, RONY IRAWANTO, LIA HAPSARI, DEDEN MUDIANA
Purwodadi Botanic Garden, Indonesian Institutes of Sciences. Jl. Raya Surabaya‐Malang Km 65, Purwodadi, Pasuruan 67163, Jawa Timur, Indonesia.
Ariyanti EE, Irawanto R, Hapsari L, Mudiana D. 2012.
Syzygium, klampok, distribution, Bromo Tengger Semeru National Park
Klampok is local name for genus Syzygium in Malang
and surrounding area. This genus is one of largest genera of
Myrtaceae, occuring from Africa eastwards to the
Hawaiian Islands and from India and southern China
southwards to southeastern Australia and New Zealand
(Craven and Biffin, 2010) with its center distribution is in
Malesia (Craven and Biffin, 2010; Backer and Bakhuizen
van den Brink, 1963; Merrill and Perry, 1939). Craven et
al. (2006) have concluded that Syzygium contained
approximately 1200 species. It has been noted that there
were 156 species of Syzygium found in Borneo (Merril and
Perry, 1939) and at least 52 species of Syzygium found in
Java, 20 of which could be found in East Java (Backer and
Bakhuizen van den Brink, 1963).
account of the leaves and twigs that in several species grow
at the same point (Orwa et al, 2009). Syzygium species can
live on various habitats (Backer and Bakhuizen van den
Brink, 1963). They can be found from sea level on swamp
forests, lowland and montane forests to subalpine forests.
Their habits are also vary, from canopy-emergent trees to
canopy trees, understorey trees, treelets and shrubs.
Indonesian botanic gardens (Bogor, Cibodas,
Purwodadi and Bali) have collected 40 species of Syzygium
from all over Indonesia. Purwodadi Botanic Garden has
collection of 15 species of Syzygium, 5 of which were from
East Java (Suprapto dkk, 2007; Mudiana, 2006). This
number is still quite low compared to the total species of
conduct a research and inventory on Syzygium of East Java.
Puwodadi Botanic Garden as a conservation institution,
which is located in Pasuruan, East Java, makes an effort to
conserve plants especially from East Java. Bromo Tengger
Semeru National Park is one of conservation area in East
Java that has various types of ecosystems, i.e. sub
mountain, mountain, tropical rain forest and sub alpine.
This park, administratively, is located in four regencies,
namely Malang, Pasuruan, Probolinggo and Lumajang at
7°51’ - 8°11’ S, 112°47’ - 113°10’ E and 750 – 3.676 m asl
(above sea level). It covers an area of 50,276.3 ha (Hidayat
and Risna, 2007)
Bromo Tengger Semeru NP is divided into four
Management Region (SPTN) I, II, III and IV. Each section
is divided into three “resorts”. SPTN I is divided into
Resort Gunung Penanjakan, Resort Tengger Laut Pasir and
Resort Sumber; SPTN II is splitted to Resort Patok Picis,
Resort Jabung and Resort Coban Trisula; SPTN III is
divided into Resort Gucialit, Resort Seroja and Resort
Ranu Pani; SPTN IV consists of Resort Candipuro, Resort
Ranu Darungan and Resort Taman Satriyan.
The aim of this reseach was to map Syzygium
distribution in some areas of Bromo Tengger Semeru NP.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Area study of this research was five resorts of Bromo
Tengger Semeru NP, i.e. Resort Sumber, Resort Jabung,
Resort Coban Trisula, Resort Seroja and Resort Ranu
Darungan. These resorts are located in three regencies
namely Malang, Probolinggo and Pasuruan. The materials
used were Syzygium spp, both cultivated and wild species.
Equipments used in this research were writing tools, field
book, GPS (Garmin Etrex Vista), pH meter, map, digital
camera, stem cutter and materials used to make herbarium
specimens such as alcohol 70%, newspapers, label, plastic
bags. The research was done by exploring some accessible
| Proc Soc Indon Biodiv Intl Conf | vol. 1 | pp. 135-142 | July 2012 | ISSN
routes to Bromo Tengger Semeru NP representing four
different territories, i.e. SPTN I (Resort Sumber), SPTN II
(Resort Jabung and Coban Trisula), SPTN III (Resort
Seroja) and SPTN IV (Resort Ranu Darungan). The data
collected were species name, morphological characters of
each species, habitat information such as soil pH, altitude
and position. Living materials like seeds and seedlings
were collected to increase the Syzygium collection of
Purwodadi Botanic Garden, herbarium specimens were
also made in order to identify the specimens. The position
of Syzygium encounters were tagged and then drawn on to
map using Mapsource of Garmin. The data were then
Proc Soc Indon Biodiv Intl Conf 1: 135-142, July 2012
Figure 2. Distribution of Syzygium in Bromo Tengger Semeru NP using Mapsource
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
pH 6-7, along roadside, in the garden, riverbanks, open and
shaded forests. These species were found associated with
other species (when found in wild) like orchids, ferns,
total number of Syzygium encounters along the explored
routes were 584 points (see Table 1 and Figure 2).
