Ecological Site Description Ecological Site Characteristics Site Identification



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Composite representation of State 2, Plant Community 2, Mixed Native/Alien Forest.

Scientific name

%Canopy cover by height class (ft)

Total Cover


Local

common name


NRCS

common name

Origin

Type


NRCS

Code

0.1 -

2

2.1 -

4.5

4.6 -

13

13.1 -

40

40.1 -

80

80.1 -

120

Blechnum appendiculatum

10
















10

blechnum fern

hammock fern

a

f

BLOC

Thelypteris parasitica

10
















10

 christella

 parasitic maiden fern

a

f

THPA4

Deparia petersenii

10
















10

 

Japanese false spleenwort

a

f

DEPE3

Nephrolepis multiflora

10
















10

scaly swordfern

scaly swordfern

a

f

NEHI

Phlebodium aureum

5
















5

laua`e haole

golden polypody

a

f

PHAU6

Oplismenus hirtellus

1
















1

basketgrass

bristle basketgrass

a

g

OPHI

Grasslike

1
















1

 

 

 

 

 

Native Forbs

tr
















tr

 

 

 

 

 

Exotic Forbs

1
















1

 

 

 

 

 

Native Vines/Epiphytes

20
















20

 

 

 

 

 

Exotic Vines

5
















5

 

 

 

 

 

Small ferns

40
















40

 

 

 

 

 

Native Shrubs

tr

tr

tr










tr

 

 

 

 

 

Exotic Shrubs

1

20

20










40

 

 

 

 

 

Native Trees

1

1

1

20

40

10

50

 

 

 

 

 

Tree ferns (native)




tr

30

1







30

 

 

 

 

 

Exotic Trees & tree ferns

1

1

1

20







20

 

 

 

 

 

Lichen






















 

 

 

 

 

Moss (on ground & logs)

20
















20

 

 

 

 

 

Moss (on trees)

40
















40

 

 

 

 

 

Logs on ground (>4" dia.)

5
















5

 

 

 

 

 

Litter (not logs)

70
















70

 

 

 

 

 

Surface rocks (>3" dia.)

1
















1

 

 

 

 

 

Surface rocks (<3" dia.)

tr
















tr

 

 

 

 

 

Bare Soil

5
















5

 

 

 

 

 


Understory species canopy cover under a range of overstory canopy covers in Plant Community 2, Mixed Native/Alien Forest.

Common Name

Scientific Name

Understory Species Canopy Cover as a function of Overstory Canopy Cover

Overstory Canopy Cover Percent

50

70

90

albizia

Falcataria moluccana

10

1

tr

bingabing

Macaranga mappa

5

5

5

miconia

Miconia calvescens

5

5

5

melastoma

Melastoma candidum

20

10

5

Koster’s curse

Clidemia hirta

20

10

5

scaly swordfern

Nephrolepis multiflora

30

10

5





State 2, Plant Community 2, Mixed Native/Alien Forest plant community. A partially cleared experimental site with native ohia trees and `ie`ie vines and dense alien undergrowth.



STATE 3 – Alien Forest

Plant Community 3

This state consists of one plant community dominated by alien species in both the overstory and understory. Some tall ohia trees may persist for a long time, and a few native species including kopiko, tree ferns, pandanus, and bird’s nest ferns are able to reproduce and maintain low populations. The diversity of weedy trees, shrubs, vines, ferns, and herbs is high. The alien species present on different sites varies, but strawberry guava, melastoma, Koster’s curse, and albizia are usually present. Albizia rapidly grows very tall and is able to overtop all other trees. Ironwood trees are more common near the coast. Miconia and bingabing are able to grow in dense shade and may become codominant with strawberry guava.


Pathways from this state/plant community

To State 4, Grassland, via “G&H”:

G = land clearing; H = pasture establishment.



Alien Forest can be converted to Grassland by clearing the forest with heavy machinery and planting desirable pasture species. On shallow soils over lava substrates, underlying lava rock often is ripped and crushed by heavy machinery. Ripping and crushing produces some fine mineral particles and small, abundant gaps between the rock fragments. When this is done on organic soils, about 50% of the soil organic matter may be lost in the process due to exposure to air and higher temperatures.
Composite representation of State 3, Plant Community 3, Alien Forest.

