Draft banksia Woodlands of the Swan Coastal Plain – Draft description and threats



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1.6 National context and other existing protection


This ecological community encompasses all of the ‘Shrublands and woodlands of the eastern Swan Coastal Plain’, a sub-community listed under the EPBC Act as Endangered in July 2000.

Relationships to State-listed ecological communities

The Banksia Woodlands ecological community includes three ecological communities on the state’s list of Threatened Ecological Communities, which is endorsed by the Western Australian Minister for the Environment. ‘Banksia attenuata woodlands over species rich dense shrublands’, ‘Banksia attenuata and/or Eucalyptus marginata woodlands of the eastern side of the Swan Coastal Plain’ and ‘Shrublands and woodland of the eastern side of the Swan Coastal Plain’ (also see Table 1).

This national ecological community draft description also relates to six Western Australian Priority Ecological Communities, a list of ecological communities that are either provisionally identified as threatened or require further survey effort (as determined by the WA Threatened Ecological Communities Scientific Committee).
Table 2. WA priority listed Banksia woodland ecological communities relating to the national ecological community draft description.

Community Name

Region

WA Category

Banksia ilicifolia woodlands, Southern Swan Coastal Plain

Swan

P2

Swan Coastal Plain Banksia attenuata – Banksia menziesii woodlands

Swan

P3

Low lying Banksia attenuata woodlands or shrublands

Swan and Southwest

P3

Southern Banksia attenuata woodlands

Southwest

P3

Banksia woodland of the Gingin area restricted to soils dominated by yellow to orange sands

Swan

P2

West Whicher Scarp Banksia attenuata woodland

Southwest

P1

Listed threatened flora and fauna species associated with the ecological community

As at March 2016, 66 flora and 15 fauna species that are listed nationally, or listed in Western Australia, may occur in the ecological community (see Appendix A – Species lists). They include 54 nationally listed threatened plant species and 15 nationally listed threatened animal species.


2. SUMMARY OF THREATS


The main ongoing threats to the Banksia dominated woodlands ecological community are:

  • Clearing and fragmentation (greatest threat) - including associated urban degradation/disturbance (e.g. rubbish dumping, uncontrolled vehicle access, wildflower and seed harvesting).

  • Mining for basic raw materials (road/building materials), mineral sands and silica sands (clearing and hydrological impacts)

  • Fire regime change (particularly increased fire frequency; prescribed burning during late autumn to late spring when plants are in active growth, flowering and seed development and animals are active)

  • Climate change (increasing temperatures, declining rainfall, changing rainfall timing)

  • Hydrological degradation (groundwater abstraction, eutrophication, soil acidification)

  • Invasive species

  • Dieback diseases (especially those caused by Phytophthora species)

  • Grazing (including overabundance of kangaroos particularly in peri-urban reserves)

  • Decline in pollinating and seed dispersing fauna

  • Loss of keystone Banksia species and fragmenting of nectar/pollen nutritional networks e.g. loss of Banksia ilicifolia in water drawdown areas.

See Appendix B – Detailed description of threats, for further details.



3. SUMMARY OF ELIGIBILITY AGAINST LISTING CRITERIA


It is recommended that the Banksia Woodlands ecological community merits listing as Endangered, based on initial assessment of data.

It has undergone a substantial to severe decline of at least 60% across the entire Swan Coastal Plain and 67% for the plain south of the Moore River.

The ecological community has transformed in nature from being almost continuous across the plain, to now becoming very highly fragmented with the majority of patches (more than 80%) now less than ten hectares in area. The median patch size has reduced from an estimated pre-European value of 335 ha to a current size of only 1.6 ha.

There are ongoing threats to the ecological community, most notably from clearing for urban development, but also due to weed invasion, groundwater extraction, loss of fauna, dieback disease and potential impacts from climate change. These are reducing the integrity of the ecological community and its capacity for survival into the future.


APPENDICES



Appendix A – Species lists


Table 3: Listed threatened flora species that are known or likely to occur in the Banksia Woodlands of the Swan Coastal Plain ecological community.

CR = Critically endangered, EN = Endangered, VU = Vulnerable.



Note: Highlighted species are noted as unlikely to occur in Banksia Woodlands. Please provide comments on these and any other species that should be deleted, or added.

