Deferred Forest Area Report



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The following describes the system of classification, reservation and vesting which applies to lands, including forest lands, and waters managed by the Department of Conservation and Land Management.

CATEGORIES OF LAND MANAGED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION AND LAND MANAGEMENT


The CALM Act as amended in 1991 lists seven categories of land to which the legislation applies. These are: 

(i) State Forest


(ii) Timber Reserve
(iii) National Park
(iv) Conservation Park
(v) Nature Reserve
(vi) 5(g) Reserve
(vii) Miscellaneous Reserve 

In addition, the Department also manages land held freehold in the name of the Executive Director. 

Public participation in the management planning process is provided for, with a minimum two-month period during which written submissions will be considered. 

THE CONTROLLING BODIES AND THE DEPARTMENT


The proclamation of the Conservation and Land Management Act in 1985 established two controlling bodies (the National Parks and Nature Conservation Authority and the Lands and Forest Commission) in which land is vested. The Act also established the Department of Conservation and Land Management which is responsible for management of the land vested in the controlling bodies. 

The membership of the controlling bodies is representative of the many community interests associated with the lands vested in them. 


VESTING AND MANAGEMENT


State forests and timber reserves are vested in the Lands and Forest Commission (LFC). National parks, conservation parks and nature reserves are vested in the National Parks and Nature Conservation Authority (NPNCA). 5(g) Reserves and miscellaneous reserves may be vested in either body. 

The Department is responsible for management of lands vested in the Authority and the Commission. Management is carried out according to government policies, and as specified in management plans submitted by the controlling bodies and approved by the Minister for the Environment. 


Tenure


'Land tenure' is the term used to describe the form of right, or title to land. The two broad classes of land tenure are private land and Crown land. Crown lands which are managed by the Department fall into two broad categories: reserves and State forests. 

SECURITY OF TENURE OF LAND


In Western Australia, the security of tenure of Crown land reserves varies, depending upon whether the reserve is Class A, B or C. 

A Class reserve - tenure can be changed only by agreement of both Houses of the Western Australian Parliament.

B Class reserve - tenure can be changed by the Governor of Western Australia on the recommendation of the Minister, without approval by Parliament. However, the reasons for any change must be reported to Parliament by the Minister for Lands. 

C Class reserve - tenure can be changed by the Governor, on the recommendation of the Minister. However, any changes must be published in the Government Gazette.

This system therefore determines the degree of difficulty involved in changing the tenure of Crown land. 

Most national parks and nature reserves are A Class reserves. However, some national parks and nature reserves were given B or C Class status when they were created many years ago and this status has persisted. 

The security of tenure of State forest is the same as that of an A Class reserve. State forest is not a 'reserve', and therefore is not classed A, B or C. However, any change to the tenure of a State forest requires the agreement of both Houses of Parliament. 

Land for which no management plan exists is to be managed by the Department in accordance with the purpose of the land, as specified in section 56 of the Act. In the case of national parks, nature reserves and conservation parks which do not have a management plan, only necessary operations may be undertaken. These operations are defined as 'those that are necessary for the preservation or protection of persons, property, land, flora and fauna or for the preparation of a management plan'. 


TENURE CATEGORIES


The categories used for the classification of tenure are described in detail here. The descriptions have been compiled from the CALM Act, the three Forest Regional Management Plans of December 1987, the Forest Management Plan 1994-2003 and various management plan documents. 

In the following the terms Land Act (1933) reserve and Crown reserve are used interchangeably, and have the same meaning. Also the convention of capitalising the tenure categories has been adopted for emphasis and consistency and to avoid confusion with other interpretations, e.g. Timber Reserve under the CALM Act versus Land Act timber reserve (Crown reserve with purpose 'Timber'). 


(i) State Forest


Within the meaning of the CALM Act, land categorised as State Forest is Crown land reserved under the CALM Act which: 

 immediately before the commencement of the CALM Act was dedicated as a State Forest under the Forest Act 1918.. (On the proclamation of the CALM Act all of these lands were automatically vested in the Lands and Forest Commission.); 

 After the commencement of the CALM Act is reserved or set aside and vested in the LFC for the purpose of State Forest.; 

Vesting: Lands and Forest Commission.

Security: Identical to A Class Land Act (1933) reserves, in that the agreement of both Houses of Parliament is required before tenure can be changed. 

