branched 
panicle 3-15 cm long by up to 2.5 cm wide, exserted or enclosed in uppermost sheath with branches 
scabrous. Spikelets are narrow, gaping when mature, of 1 bisexual floret, disarticulating above the 
glumes. The rachis is scabrous. Glumes are unequal, lower 5-9 mm long, upper 6-10 mm long, keeled, 
aristate, with 2-4 short lateral nerves, margins membranous, glabrous, keel scabrous. The lemma is 
narrow, shorter than lower glume, 4-7 mm long, glabrous, 2-lobed, each lobe with 2 short slender 
curved slightly flattened, single nerved awns 3-4 mm long. The awn from the sinus is stout, twisted, 
geniculate, curved, 1.5-2.5 cm long, callus bearded with hairs about 1 mm long. The palea are 
awnless, glabrous. 
The var. parviflorus is not recorded in Western Australia and differs in the outer glumes being less 
than 4 mm long.  
It is possible that the Western Australian collections are a new variety or species. Key characters of 
this taxon, and those of Eastern States collections and descriptions that were not available at the time 
of preparing this report, need to be compared. 
Flowering period: Spring to summer 
Distribution and Habitat 
The species is known from South Australia, New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania with one 
population in Western Australia near Rocky Gully. Plants grow in winter wet low open woodlands.  
Conservation Status 
Current: Priority 1 
 
Known Populations in the Warren Region 
 
Pop. No. 
 
Location 
 
District 
 
Land status 
 
No. of 
plants 
 
  
Last survey 
 
Comments / 
condition 
CLM1 Rocky 
Gully 
 
FRA WR 
1000  23/11/1995 
 
Response to Disturbance 
Response to fire is unknown. 
Response to soil disturbance is unknown. 
Response to change in soil moisture is unknown. 
Response to weed invasion is unknown. 
Response to changes in canopy cover is unknown. 
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