Eucalypts in harare



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Related species: 5 species in series; E. cinerea and

E. alligatrix grouped together but not quite at supraspecies level; other species in series are E. conspicua and

E. cephalocarpa (also not quite at supraspecies level), and

the less closely related E. nova-anglica.


General: a species of southern tablelands of New South Wales, with a very restricted population in northeastern Victoria; natural range in zone of uniformly distributed rainfall, but has done well in Zimbabwe's summer-rainfall climate. Intro- duced in 1920s at Mtao Forest, near Mvuma, and original plant- ing still stands in arboretum; fairly common garden ornamental in Harare, generally known as "silver dollar gum" from round, silvery glaucous leaves; very popular with florists.

EUCALYPTUS SMITHII R.T. Baker Gully gum
Habit: medium-sized to tall forest tree; on good sites with long well-developed bole, on marginal sites with short bole and large heavily branched crown.

Bark: dark brown, rough, persistent over most of trunk, moderately thick, compact, held tightly, with narrow longitud- inal fissures; decorticating from upper trunk and branches in long ribbons that remain hanging in crown, exposing smooth, white or creamy white bark.

Adult leaves: petiolate, alternate, narrow-lanceolate, 10-20 x 7-15 mm, concolorous, green, dull; venation distinct, at 30-45 degress to midrib; moderately reticulate, oil glands numerous.

Inflorescences: axillary, simple, 7-flowered; peduncles slender, angular to flattened, 5-12 mm long; pedicels 2-6 mm long; buds pedicellate, club-shaped, diamond-shaped, or ovoid, 6-7 x 3-4 mm, scar present; operculum conical, hemispherical-apiculate, or beaked; flowers white, January-March.

Fruits: pedicellate, ovoid to subglobular (including disc),

sometimes bell-shaped, 4-7 x 5-7 mm; rim thick; disc broad, ascending; valves usually 3, broad, exserted; seed grey-brown-black.


Derivation of names: botanical - honours HG Smith (1852-1924), chemist with Sydney Technological Museum, who worked on essential oils of Australian flora for many years; common - refers to habitat, but by no means confined to gully sites.
Taxonomy: Subgenus Symphyomyrtus.

Section Maidenaria - (see E. cinerea).

Subsection Euryota - (see E. cinerea).

Series Compactae - bark rough, compacted on lower part of trunk, upper bark partly held in shed ribbons; juvenile leaves opposite for many pairs.

Subseries Arrectae - buds in 7s; disc of fruit steeply ascending; seed coat reticulate [Latin arrectus (pointing upwards) refers to very steep disc of fruit].
Related species: only species in subseries; no close relatives; E. badjensis assigned to same series but different subseries.
General: a species from southeastern New South Wales and eastern Victoria, coastal escarpment and adjacent edges of southern tablelands; limited local use of wood for general construction; important producer of essential oil of high cineole content (for medicinal purposes). Introduced into Zimbabwe in 1970s for trials for oil production; establish-ment often difficult; planted quite widely in Mashonaland East and Eastern Highlands, but on very small scale; also in Harare at Forest Research Centre (failed) and at St Marnock's Farm, Mount Hampden; not likely to be planted extensively in Zimbabwe because not suited to subtropical, summer-rainfall climate. Important species in South Africa for oil production and kraft pulping.

EUCALYPTUS MAIDENII F. Muell. Maiden's gum
Habit: medium-sized to very tall forest tree, usually well formed, with clear straight bole up to two-thirds tree height; crown somewhat open.

Bark: decorticating to ground level, smooth, white, yellow, or grey-white; sometimes with short "stocking" of rough undecorticated bark.

Adult leaves: petiolate, alternate, falcate, or lanceolate to narrow-lanceolate, 120-280 x 12-25 mm, concolorous, dark glossy green, firm to leathery; venation parallel, fine, somewhat irregular, at 20-40 degrees to midrib, intramarginal vein distinct; reticulation moderate, numerous oil glands.