Management Purpose: One or more of the following purposes:

(a) conservation


(b) recreation
(c) timber production on a sustained yield basis
(d) water catchment protection
(e) other purpose prescribed by the regulations 

Identification: State Forest Number.

Established by: Forest Act (1918), superseded by CALM Act (1984). Amended (1991) 

Act Reference: Sections 5(a), 6(1)(c), 55 1(a).


(ii) Timber Reserve 


Within the meaning of the CALM Act, land categorised as Timber Reserve is Crown land which: 

 immediately before the commencement of the CALM Act was dedicated as a Timber Reserve under the Forest Act 1918. (On the proclamation of the CALM Act all of these lands were automatically vested in the Lands and Forest Commission); 

 after the commencement of the CALM Act is reserved or set aside and vested in the LFC for the purpose of Timber Reserve. 

Vesting: Lands and Forest Commission.

Security: Similar to C class. 

Management Purpose: One or more of the following purposes:

(a) conservation


(b) recreation
(c) timber production on a sustained yield basis
(d) water catchment protection
(e) other purpose prescribed by the regulations 

Identification: Forest Department (FD)/CALM timber reserve number.

Established by: Forest Act (1918), superseded by CALM Act (1984). Amended (1991) 

Act Reference: Sections 5(b),.6(2)(c), 55 1(a) 

Comment: Land Act (1933) land reserved for the purpose of 'Timber' and vested in the Executive Director is included under Miscellaneous Reserves.

(iii) National Park 


Within the meaning of the CALM Act, land categorised as National Park is land reserved under the Land Act (1933), which: 

 Immediately before the commencement of the CALM Act was a National Park under the National Parks Authority Act 1976.. (On the proclamation of the CALM Act all of these reserves were automatically vested in the National Parks and Nature Conservation Authority (NPNCA).) 

 After the commencement of the CALM Act is vested in the NPNCA for the purpose of National Park. 

Vesting: NPNCA.

Security: A, B or C Class. 



Management Purpose: Wildlife and landscape conservation, scientific study, preservation of features of archaeological, historic or scientific interest, together with recreational enjoyment by the public. 

Identification: By name (whether named 'officially' or otherwise) or by individual Crown Reserve(s) forming the National Park

Established by: Land Act (1933). 



Act Reference: Sections 5(c), 6(3)(c). 

Comment: The inclusion of the phrase 'National Park' in the name of a reserve does not imply a tenure of National Park within the meaning of the CALM Act. Examples of this are Crown Reserve 20215 which has a purpose of 'National Park' and vested in the Shire of Albany, and Crown Reserve 32601 which has a purpose of 'National Park and Historic Building' and jointly vested in the National Trust and the Executive Director of CALM.

(iv) Conservation Park 


Within the meaning of the CALM Act, land categorised as Conservation Park is land reserved under the Land Act (1933) which: 

 Is vested in the NPNCA for the purpose of Conservation Park.



Vesting: NPNCA.

Security: A or C Class. 

Management purposes: Identical to National Park

Identification: By name (whether named 'officially' or otherwise) or by individual Crown Reserve(s) forming the Conservation Park

Established by: Land Act (1933). 

Act Reference: Sections 5(ca), 6(4). 

Comment: Conservation Parks differ from National Parks only in their significance, size or condition. They are managed as if they were National Parks.. The difference is that these areas do not have major national or international significance, are relatively small, or the landscape or biota have been affected by past land use.

(v) Nature Reserve 


Within the meaning of the CALM Act, land categorised as Nature Reserve is land reserved under the Land Act (1933) which: 

 Immediately before the commencement of the CALM Act was a Nature Reserve under the Western Australian Wildlife Authority Act 1950 and vested in the Western Australian Wildlife Authority, either solely or jointly.

On the proclamation of the CALM Act all of these reserves were automatically vested, solely or jointly, in the National Parks and Nature Conservation Authority (NPNCA).

 After the commencement of the CALM Act is vested in the NPNCA for the purpose of Conservation of Flora or Fauna, or both Flora and Fauna.   

 On the proclamation of the CALM Amendment Act 1991 (amendment number 20 of 1991) was an unvested Nature Reserve under the Western Australian Wildlife Authority Act 1950. (These were automatically vested in the NPNCA.)