Scientific Name

Common Name

EPBC Status

WA Status

Endemic to the Ecological community

Acacia anomala

grass wattle

VU

VU

Yes

Acacia aphylla

leafless rock wattle

VU

VU

Yes

Acacia brachypoda

western wheatbelt wattle

EN

VU

No

Acacia chapmanii subsp. australis




EN

EN

No

Andersonia gracilis

slender andersonia

EN

VU

No

Anigozanthos viridis subsp. terraspectans

dwarf green kangaroo paw

VU

VU

No

Anthocercis gracilis

slender tailflower

VU

VU

Yes

Asterolasia nivea

Bindoon starbush

VU

VU

Yes

Banksia aurantia

orange dryandra

CR

VU

Yes

Banksia mimica

summer honeypot

EN

VU

No

Caladenia dorrienii

cossack spider-orchid

EN

EN

No

Caladenia huegelii

king spider-orchid

EN

CR

No

Caladenia sp. Quindanning

Quindanning spider-orchid

Not listed

CR

No

Calytrix breviseta subsp. breviseta

swamp starflower

EN

CR

Yes

Chamelaucium sp. Gingin

Gingin wax

EN

VU

Yes

Chorizema varium

limestone pea

EN

EN

Yes

Conospermum undulatum

wavy-leaved smokebush

VU

VU

Yes

Darwinia acerosa

fine-leaved darwinia

EN

EN

No

Darwinia apiculata

scarp darwinia

EN

EN

Yes

Darwinia ferricola

Scott River darwinia

EN

EN

Yes

Dasymalla axillaris

native foxglove

CR

CR

No

Diplolaena andrewsii




Not listed

VU

Yes

Diuris drummondii

tall donkey orchid

VU

VU

No

Diuris micrantha

dwarf bee orchid

VU

VU

No

Diuris purdiei

Purdie's donkey orchid

EN

EN

No

Drakaea elastica

glossy-leafed hammer orchid

EN

CR

No

Drakaea micrantha

dward hammer orchid

VU

EN

No

Eleocharis keigheryi

Keighery's eleocharis

VU

VU

No

Eremophila glabra subsp. chlorella




Not listed

CR

No

Eucalyptus argutifolia

Wabling Hill mallee

VU

VU

No

Eucalyptus balanites

Cadda Road mallee

EN

CR

No

Frankenia conferta

silky frankenia

EN

VU

No

Goodenia arthrotricha




Not listed

EN

No

Grevillea althoferorum subsp. fragilis




Not listed

CR

Yes

Grevillea bracteosa subsp. bracteosa




Not listed

EN

No

Grevillea christineae

Christine's grevillea

EN

EN

No

Grevillea corrugata




EN

VU

Yes

Grevillea curviloba subsp. curviloba

curved-leaf grevillea

EN

CR

Yes

Grevillea curviloba subsp. incurva

narrow curved-leaf grevillea

EN

EN

Yes

Grevillea flexuosa

zig zag grevillea

VU

VU

Yes

Hypocalymma sylvestre




Not listed

CR

Yes

Lasiopetalum pterocarpum

wing-fruited lasiopetalum

EN

CR

Yes

Lechenaultia laricina

scarlet leschenaultia

EN

VU

No

Lepidosperma rostratum

beaked lepidosperma

EN

EN

Yes

Leucopogon sp. Flynn




Not listed

CR

Yes

Macarthuria keigheryi

Keighery's macarthuria

EN

EN

No

Marianthus paralius




Not listed

CR

Yes

Paracaleana dixonii

sandplain duck orchid

EN

VU

No

Ptilotus pyramidatus

pyramid mulla-mulla

CR

CR

Yes

Ptychosema pusillum

dwarf pea

VU

VU

No

Pultenaea pauciflora

Narrogin pea

VU

VU

No

Spirogardnera rubescens

spiral bush

EN

VU

No

Stylidium semaphorum




Not listed

CR

Yes

Synaphea sp. Fairbridge Farm

Selena's synaphea

CR

CR

Yes

Synaphea sp. Pinjarra

club-leafed synaphea

CR

CR

Yes

Synaphea sp. Pinjarra Plain




Not Listed

CR

Yes

Synaphea sp. Serpentine




Not listed

CR

No

Synaphea stenoloba

dwellingup synaphea

EN

CR

Yes

Tetraria australiensis

southern tetraria

VU

VU

No

Thelymitra dedmaniarum

cinnamon sun orchid

EN

CR

Yes

Thelymitra stellata

star sun orchid

EN

EN

No

Thomasia glabripetala

sandplain thomasia

VU

VU

Yes

Tribonanthes purpurea

granite pink

VU

VU

No

Trithuria occidentalis

swan hydatella

EN

CR

Yes

Verticordia fimbrilepis subsp. fimbrilepis

shy featherflower

EN

VU

No

Verticordia plumosa var. ananeotes

tufted plumed featherflower

EN

CR

No

Table 4: Listed threatened fauna species that are known or likely to occur in the Banksia Woodlands of the Swan Coastal Plain ecological community (EC).