Table 1. Syzygium encounters in Bromo Tengger Semeru NP
namely S. aqueum, S. samarangense, S. polyanthum, S.
most frequently found species was S. samarangense. This
species is usually planted in front of the house or in the
garden as shade and for its sweet edible fruits. Whereas
the least frequently found. These thirteen species were
described briefly below.
Syzygium aqueum (Burm.f.) Alston
This species is known as ‘klampok kancing’ or ‘jambu
kancing’ by local people, since it has button-like fruit
(‘kancing’ means button), mostly planted in the yards or
gardens for its edible fruits. The fruit tastes sweet-sour. S.
tree with 3-10 m tall, 30-50 cm diameter; leaves opposite,
elliptic-cordate to obovate-oblong, 7-25 cm x 2.5-16 cm,
petiole 0.5-1.5 mm long; inflorescences terminal and
axillary; 3-7 flowered; flowers 2.5-3.5 cm in diameter,
yellow-white petals, numerous stamens; fruit a berry,
turbinate, 1.5-2 cm x 2.5-3.5 cm, white, pinkish to red,
glossy, flesh very juicy; seeds 1-6, rounded, small.
Syzygium samarangense (Bl.) Merr. & L.M. Perry
This species is called ‘jambu air’. The habit is tree with
height 5-15 m, dbh (diameter at breast height) 15-50 cm;
leaves opposite, elliptic to elliptic-oblong, 10-25 cm x 5-12
cm, coriaceous with thin margin, petiole 3-5 mm long;
inflorescences terminal, 3-30 flowered; flowers 3-4 cm in
diameter, yellow-white, stamens numerous; fruit a berry,
pyriform, bell-like fruits usually bigger than S. aqueum’s
with various color (green, whitish green, pink, dark red to
violet), tastes sour to sweet; seeds 0-2. This species is
generally planted in front of the house for the edible fruits
and as shade. It can be found in all visited resorts.
Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp.
This species is famously known as ‘salam. It has up to
30 m height with dbh up to 60 cm, but it is usually pruned
in order to make it short and harvest the leaves. Leaves
opposite, simple, glabrous, oblong-elliptical, narrowly
elliptical or lanceolate, 5-16 cm x 2.5-7 cm; distinct
intramarginal veins; petiole up to 12 mm long.
Inflorescence a panicle, 2-8 cm long, usually arising below
the leaves, sometimes axillary; flowers sessile, fragrant,
white; stamens numerous. Fruit a 1-seeded berry, globose,
up to 12 mm in diameter, dark red to purplish-black when
ripe. The leaves, both fresh or dried, are used as spices. The
wood can be used as building materials as well. This
species was found in Resort Seroja in a field near a planted
forest adjacent to national park and in the gardens.
ARYANTI et al. –
Figure 7. Syzygi
– Syzygium in B
branch (a), flow
It has common name ‘juwet’or ‘duwet’. The habit can
reach 20 m with dbh 20-45 cm. Leaves opposite, broadly
obovate-elliptic to elliptic oblong, 5-25 cm x 2-10 cm,
thick coriaceous, pinkish when young, later shiny dark
green above; inflorescence usually borne on leafless
branched, many-flowered, 5-12 cm long; flowers small,
disc yellow, petals 4, greyish-white to pink, stamens
numerous. The fruit is an ovoid-oblong berry, 1-5 cm long,
whitish pink, dark purple to black, taste sweet when ripe;
seeds oblong, green to brown. It was found in the yards in
Resort Seroja. Zhang and Lin (2009) have proved the
promising results of their research on S.cumini as a
significant source of natural antioxidants. They used
mature fruits of S. cumini.
