Ecological Site Description Ecological Site Characteristics Site Identification



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S
tate 3, Plant Community 3, Alien Forest. This example is near the coast. The overstory is mostly ironwood, although octopus trees are now becoming part of the overstory. Bingabing trees are present. The understory is dominated by scaly swordfern and paederia vine.





STATE 4 - Grassland

This state consists of two plant communities. These plant communities arise from clearing forests and planting introduced pasture grasses. Continuous grazing weakens desired species relative to undesired species, resulting in weedy pastures with reduced capacity to produce forage.


Pathways from this state

To State 5 – Alien Weedy Meadow, via “I or K”:

I = continuous grazing; K = pasture abandonment.

Grassland degrades to Weedy Pasture by long-term continuous grazing. Remnant desirable forages are grazed out and replaced entirely by weedy grasses, forbs, shrubs, and small trees.



Plant Community 4 – Humid Mid-Grassland

Dominant grass species in this plant community are nutritious and preferred by cattle. Desired pasture grasses are pangolagrass, Baron’s grass, limpograss, and Californiagrass, in mixture with desmodium legume species. Dominance of desired forage species is maintained by prescribed grazing techniques that allow desired species time to recover from grazing and trampling, but includes periods of grazing of sufficient intensity to suppress invasion of weedy shrubs and trees. Invasion by weedy beardgrass and broomsedge is minimized by liming and mowing.


Pathways from this plant community

To Plant Community 5, Weedy Humid Mid-Grassland, via “I”:

I = continuous grazing.

Poor Condition Pasture degrades to Weedy Pasture by long-term continuous grazing. Remnant Californiagrass, pangolagrass, and forage legumes are grazed out and replaced entirely by low-value forage grasses. Weedy forbs and shrubs such as Koster’s curse, sourbush (hairy fleabane), and tarweed begin to increase.
Composite representation of State 4, Plant Community 4, Humid Mid-Grassland.

This list of plants and their relative proportions are based on near-normal years. Fluctuations in species composition and relative production may change from year to year depending upon precipitation or other climatic factors.



Common/Group Name

Scientific Name

Symbol

Functional Group

lbs./acre

% Comp

GRASSES

Naturalized Warm Season Mid-Grasses

 

1

2550-3000

85-100

Californiagrass

Urochloa mutica

URMU

1

2550-3000

45-100

pangolagrass

Digitaria eriantha

DIER

1

2550-3000

45-100

Baron's grass

Ischaemum digitatum

 

1

2550-3000

45-100

limpograss

Hemarthria altissima

 

1

2550-3000

45-100

Wainakugrass

Panicum repens

PARE3

1

T-60

T-2

dallisgrass

Paspalum dilatatum

PADI3

1

T-30

T-1

narrowleaf carpetgrass

Axonopus fissifolius

AXFI

1

T-30

T-1

smooth crabgrass

Digitaria violascens

DIVI2

1

T-30

T-1

Hilograss

Paspalum conjugatum

PACO14

1

T-30

T-1

Vaseygrass

Paspalum urvillei

PAUR2

1

T-30

T-1

smutgrass

Sporobolus indicus

SPIN4

1

T-30

T-1

green kyllinga

Kyllinga brevifolia

KYBR

1

T-30

T-1

Oahu flatsedge

Cyperus hypochlorus

CYHY2

1

T-30

T-1

Glenwoodgrass

Sacciolepis indica

SAIN

1

T-30

T-1

yellow foxtail

Setaria parviflora

SEPA10

1

T-30

T-1

bushybeard bluestem

Schizachyrium condensatum

ANGL2

1

T-30

T-1

broomsedge bluestem

Andropogon virginicus

ANVI2

1

T-30

T-1

FORBS

Naturalized Forbs

 

2

150-300

5-10

honohono

Commelina diffusa

CODI5

2

30-90

1-3

bamboo orchid

Arundina graminifolia

ARGR6

2

T-30

T-1

kaimi clover

Desmodium incanum

DEIN3

2

T-60

T-2

Spanish clover

Desmodium sandwicense

DESA81

2

T-60

T-2

greenleaf desmodium

Desmodium intortum

DEIN2

2

T-60

T-2

three-flower beggarweed

Desmodium triflorum

DETR4

2

T-30

T-1

scaly swordfern

Nephrolepis multiflora

NEEX

2

T-30

T-1

Japanese tea

Chamaecrista nictitans

CHNIG

2

T-30

T-1

sensitive plant

Mimosa pudica

MIPU8

2

T-30

T-1

ageratum

Ageratum conyzoides

AGCO

2

T-30

T-1

tarweed

Cuphea carthagenesis

CUCA4

2

T-30

T-1

joee, owi

Stachytarpheta cayennensis

STDI8

2

T-30

T-1

Jamaica vervain

Stachytarpheta jamaicensis

STJA

2

T-30

T-1

Composite representation of State 4, Plant Community 4, Humid Mid-Grassland.

This list of plants and their relative proportions are based on near-normal years. Fluctuations in species composition and relative production may change from year to year depending upon precipitation or other climatic factors.



