Ecological Site Description Ecological Site Characteristics Site Identification



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Understory species canopy cover under a range of overstory canopy covers in State 1, Plant Community 1, Native Dry Forest.

Common Name

Scientific Name

Understory Species Canopy Cover as a function of Overstory Canopy Cover

Overstory Canopy Cover Percent

50

70

90

`ulei

Osteomeles anthyllidifolia

20

10

5

`a`ali`i

Dodonaea viscosa

20

5

1

`akia

Wikstroemia sp.

5

5

1

pukiawe

Styphelia tameiameiae

5

1

1

naupaka kahakai

Scaevola sericea

20

5

tr





State 1, Plant Community 1, Native Dry Forest plant community. A few alien ferns are present.



State 2 – Mixed Alien/Native Forest

This state is comprised of one plant community. The general aspect is a forest with an open to closed upper canopy of alien trees 50 to 80 feet tall, a secondary canopy of native trees 8 to 30 feet tall, and a mixed understory of mostly alien shrubs, vines, ferns, and grasses. Native species, particularly `alahe`e and pandanus, are able to reproduce to some extent. Unlike Native Dry Forest, Mixed Alien/Native Forest usually contains a fairly dense understory of alien shrubs, grasses, and ferns that is very susceptible to fire.


Pathways from this state

To State 1, Native Dry Forest, via “B&C&K”:

B = ungulate exclusion; C = weed control; K = native plant restoration.

A plant community resembling Native Dry Forest may be restored from Mixed Alien/Native Forest. Ungulates must be fenced out and eliminated. Alien plant species must be removed; this may be difficult on sites that have developed a canopy of large alien trees. Missing native plant species may then be restored to the site.
To State 3, Alien Forest, via “D&J”:

D = lack of native plant regeneration; J = feral ungulate foraging.

Mixed Alien/Native Forest gradually becomes Alien Forest through lack of regeneration of most native plant species, vigorous growth of alien species, and feral ungulate foraging that impacts mostly the remaining native plants.
To State 4, Alien Weedy Meadow, via “E”:

E = fire.



Mixed Alien/Native Forest very quickly converts to Alien Weedy Meadow when burned.
Composite representation of State 2, Plant Community 2, Mixed Alien/Native Forest.

Scientific name

%Canopy cover by height class (ft)

Total Cover


Local

common name


NRCS

common name

Origin

Type


NRCS

Code

0.1 -

2

2.1 -

4.5

4.6 -

13

13.1 -

40

40.1 -

80

80.1 -

120

Metrosideros polymorpha










1

1




1

'ohi'a lehua

'ohi'a lehua

n

t

MEPO5

Psydrax odoratum

tr

1

1

1







1

alahe`e

alahe`e

n

t

CAOD2

Pandanus tectorius

tr

tr

1

1







1

pandanus

Tahitian screwpine

n

t

PATE2

Diospyros sandwicensis







tr

1







1

lama

lama

n

t

DISA10

Aleurites moluccana










tr







tr

kukui

Indian walnut

a

t

ALMO2

Casuarina equisetifolia

tr

tr

tr

1

1




1

ironwood

beach sheoak

a

t

CAEQ

Cecropia obtusifolia

tr

1

1

10







10

trumpet tree

trumpet tree

a

t

CEOB

Clusia rosea










1







1

autograph tree

scotch attorney

a

t

CLRO

Falcataria moluccana

tr

1

1

1

1




1

albizia

peacocksplume

a

t

FAMO

Leucaena leucocephala







1










1

koa haole

white leadtree

a

t

LELE10

Mangifera indica










1

1




1

mango

mango

a

t

MAIN3

Psidium cattleianum

1

5

40

10







50

waiawi

strawberry guava

a

t

PSCA

Psidium guajava







1










1

common guava

guava

a

t

PSGU

Schefflera actinophylla

tr

1

1

10

10




20

octopus tree

octopus tree

a

t

SCAC2

Schinus terebinthifolius

1

1

5

10







10

christmasberry

Brazilian peppertree

a

t

SCTE

Syzygium cumini

1

1

5

1

1







Java plum

Java plum

a

t

SYCU

Trema orientale







1

10

1




10

gunpowder tree

oriental trema

a

t

TROR

Lantana camara

tr

1













1

lantana

lantana

a

s

LACA2

Pluchea carolinensis

tr

1













1

sourbush

cure for all

a

s

PLCA10

Wikstroemia sp.







1










1

`akia

false ohelo

n

s

WIKST

Spathoglottis plicata

tr
















tr

Philippine ground orchid

Philippine ground orchid

a

h

SPPL

Cocculus orbiculatus

1
















1

huehue

queen coralbead

n

v

COOR11

Paederia foetida

5
















5

paederia

stinkvine

a

v

PAFO3

Psilotum nudum

tr
















tr

moa nahele

flatfork fern

n

f

PSCO3

Blechnum appendiculatum

1
















1

blechnum fern

hammock fern

a

f

BLOC

Nephrolepis multiflora

10
















10

scaly swordfern

scaly swordfern

a

f

NEHI

Phlebodium aureum

1
















1

laua`e haole

golden polypody

a

f

PHAU6

Phymatosorus grossus

5
















5

maile-scented fern

 

a

f

PHGR21

Melinis minutiflora

1
















1

molassesgrass

molassesgrass

a

g

MEMI2

Andropogon virginicus

1
















1

broomsedge

broomsedge bluestem

a

g

ANVI2

Schizachyrium condensatum

1
















1

beardgrass

Colombian bluestem

a

g

SCCO10

Grasslike

1
















1

 

 

 

 

 

Native Forbs






















 

 

 

 

 

Exotic Forbs

1
















1

 

 

 

 

 

Native Vines/Epiphytes

1
















1

 

 

 

 

 

Exotic Vines

5
















5

 

 

 

 

 

Small ferns

10
















10

 

 

 

 

 

Native Shrubs







1










1

 

 

 

 

 

Exotic Shrubs

tr

1

1










1

 

 

 

 

 

Native Trees

tr

1

1

1

1




1

 

 

 

 

 

Tree ferns (native)






















 

 

 

 

 

Exotic Trees & tree ferns

1

5

40

40

10




80

 

 

 

 

 

Lichen






















 

 

 

 

 

Moss (on ground & logs)

1
















1

 

 

 

 

 

Moss (on trees)

tr
















tr

 

 

 

 

 

Logs on ground (>4" dia.)

1
















1

 

 

 

 

 

Litter (not logs)

70
















70

 

 

 

 

 
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