Inflorescences: axillary, simple, 7-flowered (occasionally 11-flowered, very rarely 3-flowered); peduncles flattened, 8-25 mm long; pedicles absent or 1-8 mm long, stout, angular, angles continuing as ribs along hypanthia; buds more or less club-shaped, 8-10 x 5-7 mm, scar present; operculum with short beak, glaucous, warty, distinctly broader than hypanth- ium; flowers white, April-August.

Fruits: sessile to distinctly pedicelllate, obconical, 5-11 x 6-10 mm, occasionally glaucous, faintly to distinctly ribbed; rim thick; disc broad, level or slightly ascending; valves 3-4, short, broad, slightly to distinctly exserted; seed grey-brown-black.
Derivation of names: botanical and common honour Joseph Henry Maiden (1859-1925), one of the most notable of researchers on Eucalyptus. His monumental work, A Critical Revision of the Genus Eucalyptus, published in 8 volumes over 30-year period, 1903-1933, final volumes posthumously.
Taxonomy: Subgenus Symphyomyrtus.

Section Maidenaria - (see E. cinerea).

Subsection Euryota - (see E. cinerea).

Series Globulares - southern blue gums - buds single, or in 3s or 7s; bark smooth or rough; juvenile leaves opposite for many nodes, large, glaucous , or green; ovules in 4-8 vertical rows.

Subseries Euglobulares - buds single, or in 3s or 7s; bark smooth or partly rough, loosely held; juvenile leaves large, ovate, glaucous; adult leaves falcate, glossy green; disc of fruit prominent, flat to annular (raised and free of valves), partly covering valves of fruit.
Related species: series comprises 4 species, E. maidenii, E. pseudoglobulus, E. bicostata, and E. globulus, all very closely related at just below supraspecies level. For a time in late 1970s and early 1980s these species classified as subspecies of E. globulus, but all restored to specific rank; E. maidenii distinguished by having 7-flowered inflorescences as opposed to 1- and 3-flowered inflorescences of relatives.
General: a species of relatively restricted range in south-eastern New South Wales and eastern Victoria, on slopes of coastal escarpment; produces utility timber used locally for general construction. Introduced into Zimbabwe in 1920s, and small stands fairly common on highveld; very fine specimens at "The Cabbage Patch" on Teviotdale/Alpes Road, Vainona, Harare.
EUCALYPTUS BICOSTATA Maiden, Southern blue gum

Blakely & Simmonds



Habit: medium-sized to tall forest tree, of good form, with bole up to two-thirds of tree height; open crown; often a low-branched, small, bushy tree in drier forests.

Bark: largely smooth, white or greyish; often some older unshed or partly shed brownish bark retained at base.

Adult leaves: petiolate, alternate, lanceolate to narrow-lanceolate, 140-250 x 20-30 mm, concolorous, green, firm;

venation conspicuous, fine, regular, at 30-45 degrees to midrib, intramarginal vein distinct, remote from margin; reticulation moderate, numerous oil glands.



Inflorescences: axillary, simple, 3-flowered; peduncles stout, 1-3 mm long; pedicels usually absent, but sometimes central bud is shortly pedicellate; buds always warty, 14-17 x 11-13 mm, glaucous, with hypanthia distorted and flattened by compression (particularly central bud), scar present; operculum more or less flattened, with distinct central knob, and very distinct indentation at join with hypanthium; flowers white, September-January.

Fruits: sessile, more or less globular (including disc), 8-17 x 10-19 mm; hypanthia warty, glaucous, 2-ribbed; rim thick; disc very broad, ascending, forming prominent raised lobes partly covering valves; valves 3-4, mostly below raised lobes of disc; calycine ring forms very prominent channel at rim; seed grey-brown-black.
Derivation of names: botanical - from Latin bi- (two), plus costatus (ribbed), referring to two ridges commonly found on buds and fruits; common - refers to southern blue gum group of eucalypts.
Taxonomy: Subgenus Symphyomyrtus.