Vesting: National Parks and Nature Conservation Authority.

Security: A, B or C class. 

Management Purpose: Wildlife and landscape conservation, scientific study and preservation of features of archaeological, historic or scientific interest. 

Identification: By name (whether named 'officially' or otherwise) or by individual Crown Reserve(s) forming the Nature Reserve

Established by: Land Act (1933). 

Act Reference: Sections 5(d), 6(5)(c). 

Comment: 

(vi) 5(g) Reserve 


Within the meaning of the CALM Act, land categorised as 5(g) Reserve is land reserved under the Land Act (1933) which: 

 Is vested in the NPNCA or the Lands and Forest Commission (LFC) that is not a National Park, Conservation Park, Nature Reserve, Marine Park or Marine Nature Reserve.   

 Immediately before the commencement of the CALM Act, was vested in, or under the control and management of, the National Parks Authority but not as a National Park. (On the proclamation of the CALM Act all of these reserves were automatically vested in the National Parks and Nature Conservation Authority (NPNCA).)

Vesting: Lands and Forest Commission or National Parks and Nature Conservation Authority.

Security: Normally B or C class. 

Management Purposes: These reserves have a wide variety of purposes, but normally are related to recreation, wildlife conservation and historical features. As with Timber Reserves, this classification is often transitional, and on further evaluation the classification can be changed to a more appropriate one. 

Identification: Crown Reserve number. 

Established by: Land Act (1933). 

Act Reference: Section 5(g). 

Comment:

(vii) Miscellaneous Reserve 


Within the meaning of the CALM Act, land categorised as Miscellaneous Reserve is land reserved under the Land Act (1933) which: 

 Immediately before the commencement of the CALM Act was vested in a former departmental head or authority and is not covered by any of the classifications (i) to (vii). (On the proclamation of the CALM Act all of these reserves were automatically vested in the Executive Director.) 

 After the commencement of the CALM Act is vested in the Executive Director and is not a 5(g) Reserve.

Vesting: Executive Director.

Security: A, B or C Class. 



Management Purposes: Various 

Identification: Crown Reserve number. 

Established by: Land Act (1933). 

Act Reference: Sections 36, 38. 

Comment: 

RESERVE CLASSIFICATION AND IUCN MANAGEMENT CATEGORIES 


The management regimes for dedicated reserves in Western Australia described above may be equated to protected area management categories defined by the IUCN Commission for National Parks and Protected Areas (1994). 

The IUCN management categories relevant to the tenure and purpose of forest lands in Western Australia are Categories I, II, IV and VI defined as: 


Category I Strict Nature Reserve/Wilderness Area: protected areas managed mainly for science or wilderness protection: 


Areas of land and/or sea possessing some outstanding or representative ecosystems, geological or physiological feature and/or species, available primarily for scientific research and/or environmental monitoring. 

Large areas of unmodified land, or slightly modified land, or land and water, retaining their natural character influence, without permanent or significant habitation, which are protected and managed so as to preserve their natural condition. 


Category II National Park: protected area managed mainly for ecosystem protection and recreation: 


Natural area of land and/or sea, designated to: 

(a) protected the ecological integrity of one or more ecosystems for this and future generations; 

(b) exclude exploitation of occupation inimical to the purposes of designation of the area; and 

(c) provide a foundation for spiritual, all of which must be environmentally and culturally compatible. 


Category IV Habitat/Species Management Area: protected area managed mainly for conservation through management intervention: 


Area of land and/or sea subject to active intervention for management purposes so as to ensure the maintenance of habitats and/or to meet the requirements of specific species managed for the sustainable use of natural ecosystems. 

Category VI Managed Resources Protected Areas: 


Areas managed for the sustainable use of natural ecosystems. 

Table 1: - IUCN categorisation for forest lands in Western Australia


 Land Category (CALM Act)

 IUCN Category

 State forest

 VI

 Timber reserve 

 VI

 National park 

 II

 Conservation park 

 II

 Nature reserve 

 I

 5g reserve 

 II and VI 

 Miscellaneous reserve 

 I, II and VI

The area of 'formal reserves' quantified in the tables which follow in subsequent sections of this report include only I and II.

PRINCIPLES FOR 'INFORMAL' RESERVES TO BE INCLUDED IN A CAR FOREST RESERVE SYSTEM 


The Commonwealth Reserves Criteria Paper proposed a set of principles for the inclusion of forest reserves other than those in the 'dedicated' reserve system (IUCN categories I, II and IV). 