Syzygium litorale (Bl.) Amsh.
This species is a wild species, mostly found along the
riverbanks in Resort Seroja. It can reach 8-20 m tall. It has
opposite, eliptic, dark green leaves, 14-21 cm x 4-7 cm.
Inflorescence terminal and in axils of fallen leaves. Fruit
campanulate, impressed at apex, yellowish green, less
fleshy and sour taste; seeds 2-7, inside purple. Local people
call it as ‘klampok watu’ or ‘klampok alas’. The wood can be
used as building materials since it is longlasting and strong.
Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry
This species is widely cultivated and famously known
as ‘cengkeh’ or clove. Its habit is tree with dbh 15-20 cm
and up to 20 m tall. Leaves opposite, simple, glabrous,
obovate-oblong to elliptical, 6-13 cm x 3-6 cm, apex
acuminate, base acute, coriaceous, shiny; petiole 1-3 cm
long, reddish, thickened at base. Inflorescence terminal,
paniculate, about 5 cm long, 3-40 flowers; flower buds 1-2
cm, yellowish-green with a red flush; stamens numerous.
Fruit is an ellipsoidal-obovoid berry 2-2.5 cm long, dark
red, containing 1 seed, 1-1.5 cm. The most useful part is its
flower buds, used in cigarette manufacturing, spices,
cosmetics, etc. This species was found in the gardens and
in the clove plantation.
Syzygium malaccense (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry
This species is well known as ‘jambu bol’ or ‘jambu
darsono’. It is a tree with up to 20 m height and dbh 45 cm.
Leaves opposite, elliptic-oblong, 15-38 cm x 7-20 cm,
thick-coriaceous, petiole 0.5-1.5 cm, thick, red when
young. Inflorescence on defoliate twig-parts, short and
dense, 1-12-flowered; flowers 5-7 cm in diameter, red;
stamens numerous with red filaments; petals dark red. The
fruit is a berry, ellipsoid, 5-8 cm in diameter, dark red to
dark purple; flesh juicy, white, fragrant; seed1, globose,
brown. It is mostly planted in the garden as shade. This
species was found in Resort Seroja and Resort Jabung, in
the gardens or yards.
Syzygium acuminatissimum DC.
It is called ‘klampokan’ by local people. It was
previously called Acmena acuminatissma, but then Craven
et al. (2006) formally transferred the genus to Syzygium.
The habit is tree with up to 35 m height and dbh 20 cm.
The leaves are opposite, ovate-oblong, coriaceous, shining
dark green above, 6-18 cm x 1.5-7 m, lateral nerves thin,
slightly raised beneath, apex acuminate, base acute, petiole
4-10 mm. Inflorescence is arranged in a panicle, flowers
white; fruit berry, blackish red, 1-2 cm in diameter. This
species was found wild in Resort Coban Trisula and Resort
Seroja in the shaded forests, associated with Musa,
This species is also called ‘klampokan’ by local people.
It is a tree with up to 20 m height and dbh 24 cm. The
leaves are elliptic-oblong, base acute, apex acuminate, 9.5-
16.5 cm x 3.5-6.5 cm, thick and slightly rigid, dark green.
Flowers are in terminal or axillary, white to whitish green.
There are no records about the fruits; during the survey the
fruits were also not found. This species was only found
near a lake in Resort Ranu Darungan, associated with
Coelogyne, Grammatophyllum, Platycerium, Ficus,
Pandanus, Stachytarpeta, Litsea, Tabernaemontana,
Barringtonia, Curculigo, etc. This species is noted as
endangered species in Redlist Species IUCN.
This species was found in Ranu Darungan. The habit is
tree with height 8-20 m; leaves subsessile, cordate at base,
subamplexicaul, oblong-lanceolate to subobovate, apex
acuminate, 11-25 cm x 4-10,5 cm; flowers on defoliate
twig-parts in many-flowered, 5-13 cm long panicles,
sessile, white; calyx tube campanulate-turbinate; fruit a
berry, dark purple, 2.5-3.5 cm in diameter. This species is
commonly known as ‘kupa’, ‘dompyong’ or ‘gowok’ and
sometimes is planted in the garden. Its fruits are edible and
the wood can be used for house construction.