Scientific name

%Canopy cover by height class (ft)

Total Cover


Local

common name


NRCS

common name

Origin

Type


NRCS

Code

0.1 -

2

2.1 -

4.5

4.6 -

13

13.1 -

40

40.1 -

80

80.1 -

120

Metrosideros polymorpha










1

10




10

'ohi'a lehua

'ohi'a lehua

n

t

MEPO5

Psychotria sp.

tr

1

1

5







5

kopiko

wild coffee

n

t

PSYCH

Pandanus tectorius

1

1

1

1







1

pandanus

Tahitian screwpine

n

t

PATE2

Diospyros sandwicensis










1

tr




1

lama

lama

n

t

DISA10

Cibotium glaucum




1

1










1

hapu`u

hapu`u

n

tf

CIGL

Angiopteris evecta

tr

tr

tr










tr

mule's foot fern

Oriental vessel fern

a

tf

ANEV

Falcataria moluccana

tr

tr

1

10

1

1

10

falcataria

peacocksplume

a

t

FAMO

Cecropia obtusifolia

tr

tr

1

1







1

trumpet tree

trumpet tree

a

t

CEOB

Macaranga mappa

tr

tr

1

1







1

bingabing

pengua

a

t

MAMA28

Aleurites moluccana










1







1

kukui

Indian walnut

a

t

ALMO2

Archontophoenix alexandrae







1

1







1

Alexandrian palm

Alexandra palm

a

t

ARAL

Melaleuca quinquinervia










1







1

paperbark

punktree

a

t

MEQU

Melochia umbellata







tr










tr

melochia

hierba del soldado

a

t

MEUM3

Schefflera actinophylla

tr

tr

1

1

1




1

octopus tree

octopus tree

a

t

SCAC2

Syzygium cumini

tr

tr

1

1







1

Java plum

Java plum

a

t

SYCU

Syzygium jambos

tr

tr

1

1







1

rose apple

Malabar plum

a

t

SYJA

Trema orientale

tr

tr

tr

1

1




1

gunpowder tree

oriental trema

a

t

TROR

Psidium cattleianum

1

10

20

30







50

waiawi

strawberry guava

a

t

PSCA

Psidium guajava







1










1

common guava

guava

a

t

PSGU

Miconia calvescens

tr

tr

1

tr







1

miconia

velvet tree

a

t

MICA20

Casuarina equisetifolia

tr

tr

tr

1

1




1

ironwood

beach sheoak

a

t

CAEQ

Melastoma candidum

1

10

20










30

melastoma

Asian melastome

a

s

MECA9

Clidemia hirta

1

10













10

Koster's curse

soapbush

a

s

CLHI3

Cocculus orbiculatus

tr
















tr

huehue

queen coralbead

n

v

COOR11

Freycinetia arborea

1
















1

`ie`ie

`ie`ie

n

v

FRAR

Dioscoria pentaphylla

tr
















1

pi`a

fiveleaf yam

a

v

DIPE2

Epipremnum pinnatum

1
















1

pothos vine

centipede tongavine

a

v

EPPI

Paederia foetida

1
















1

paederia

stinkvine

a

v

PAFO3

Passiflora mollissima

tr
















tr

banana poka

banana passionflower

a

v

PAMO5

Rubus rosifolius

1
















1

thimbleberry

West Indian raspberry

a

v

RURO

Dissotis rotundifolia

1
















1

 

pinklady

a

h

DIRO2

Hedychium gardnerianum

1

1













1

kahili ginger

Kahila garland-lily

a

h

HEGA

Spathoglottis plicata

1

1













1

Philippine ground orchid

Philippine ground orchid

a

h

SPPL

Asplenium nidus

tr

1













1

bird's nest fern

Hawai`i birdnest fern

n

f

ASNI

Dicranopteris linearis

tr
















tr

uluhe

Old World forkedfern

n

f

DILI

Elaphoglossum crassifolium

tr
















tr

stag's tongue, `ekaha

royal tonguefern

n

f

ELCR2

Lycopodiella cernua

tr
















tr

clubmoss

staghorn clubmoss

n

f

LYCE2

Psilotum nudum

tr
















tr

moa

whisk fern

n

f

PSNU

Pteris cretica

tr
















tr

`oali

Cretan brake

n

f

PTCR2

Sphenomeris chinensis

tr
















tr

pala`a

Chinese creepingfern

n

f

ODCH

Vandenboschia sp.

tr
















tr

vandenboschia

vandenboschia

n

f

VANDE

Blechnum appendiculatum

5
















5

blechnum fern

hammock fern

a

f

BLOC

Thelypteris parasitica

10
















10

 

 parasitic maiden fern

a

f

THPA4

Deparia petersenii

10
















10

 

Japanese false spleenwort

a

f

DEPE3

Nephrolepis multiflora

10
















10

scaly swordfern

scaly swordfern

a

f

NEHI

Phlebodium aureum

5
















5

laua`e haole

golden polypody

a

f

PHAU6

Setaria palmifolia

1
















1

palmgrass

palmgrass

a

g

SEPA6
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