The criteria required for inclusion are: 

 they contain and are managed for conservation values which unequivocally contribute to the CAR system;    

 they have a sound basis in legislation (for example, management plans required under legislation);    

 there is the provision of opportunity for public comment on changes to reserve boundaries, and decisions on their establishment and alteration are politically accountable;    

 they are able to be accurately identified (on maps);    

 they are of sufficient area and adequate design to contribute to the continued viability of the values they seek to protect.

Some of these reserves could have flexible boundaries that might change over time to reflect forest dynamics and the effects of climate change but the conservation 'rules' that determine the area and vegetation type and structure required should remain constant. (Commonwealth of Australia, 1995) 

The National Forest Policy Statement (1992) defined 'Nature Conservation Reserves' as areas of publicly owned land, including forested land, managed primarily for nature conservation and providing multiple benefits and uses such as recreation and water catchments but excluding wood production. The riparian, diverse ecotype and travel route zones designated in south-west forests meet the NFPS definition. 

ANALYSIS OF HOW INFORMAL RESERVES MEET THE COMMONWEALTH'S CAR RESERVES CRITERIA


The Forest Management Plan 1994-2003 identifies three types of 'informal' reserves from which timber harvesting is excluded. Travel route zones, 200 metres to 400 metres wide along level 1 and level 2 travel routes; riparian zones 60 metres to 400 metres wide along all streams, valley headwaters and seepage areas; diverse ecotype zones around wetlands, heath, sedge, herb and woodland communities. 

It is impractical for these zones to be included as part of the dedicated reserve system because of the huge cost and difficulty of surveying the boundary of these sites for the purpose of gazettal. 


Conservation values which contribute to the CAR system


Riparian ecosystems (sites with high moisture and high nutrient status) have special importance for species richness and abundance in a range of vertebrate fauna (Wardell-Johnson et al., 1991). These sites provide a critical source of diversity within a forest system. 

Sites lowest in the topography are most valuable for the spectrum of bird species found in any particular forest type and include greater numbers of individuals than upland sites. Sites lowest in the landscape are also valuable for other vertebrate groups and for invertebrate conservation. Many known vulnerable species tend to be found only in lowland habitat and these sites need to be priority areas in wildlife conservation (CALM, 1992) 

In the karri forest, small mammals reach their highest numbers (species and individuals) in sites low in the topography (Christensen and Kimber, 1975). The water rate (Hydromys chrysogaster) and the quokka are most common in these sites. 

Endangered and threatened fauna that favour riparian habitat include Orange-bellied Frog, Chuditch, Western Ringtail Possum and White-bellied Frog. Species on the Western Australian list that favour riparian habitat include Southern Brown Bandicoot, Tammar Wallaby, Karri Minnow, Short-nosed Snake, Red-eared Firetail. 

Sites lowest in the profile are most valuable for the full spectrum of amphibians found in the karri forest including species restricted to these sites (e.g. the frog Geocrinia lutea; Wardell-Johnson and Roberts, 1991). All reptiles known in the karri forest also occur in stream zones including two that are most common there (Chelodina oblonga and Egernia luctuosa)

The aquatic invertebrate fauna of the karri forest is imperfectly known, but research in the jarrah forest in the south-west of Western Australia (Bunn, 1986; Bunn et al., 1986) suggest that 200-300 species of macro-invertebrate and a large number of smaller animals occur. Many of the species are endemic to Western Australia, and probably a considerable number including Gondwanan relicts are restricted to the karri forest. 

Eight species of native fish occur in karri forest streams, seven of which are endemic to south-western Australia. Shelter is important to most species of fish, largely because it provides refuge from the current, and they tend to congregate where log jams or changes in stream contour provide this. 

Informal reserves make an essential contribution to the adequacy of the total reserve system, which is essential for a reserve system which aims at a reservation level of 10-20 per cent. Informal reserves provide essential corridors and links between the dedicated reserve system areas. Historical evidence and observation indicates that informal reserves remain viable in the short-term, and rapid regrowth of areas adjacent to the reserves ensures that long-term viability is maintained. 