Section Maidenaria - (see E. cinerea).

Subsection Euryota - (see E. cinerea).

Series Globulares - (see E. maidenii).

Subseries Euglobulares - (see E. maidenii).
Related species: see E. maidenii.
General: disjunct distribution from southern Victoria to northern New South Wales; has a more inland distribution than its close relatives, except in southernmost part of range; an important timber tree in Australia, wood used for general construction. Introduced into Zimbabwe 1980s for trial for oil production; planted in Harare at Forest Research Centre (failed) and at St Marnock's Farm, Mount Hampden; also in Mashonaland East; introductions from northernmost parts of natural range should be more successful in Zimbabwe.

EUCALYPTUS NITENS (Deane & Maiden) Maiden Shining gum
Habit: tall to very tall forest tree, smaller on poorer sites, but in all cases well formed with straight bole up to half or two-thirds of tree height; in high-quality forest crown only of moderate size, restricted to top third of tree.

Bark: rough, persistent at base, thin, flaky, dark grey to black, decorticating above in large strips to leave smooth, yellow, grey, and white surface, often with black, horizontal, insect scars.

Adult leaves: petiolate, alternate, lanceolate to narrow-lanceolate, 130-240 x 15-25 mm; concolorous, green, glossy, firm; venation moderately distinct, at 20-45 degrees to mid- rib, intramarginal vein distinct; moderately reticulate, oil glands present.

Inflorescences: axillary, simple, 7-flowered; peduncles angular to slightly flattened, up to 12 mm long; pedicels usually absent, occasionally very short; buds sessile, cylindrical to ovoid, often angular or ribbed, 6-7 x 3 mm, scar present; operculum conical; flowers white, January-March.

Fruits: sessile, ovoid, cup-shaped, or barrel-shaped, often faintly ribbed, 4-7 x 4-6 mm, shiny; rim moderately thin; disc narrow, descending; valves 3-4, to rim level or slightly exserted; seed grey-brown-black.
Derivation of names: botanical and common - from Latin nitens (shining, polished, bright), referring to glossy leaves, white bark, buds, and fruits; in particular, fruits have distinctive glossy, varnished appearance.
Taxonomy: Subgenus Symphyomyrtus.

Section Maidenaria - (see E. cinerea).

Subsection Euryota - (see E. cinerea).

Series Globulares - (see E. maidenii).

Subseries Remanentes (remaining species of Globulares which do not make as distinctive a group as the Euglobulares) - buds in 7s; bark rough or smooth; juvenile leaves ovate or orbicular, green or glaucous; adult leaves lanceolate or falcate, dull or glossy; disc descending; valves 3-4, to rim level or slightly exserted; seed grey-brown-black.
Related species: 8 species in subseries, of which E. nitens and E. denticulata very closely related, E. quadrangulata less closely related, E. cypellocarpa and E. retinens very closely related, E. nortonii and E. goniocalyx very closely related, E. banksii less closely related.
General: a species of disjunct distribution from eastern Victoria to northern New South Wales; important timber tree in southern part of its range and extensively planted in Victoria. Introduced into Zimbabwe in 1960s, very successful in high-altitude, exposed situations; planted at Forest Research Centre (failed), and at ART Farm on outskirts of Harare off Teviotdale/Alpes Road. Small labelled plot may be seen on main Mutare road immediately to east of Headlands.


EUCALYPTUS GONIOCALYX F.Muell. ex Miq. Long-leaved box
Habit: small to medium-sized woodland or forest tree; bole short; crown open, straggly.

Bark: rough, persistent to small branches, fibrous, becoming fairly deeply fissured, grey, thick, shaggy.

Adult leaves: petiolate, alternate, lanceolate, to 200 x 30 mm, concolorous, green, slightly glossy, firm texture; venation not very distinct, at 15-35 degrees to midrib; moderately reticulate, numerous oil glands.