CR = Critically endangered, EN = Endangered, VU = Vulnerable.



Please provide comments on any other species that should be deleted from, or added to, this list.

Scientific name

Common name

EPBC Act status

WA status

Endemic to the EC

Mammals













Bettongia penicillata ogilbyi

woylie

EN

CR

No

Dasyurus geoffroii

chuditch, western quoll

VU

VU

No

Myrmecobius fasciatus

numbat

VU

VU

No

Petrogale lateralis lateralis

black-flanked rock-wallaby

VU

VU

No

Phascogale tapoatafa

brush-tailed phascogale, wambenger

Not listed

VU

No

Pseudocheirus occidentalis

western ringtail possum

VU

VU

No

Setonix brachyurus

quokka

VU

VU

No































Birds













Calyptorhynchus baudinii

Baudin’s cockatoo

VU

EN

No

Calyptorhynchus latirostris

Carnaby’s cockatoo

EN

EN

No

Calyptorhynchus banksii naso

forest red-tailed black cockatoo

VU

VU

No

Atrichornis clamosus

noisy scrub-bird

VU

EN

No

Botaurus poiciloptilus

Australasian bittern

EN

EN

No

Cacatua pastinator pastinator

Muir’s corella

VU

Other - specially protected fauna

No

Falco peregrinus

peregrine falcon

Not listed

Other - specially protected fauna

No

Leipoa ocellata

malleefowl

VU

VU

No

Reptiles













Aspidites ramsayi

woma

Not listed

Other - specially protected fauna

No

Morelia spilota imbricata

carpet python

Not listed

Other - specially protected fauna

No

Insects













Leioproctus douglasiellus

A short- tongued bee

CR

EN

Yes

Neopasiphae simplicior

A native bee

CR

EN

Yes


Table 6: Listed WA priority fauna species that are known or likely to occur in the Banksia Woodlands of the Swan Coastal Plain ecological community (EC).

P1 = Priority 1: Poorly-known species (on threatened lands); P2 = Priority 2: Poorly-known species (some on conservation lands); P3 = Priority 3: Poorly-known species (some on conservation lands); P4 = Priority 4: Rare, Near Threatened and other species in need of monitoring.



Scientific name

Common name

WA status

Endemic to the EC

Mammals










Falsistrellus mackenziei

western false pipistrelle

P4

No

Hydromys chrysogaster

water-rat, rakali

P4

No

Isoodon obesulus fusciventer

quenda

P4

No

Macropus eugenii derbianus

tammar wallaby

P4

No

Macropus irma

western brush wallaby

P4

No

Birds










Burhinus grallarius

bush stonecurlew

P4

No

Falcunculus frontatus leucogaster

crested shrike-tit (southwestern subspecies)

P4

No

Ninox connivens connivens

barking owl (southwestern population)

P2

No

Tyto novaehollandiae novaehollandiae

masked owl (southwestern subspecies)

P3

No

Reptiles










Acanthophis antarcticus

southern death adder

P3

No

Ctenotus delli

Dell's skink

P4

No

Ctenotus gemmula (SCP pop.)

jewelled southwest skink

P3

Yes

Ctenotus ora

coastal plains skink

P1

No

Lerista lineata

lined skink

P3

Yes

Neelaps calonotos

black-striped snake

P3

No

Insects










Austroconops mcmillani

a biting midge

P2

Yes

Austrosaga spinifer

cricket

P3

No

Hylaeus globuliferus

bee

P3

No

Leioproctus bilobatus

bee

P2

No

Leioproctus contrarius

bee

P3

Yes

Synemon gratiosa

graceful sunmoth

P4

Yes

Throscodectes xiphos

cricket

P1

Yes

Trichosternus relictus

beetle

P1

No

Arbanitis inornatus

trapdoor spider

P1

No



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