Retained linear strips of mature karri forest have been shown to provide very important nature conservation values. Wardell-Johnson and Williams (in press) showed a very slight and temporary reduction, attributable to timber harvesting, of the total detection of birds in narrow remnants versus sites near the edge of wide remnants. There was no significant impact on any individual species of bird. The retained mature forest had a strong positive effect on the bird community in the adjacent logged forest. The results demonstrated a slight and temporary negative edge effect on the bird community within the retained linear strip, which was more than balanced by a major positive edge effect on the bird community within the adjacent logged forest. 

Research has indicated that to be effective in protecting water quality, stream buffers should protect both permanent and ephemeral streams, including headwater seepage areas and spring heads, and should extend along the entire stream length (Borg et al. 1987; Borg et al. 1988; CALM, 1992). CALM's stream reserves are much wider than necessary for the protection of water quality and are designed for broad nature conservation values (CALM, 1988). 

Riparian zones also protect significant areas of old growth forest. Timber harvest prior to 1940 largely excluded stream zones because of the railway formation and extraction systems employed in logging. Riparian zones therefore contain a high proportion of their area as old growth forest. 

The variable minimum width of riparian zones according to stream order is presented in the table below: 



 Stream
Order

 Width either
side
(approx.) (m)

 Total width
(approx.)
(m)

 Minimum
width either 
side (m)













 First

 30

60

20 

 Second

 30

60 

20 

 Third

 30

60 

20

 Fourth

 75

150 

50

 Fifth

 200

400 

100 

 upwards 

 

 

 

The selection of the boundary of riparian zones requires field officers to identify and demarcate the distinctive riparian vegetation to be excluded from timber harvest. In many cases the width of the riparian zone is much (where it exists) wider than the minimum width prescribed according to stream order. Where stream terraces are identified, they are fully protected by the zone width. 

In addition to riparian zones, there are a large number of sites of exceptional importance because of habitat diversity. For example, areas of heathland, sedge and herb vegetation, rock outcrops, swamps, lakes, wetlands and woodland formations can have outstanding species richness (Hopper et al., 1992; Wardell-Johnson and Christensen, 1992). 

These sites often represent ecotones between major landscape features. Ecotonal features are known to be significant and valuable sites for wildlife conservation (Wardell-Johnson et al., 1991). 

Travel route zones which are between 100 metres and 200 metres wide and often several kilometres in length also provide for important nature conservation values. They are often representative of upland sites because of the tendency for major roads to be located on ridgelines. They also contain old growth forest values and habitat components such as hollows for birds and mammals which require them. These zones also provide corridors which link catchments. 

Informal reserves are critical for the conservation of floral biodiversity. Most rare flora species occur in informal reserves. Granite outcrops, diverse ecotypes and riparian areas are the prime habitats for these species (Kelly et al. 1990, Hopper et al. 1992). Three species of endangered flora and nine species of vulnerable flora occur in riparian areas within multiple use State forest. Riparian areas sample a very large range of both overstorey and understorey vegetation types and road reserves increase the representation of upland vegetation types (Havel 1975, Heddle et al. 1980, Strelein 1988). 

Much more variation occurs in riparian vegetation communities than in upland areas. To be comprehensive and representative it is therefore important that the reserve system has some bias towards riparian areas. 

Strips of retained forest are able to serve several roles which large blocks cannot (Taylor, 1990). By spreading the undisturbed forest over a wider area, more diverse types of habitat can be retained. A broader range of species can be catered for and their value in providing refuge will be maximised. This can be particularly important for invertebrate species with poor dispersal ability. Informal reserves provide old growth forest characteristics throughout the landscape. Nest sites are then provided close to feeding sites, and these areas provide sites from which rapid recolinisation of regrowth areas can occur. 

Harris and Scheck (1991) argue that a managed, interconnected system of protected areas that utilises movement corridors is better than a system of dispersed protected areas with no connected corridors. 

The nature conservation value of the riparian, diverse ecotype and travel route zones is enhanced by the sympathetic management of adjoining forest which is subject to timber harvest, but is also managed to preserve the extent of flora and fauna (Christensen, 1992). 

Nesting hollows are the principal nature conservation value of old growth forest. Recent studies have shown that logging of jarrah forest has had little impact on the availability of hollows. These studies have also shown that very few hollows are used, therefore, hollows are not a limiting factor for the fauna. 