Inflorescences: axillary, simple, 7-flowered; peduncles strongly flattened, to 15 mm long; pedicels absent; buds sessile, ovoid, to 13 x 6 mm, scar present, hypanthium often ribbed; operculum conical; flowers white, March-July.

Fruits: sessile, cup-shaped or cylindrical, sometimes ribbed, to 10 x 10 mm; rim thick; disc descending; valves 3-4, to rim level or below; seed grey-brown-black.
Derivation of names: botanical - not known, but obviously refers to outer (calycine) operculum; common - from length of leaves and superficial resemblance of bark to that of box group of eucalypts.
Taxonomy: Subgenus Symphyomyrtus.

Section Maidenaria - (see E. cinerea).

Subsection Euryota - (see E. cinerea).

Series Globulares - (see E. maidenii).

Subseries Remanentes - (see E. nitens).
Related species: closest relative E. nortonii; see E. nitens for further details of affinities in subseries. In earlier draft of classification Brooker recognized one atypical subspecies of E. goniocalyx, subsp arapilensis.
General: a widely distributed species of the tablelands of northeastern and southeastern New South Wales, eastern and western Victoria, and in scattered localities in South Australia; of no value for timber, but may have some value for essential oils. Introduced into Zimbabwe in 1970s for trials for oil production; planted in Eastern Highlands, Mashonaland East, and on outskirts of Harare at St Marnock's Farm, Mount Hampden.

EUCALYPTUS VIMINALIS Labill. Manna gum
Habit: medium-sized to very tall forest tree; on favourable sites bole usually long and clear to half or more of tree height; crown usually open, spreading, branchlets drooping; on drier sites a smaller, umbrageous tree.

Bark: decorticating to ground level, smooth, grey or whitish grey; some trees retain thick, dark grey to brown-black bark in a basal "stocking"; decorticating from upper trunk and branches in long ribbons which remain hanging in crown.

Adult leaves: petiolate, alternate, lanceolate to narrow-lanceolate, often undulate, 120-200 x 8-20 mm, concolorous, green; venation moderately prominent, regular, at 25-50 degrees to midrib, intramarginal vein distinct; reticulation moderate, numerous oil glands.

Inflorescences: axillary, simple, usually 3-flowered (some- times 7); peduncles angular to flattened, 4-8 mm long; pedicels absent or up to 4 mm long; buds ovoid, 7-10 x 4-5 mm, scar present; operculum conical or hemispherical-apiculate; flowers white, January-May.

Fruits: sessile or shortly pedicellate, cup-shaped to hemi-spherical, 5-8 x 5-9 mm; rim thick; disc broad, ascending; valves 3-4, short, broad, exserted; seed grey-brown-black.
Derivation of names: botanical - from Latin viminalis (bearing long flexible twigs, osier-bearing), possibly referring to long, willow-like adult leaves; common - refers to white sugary exudation (manna) that falls from young foliage.
Taxonomy: Subgenus Symphyomyrtus.

Section Maidenaria - (see E. cinerea).

Subsection Euryota - (see E. cinerea).

Series Globulares - (see E. maidenii).

Subseries Lanceolatae - juvenile leaves lanceolate, dark green or bright green.
Related species: subseries contains 3 species, E. splendens, somewhat isolated from the other two; and the very closely related E. viminalis and E. nobilis, which are not quite recognized at supraspecies level. In earlier draft of his classification Brooker listed two additional subspecies of

E. viminalis, subsp cygnetensis (formerly E. huberiana) and subsp pryoriana (formerly independent species); present status of these not known.
General: species has extensive distribution in southeastern Australia, including eastern Tasmania; natural range extends into southeastern Queensland; an important timber tree in Australia for general building, joinery, and pulp. First introduction of E. viminalis into Zimbabwe about 1897, but never planted extensively; best specimens of typical subsp are in Chimanimani village; subsp cygnetensis planted in several research trials; no positive records of any subsp planted in Harare, but type and subsp cygnetensis quite possibly present within city limits.

