Depression (from lat. deprimo "push (down), suppress") — mental disorder, the main signs of which are reduced — depressed, depressed, sad, anxious, fearful or indifferent — mood and reduced or lost ability to have fun (anhedonia). Usually, some of the following symptoms are also present: reduced blood pressure. self-assessment, loss of interest in life and habitual activities, inadequate feeling guilty, pessimism, impaired concentration of attention, fatigue or lack of energy, sleep disorders and good appetite, suicidal actions trends. Severe forms of depression are characterized by the so-called "depressive triad": a decrease in mood, lethargy thinking skills and motor inhibition.
Depressive mood in some cases can be a normal temporary reaction to life events, such as the loss of a loved one. Depression can be a symptom of some somatic diseases and a side effect of certain medications and treatments; if the cause of depression is not obvious and the depressive disorder occurs without external influences, such depression is called endogenous. In some cases, a person who suffers from depression may begin to feel depressed. substance abuse.
For screening process various self-assessment tests are used for depression, such as Zang scale for self-assessment of depression, Beck's depression scale. The diagnosis of depression is determined by the doctor based on the diagnostic criteria of depressive disorder.
It is a type of affective disorders (disorders moods). Depression is treatable, but currently it is depression that is the most common mental disorder.
Many people believe that depression is a disease that has spread and acquired such great social significance only in our time and was not known before. But this is not true: depression has been known to doctors since antiquity. Even the famous ancient Greek physician Hippocrates described in detail under the name "melancholy" conditions that are very similar to our current definition of depression, and even recommended treatment within the capabilities of ancient medicine.
In particular, Hippocrates drew attention to the dependence of the condition of many depressed patients on the weather and time of year, the seasonal frequency of depression in many patients, and the improvement of the condition of some patients after a sleepless night. Thus, although he did not discover the therapeutic effect of sleep deprivation and sunlight (phototherapy), he was very close to it.
The Ebers Papyrus, one of the most important medical treatises of ancient Egypt, also contains a short description of depression. Although the information on the papyrus is full of ritual rituals and intricate recipes for exorcising disease-causing demons and other evil spirits, it also indicates a long empirical practice and observation.