The informal reserves require only minor variations to normal forest management to maintain the biological and old growth values that they protect. During timber harvest operations, entry of logging equipment is excluded from these zones, unless specifically authorised by a forest officer. Thinning and removal of dangerous trees is permitted in travel route zones. In most cases the riparian zones and diverse ecotype zones are kept free of fire when regeneration burning is carried out in adjacent coupes. 


Basis of legislation


The Conservation and Land Management Act as amended in 1991 requires that management plans will be prepared for indigenous State forests, specifying the purpose or combination of purposes to be one or more of the following: 

(a) conservation;


(b) recreation;
(c) timber production on a sustained yield basis;
(d) water catchment protection; or
(e) other purpose prescribed by the regulations. 

CALM's current Forest Management Plan (FMP) for south-west forests was approved by the Lands and Forest Commission and the Minister in accordance with the requirements of the Act. The security of purpose of the riparian zones, diverse ecotype zones and travel route zones which are specified in Chapter Two of the FMP has been addressed by Ministerial Conditions imposed by the Minister for the Environment under the requirements of the Environmental Protection Act (1986). The Minister has specified in Conditions 5 and 6 that these reserves shall remain unharvested in perpetuity and shall remain protected from timber harvesting and associated activities in perpetuity


Opportunity for public comment and political accountability for changes to reserve boundaries


The CALM Act specifies that draft management plans will be released for public comment for a minimum of two months. During the drafting of the FMP (1994-2003) a comprehensive program of seminars, public workshops and briefings to key stakeholders was implemented. The joint CALM/ AHC study of the national estate values in the Southern Forest Region, which was prepared concurrently with the FMP, was also released for public comment for a period of three months. The public submissions received on the Draft FMP were summarised, analysed and published. Many recommendations arising in public submissions were incorporated into the final FMP. 

CALM's FMP is also subject to the requirements of the EPA Act. The EPA Act provides for proponents to make reports available for public review and requires that proponents respond to submissions made to the Environmental Protection Authority. Reports by the Authority are released to the public and decisions by the Authority are subject to appeal. The implementation of proposals is subject to published conditions and subsequent audit and monitoring. CALM must report publicly on compliance with Ministerial Conditions applied to the FMP in 1997 and 2002. The EPA Act prescribes penalities for non-compliance. 


Identification on maps


The system of riparian zones, diverse ecotype zones and travel route zones is currently being digitised in CALM's Geographic Information System (GIS). This work has been completed for the Southern Forest Region and is well progressed for the Central Forest and Swan Regions. These zones can be depicted on maps at a variety of scales upon request. The zones are not routinely depicted on 1:50 000 maps sold to the public. 

The area of the informal reserves is as follows: 

Travel route zones 18 710 hectares
Riparian zones 152 175 hectares *
Diverse ecotype zones 200 000 hectares *

* Estimate only for Swan and Central Forest Regions (CALM, 1994)


Design and continued viability


The issue of size and contribution to nature conservation values has been discussed in the first principle above. The viability of the reserves has been monitored during the past 20 years. A system of road, river and stream reserves has been implemented in a different configuration for the past two decades. Timber harvest, including broadscale clearfelling in karri forest has been completed in many forest blocks up to 2000 hectares in size, where the only mature forest remaining exists in the road, river, stream and diverse ecotype reserves. There is no evidence that these reserves have suffered damage or decline which will affect their long term viability and ability to protect the nature conservation, hydrologic and aesthetic values they were designed for. Blocks such as Sutton, Brockman, Gray and Poole provide illustration as to the long term efficacy of the system of reserves in the south-west forests. 

The maintenance of the attributes for which the informal reserves have been set aside will be monitored as described in Chapter 4 of the FMP 1994-2003. 


Management protection through contracts, codes of practice and enforcement


The protection of travel route zones, riparian zones and diverse ecotype zones is specified in CALM's logging contracts (Contracts to Supply), 'Code of Logging Practice' and 'Manual of Logging Specifications'. Penalties apply for non-compliance. 

CALM has recently established a Management Audit Unit, which has a specific role to ensure that policies, procedures, prescriptions, and codes are applied as intended. 

The system of riparian zones, diverse ecotype zones and travel route zones in the State forests of Western Australia clearly meet the five Commonwealth criteria and will be included in the evaluation of a CAR reserve system in south-west forests. 