Syzygium lineatum (DC.) Merr. & Perry
This species is known locally as ‘manting’. It has up to
21 m height, a shrub or tree; leaves thin-coriaceous,
conspicuously striate-veined especially on lower surface, 5-
12 cm x 2-5 cm, petiole 6-12 mm; corymbs 2.5-8 cm
across; fruit a berry, separated from calyx-limb by a
constriction, ca. 1.2 cm long. This species was found in
This species is locally called ‘jambu lutung’; it is
considered as near threatened by Widodo et al. (2011). It
has 6-10 m height; leaves 3-verticillate, rarely or
sometimes opposite, oblong, 15-26 cm x 4-8 cm;
inflorescences in axils of fallen leaves or terminal, few-
flowered; fruit unknown. This species was found in Ranu
This species is also known as ‘manting’ (same as S,
m height; leaves elliptic or obovate, 8-15 cm x 3.5-6 cm,
base acute, apex acuminate, petiole 5-6 mm; flowers sessile
in clusters; berry depressed-globose, 0.5-1 cm x 1-1.5 cm.
Discussion. Syzygium was found at the most in Resort
Seroja, Lumajang and at the least in Resort Sumber,
Probolinggo. This was greatly influenced by the condition
of the recently two erupted volcanos (Mt. Bromo and Mt.
Semeru). Resort Sumber is located in STPN I, which is
closer to Mt. Bromo compared to others STPN. The
vegetation nearby this volcano (Resort Tengger Laut Pasir
and Resort Gunung Penanjakan) were mostly destroyed by
greatly thick ash erupted by Mt. Bromo lately. Moreover,
the vegetation nearby Mt. Bromo does not have high
variety because they dominated by sea sand. Areas nearby
Mt. Semeru, such as Resort Seroja and Ranu Darungan,
have comparatively higher plant diversity since they has
mixed tropical rain forests.
Cultivated species, such as S. samarangense, S.
found more frequently than wild species like S. litorale, S.
(2009) cited that some species such as S. aqueum, S. cumini
and S. mallaccense were widely cultivated, especially in
the Malesian region, for their edible fruit, and one species,
cultivated for its flower buds that were dried and used as
the spice, clove. Panggabean (1992) also confirmed that S.
aqueum, S. samarangense and S. malaccense can live in
tropical lowlands up to 1200 m asl. while S. cumini can
grow best in the tropics up to 600 m asl (Coronel, 1992)
and S. polyanthum is widely distributed in lowlands up to
1000 m asl (Sardjono, 1999). Widely and famously
cultivated S. aromaticum was firstly cultivated on some
islands of Moluccas and New Guinea where it occurs wild;
found abundance as a secondary forest tree on the lower
mountain slope (Verheij and Sneijders, 1999). S.
polycephalum can grow in secondary forests between 200-
1800 m altitudes, but often cultivated in home gardens as
fruit tree (Verheij and Coronel, 1992). The natural
distribution of other Syzygium species found in TNBTS are
in the elevation range of TNBTS therefore it can be
understood that these Syzygium species can be found in
It has been found a new record of an endangered
species in Ranu Darungan, i.e. S. discophorum. This
species has been noted in Wilis Mt. (East Java) at altitude
1300-1500 m (Backer and Bakhuizen van den Brink,
1963); whereas Ranu Darungan is located at altitude 835-
922 m. The other new record was S. zollingerianum that
was considered as near threatened by Widodo et al. (2011).
The previous record of this species was in Sumbawa,
Central Java and North Sumatera (Widodo et al., 2011).
These records should be followed by further study to
ensure the conservation status of this species.
Conclusions. Syzygium species were found almost in
all visited resorts in Bromo Tengger Semeru NP at 36 –
1724 m asl with pH 6-7, along roadside, riverbanks, in the
garden, open and shaded forests. The total number of
points. The genus was found at the most in Resort Seroja,
located in Regency Lumajang. At least thirteen species of
Syzygium found in visited areas, i.e. S. aqueum, S.
samarangense, S. cumini, S. aromaticum, S. polyanthum, S.
discophorum, S. glomeruliferum, S.zollingerianum, S.
lineatum and S. polycephalum. Syzygium samarangense
was the most frequently found; whereas Syzygium
gratitudes to RISTEK (State Ministry of Research and
Technology) for giving the grants for this research
(Program Insentif Peneliti Dan Perekayasa LIPI Tahun
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Proc Soc Indon Biodiv Intl Conf 1: 135-142, July 2012