Common/Group Name

Scientific Name

Symbol

Functional Group

lbs./acre

% Comp

SHRUBS

Naturalized Shrubs and Half-Shrubs

 

3

30-150

1-5

hairy fleabane

Pluchea symphytifolia

PLSY

3

T-30

T-1

guava

Psidium guajava

PSGU

3

T-30

T-1

strawberry guava

Psidium cattleianum

PSCA

3

T-30

T-1

Clidemia

Clidemia hirta

CLHI3

3

T-30

T-1



















Annual Production lbs./acre
















Above Normal

6,000













Normal

3,000













Below Normal

1,000













Percent Ground Cover
















Plant

60













Litter

30













Cryptogams

0













Bare ground

10













S
tate 4, Plant Community 4, Humid Mid-Grassland, dominated by desirable forage species with minimal weed cover. Pasture in background has been heavily invaded by broomsedge and beardgrass.




Plant Community 4 – Weedy Humid Mid-Grassland

This plant community is dominated by grasses of low forage value such as narrowleaf carpetgrass and Hilograss. Desirable forage legumes have been grazed out. Weedy herbs, such as tarweed, and shrubs, such as Koster’s curse, are increasing.


Pathways from this plant community

To Plant Community 4, Humid Mid-Grassland, via “D&J”:

D = weed control; J = prescribed grazing.

Weedy Humid Mid-Grassland can be converted to Humid Mid-Grassland by prescribed grazing. A prescribed grazing plan provides for intensive but temporary grazing of pastures that ensures that cattle consume some low-value forage species along with preferred forages and allows preferred forages time to recover from defoliation. Desirable grass species are competitive and able to recover with proper management. The grazing plan may require splitting the herd, creating additional water sources, and creating multiple pastures by cross-fencing. Weed control may be necessary to eliminate some weedy species. Broomsedge and/or beardgrass are controlled by increasing soil pH through lime applications and by mowing before seed set.
Composite representation of State 4, Plant Community 5, Weedy Humid Mid-Grassland.

 

 Scientific name



%Canopy cover by height class (ft)

Total Cover


Local

common name


NRCS

common name

Origin

Type


NRCS

Code

0.1 -

2

2.1 -

4.5

4.6 -

13

13.1 -

40

40.1 -

80

80.1 -

120

Psidium guajava

1

1

1










1

common guava

guava

a

t

PSGU

Psidium cattleianum

1

1

1










1

waiawi

strawberry guava

a

t

PSCA

Pluchea carolinensis

1

10













10

sourbush

cure for all

a

s

PLCA10

Clidemia hirta

1

1













1

Koster's curse

soapbush

a

s

CLHI3

Commelina diffusa

1
















1

honohono

climbing dayflower

a

h

CODI5

Arundina graminifolia

1

1













1

bamboo orchid

bamboo orchid

a

h

ARGR6

Desmodium incanum

tr
















tr

kaimi clover

zarzabacoa comun

a

h

DEIN3

Desmodium sandwicense

tr
















tr

Spanish clover

Hawai`i ticktrefoil

a

h

DESA81

Desmodium intortum

tr
















tr

 

greenleaf ticktrefoil

a

v

DEIN2

Desmodium triflorum

tr
















tr

 

threeflower ticktrefoil

a

h

DETR4

Chamaecrista nictitans

1
















1

partridge pea

partridge pea

a

h

CHNI2

Mimosa pudica

1
















1

sensitiveplant

shameplant

a

h

MIPU8

Ageratum conyzoides

1
















1

ageratum

ageratum

a

h

AGCO

Cuphea carthagenesis

5
















5

tarweed

Colombian waxweed

a

h

CUCA4

Stachytarpheta dichotoma

1

1













1

owi

branched porterweed

a

h

STDI8

Stachytarpheta jamaicensis

1

1













1

Jamaica vervain

light-blue snakeweed

a

h

STJA

Nephrolepis multiflora

1
















1

scaly swordfern

scaly swordfern

a

f

NEHI

Urochloa mutica

5
















5

Californiagrass

para grass

a

g

URMU

Digitaria eriantha

5
















5

pangolagrass

pangolagrass

a

g

DIER

Panicum repens

5
















5

torpedograss

torpedo grass

a

g

PARE3

Paspalum dilatatum

1

1













1

Dallis grass

dallisgrass

a

g

PADI3

Axonopus fissifolius

20
















20

narrowleaved carpetgrass

common carpetgrass

a

g

AXFI

Coix lachryma-jobi

1

1













1

Job's tears

Job's tears

a

g

COLA

Digitaria violascens

1

1













1

smooth crabgrass

violet crabgrass

a

g

DIVI2

Paspalum conjugatum

30
















30

hilograss

hilograss

a

g

PACO14

Paspalum urvillei

1

1













1

Vasey grass

Vasey's grass

a

g

PAUR2

Sporobolus indicus

5
















5

smut grass

smut grass

a

g

SPIN4

Kyllinga brevifolia

1
















1

 

shortleaf spikesedge

a

g

KYBR

Sacciolepis indica

1
















1

Glenwood grass

glenwoodgrass

a

g

SAIN

Setaria parviflora

1
















1

yellow foxtail

marsh bristlegrass

a

g

SEPA10

Andropogon glomeratus




30













30

broomsedge

broomsedge bluestem

a

g

ANVI2

Schizachyrium condensatum




10













10

beardgrass

Colombian bluestem

a

g

SCCO10

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