REFERENCES


CALM (1988). The road, river and stream zone system in the southern forest of Western Australia. A Review. Department of Conservation and Land Management. 

CALM (1992). Management Strategies for the South-West Forests of Western Australia. A Review. 

CALM (1994). Forest Management Plan 1994-2003. 

Commonwealth of Australia (1995). National Forest Conservation Reserves. Commonwealth Proposed Criteria. A Position Paper. 

Borg, H., King, P.D. and Loh, I.C. (1987). Stream and groundwater response to logging and subsequent regeneration in the southern forest of Western Australia. Interim results from paired catchment studies. Water Authority of Western Australia WH34. 

Borg, H., Hordacre, A. and Batini, F. (1988). Effects of logging in stream and river buffers on watercourses and water quality in the southern forest of Western Australia. Aust. For., 51:98-105. 

Bunn, S.E. (1986). Spatial and Temporal Variation in the Macro-Invertebrate Fauna of Streams of the Northern Jarrah Forest, Western Australia: Functional Organisation. Freshwater Biology 16:621-632. 

Bunn, S.E., Edward, D.H. and Loneragan, N.R. (1986). Spatial and Temporal Variation in the Macro-Invertebrate Fauna of Streams of the Northern Jarrah Forest, Western Australia: Community Structure. Freshwater Biology 16:67-91. 

Christensen, P.E.S. and Kimber, P.C. (1975). Effect of Prescribed Burning on the Flora and Fauna of South West Australian forests. Proc. Ecol. Soc. Aust. 9:85-106. 

Christensen, P.E.S. (1992). The Karri Forest, its Conservation Significance and Management. Dept. of Conservation and Land Management, Perth. 

Harris, L.D. and Scheck, J. (1991). From Implications to Applications: The Dispersal Corridor Principle Applied to the Conservation of Biological Diversity. In: Saunders, D.A. and Hobbs, R.J. (Eds.) Nature Conservation 2: The Role of Corridors. Surrey Beatty and Sons, Sydney, pp189-220. 

Havel, J.J. (1975). Site vegetation mapping in the northern jarrah forest (Darling Range). I. Definition of site vegetation types. Forests Department of Western Australia, Bulletin 86. 

Heddle, E.M., Loneragan, O.W. and Havel, J.J. (1980). Vegetation complexes of the Darling System, Western Australia. Atlas of Natural Resources Darling System, Western Australia. Department of Conservation and Environment, Western Australia. 

Hopper, S.D., Keighery, G.J. and Wardell-Johnson, G. (1992). Flora of the Karri Forest and Other Communities in the Warren Botanical Subdistrict of Western Australia. CALM Occasional Paper No. 2/92 pp1-34 (Pub.) Department of Conservation and land Management. 

Kelly, A.E., Coates, D.J., Herford, I., Hopper, S.D., O'Donoghue, J. and Robson, L. (1990). Declared rare flora and other plants in need of special protection in the Northern Forest Region. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Wildlife Management Program No. 5. 

Strelein, G.J. (1988). Site classification in the southern jarrah forest of Western Australia. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia. Research Bulletin 2. 

Wardell-Johnson, G. and Roberts, J.D. (1991). The Survival Status of the Geocrinia rosea (Anura: Myobatrachidae) Complex in Riparian Corridors: Biogeographical Implications. In: Saunders, D.A. and Hobbs, R.J. (Eds.) Nature Conservation 2: The Role of Corridors. pp167-75. 

Wardell-Johnson, G. and Christensen, P. (1992). The Effects of Forest Management Practices on the Flora and Fauna of the Warren Botanical Subdistrict. CALM Occasional Paper No. 2/92, pp33-57. (Pub.) Department of Conservation and Land Management, Western Australia. 

Wardell-Johnson, G., Hewett, P.J. and Woods, Y.C. (1991). Retaining Remnant Mature Forest for Nature Conservation. A Review of the System of Road, River and Stream Zones in the Karri Forest. Proceedings of a Seminar: A Review of Road, River and Stream Zones in South West Forests. Lands and Forest Commission, Perth, Western Australia. 

Wardell-Johnson, G. and Williams, M. (in press). Logging impacts on bird communities, south-western Australia. Comparing narrow and wide remnants of native karri forest.



Appendix 2: The conservation of threatened species
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