State 1, Plant Community 1, Native Dry Forest plant community. A few alien ferns are present.
State 2 – Mixed Alien/Native Forest
This state is comprised of one plant community. The general aspect is a forest with an open to closed upper canopy of alien trees 50 to 80 feet tall, a secondary canopy of native trees 8 to 30 feet tall, and a mixed understory of mostly alien shrubs, vines, ferns, and grasses. Native species, particularly `alahe`e and pandanus, are able to reproduce to some extent. Unlike Native Dry Forest, Mixed Alien/Native Forest usually contains a fairly dense understory of alien shrubs, grasses, and ferns that is very susceptible to fire.
B = ungulate exclusion; C = weed control; K = native plant restoration.
A plant community resembling Native Dry Forest may be restored from Mixed Alien/Native Forest. Ungulates must be fenced out and eliminated. Alien plant species must be removed; this may be difficult on sites that have developed a canopy of large alien trees. Missing native plant species may then be restored to the site.
To State 3, Alien Forest, via “D&J”:
Mixed Alien/Native Forest gradually becomes Alien Forest through lack of regeneration of most native plant species, vigorous growth of alien species, and feral ungulate foraging that impacts mostly the remaining native plants.
To State 4, Alien Weedy Meadow, via “E”:
E = fire.
Mixed Alien/Native Forest very quickly converts to Alien Weedy Meadow when burned.
Composite representation of State 2, Plant Community 2, Mixed Alien/Native Forest.