EUCALYPTUS INTERTEXTA RT Baker Gum-barked coolibah
Habit: small to medium-sized tree, sometimes mallee on poorer sites; bole short; crown often straggly.

Bark: variable, rough and persistent on lower part or whole of trunk, box-type, thin or moderately thick and shaggy, grey or red-brown; smooth, whitish, or greyish white above.

Adult leaves: petiolate, alternate, narrow-lanceolate to broad-lanceolate, 70-140 x 8-25 mm, concolorous, dull, grey-green to blue-grey, thin; venation at narrow angle to midrib, intramarginal vein very close to margin, but distinct; reticulation very dense, with small obscure oil glands, or apparently glandless.

Inflorescences: mostly terminal panicles, some axillary and unbranched, 7-flowered; peduncles slender, terete or angular, 5-16 mm long; pedicels slender, angular, 3-9 mm long; buds pedicellate, club-shaped, 5-10 x 3-4 mm, scar present; operculum conical, hemispherical, or hemispherical-apiculate; flowers white, March-September.

Fruits: pedicellate, cup-shaped to barrel-shaped, 4-8 x 4-7 mm; rim thin; disc descending; valves 4-5, to rim level or enclosed; seed grey-brown-black.
Derivation of names: botanical - from Latin inter (between), plus textus (tissue), referring to wood fibres; common - from smooth bark compared with other boxes and coolibahs, and from Aboriginal name.
Taxonomy: Subgenus Symphyomyrtus.

Section Adnataria - boxes and ironbarks - cotyledons kidney-shaped; seeds with ventral hilum; leaf venation usually densely reticulate; anthers adnate (fused to tip of filament and unable to pivot [this gives rise to name of section]).

Subsection Apicales - anthers erect at tip of filament; inflorescences commonly terminal [name of subsection refers to nature and position of anthers].

Series Buxeales - boxes - mainly eastern and southern in distribution; partly or completely box-barked; intramarginal vein distinct from edge; leaf reticulation dense; secondary veins at acute angle, usually very acute at leaf base.

Subseries Amissae - outer operculum lost early in bud development [Latin amissus means lost].

Supraspecies Opacae - leaves dull, concolorous [Latin opacus, opaque, alludes to dull leaf surfaces].


Related species: 5 species in supraspecies, E. largeana, slightly less related to following 3, E. orgadophila,

E. lucasii, and E. intertexta (which themselves are just below supraspecies level), and E. largiflorens, slightly less related to preceding 4. Two other supraspecies, comprising 9 species, within subseries.
General: E. intertexta occurs widely in central and south- eastern inland arid regions of continental Australia; present in all states; hard, red wood used for fuel and farm construction. Introduced into Zimbabwe in 1980s for trials as fuelwood species; planted in several regions, including Domboshawa Training Centre on outskirts of Harare.
EUCALYPTUS NORMANTONENSIS Maiden & Cambage Normanton box
Habit: mallee with few to many stems, occasionally small tree with 3-4 stems from near ground level.

Bark: rough over lower half of stems, box-type, grey over dark red-brown; smooth, whitish, pale pink, or coppery above.

Adult leaves: petiolate, alternate, lanceolate to narrow-lanceolate, 70-120 x 7-15 mm, concolorous, glossy, green (imm-ature leaves dull bluish green), almost leathery; venation faint, lateral veins at 35-45 degrees to midrib, intramarginal vein remote; reticulation very dense, with sparse to numerous oil glands.

Inflorescences: terminal 7-flowered panicles, sometimes reduced to solitary, axillary, 3-7-flowered umbels; peduncles slender, 10-15 mm long; pedicels 2-6 mm long; buds pedicellate, club-shaped or pear-shaped, 3-4 x 2-3 mm, scar present; operculum obtusely conical; flowers creamy white, May-August, or irregular.

Fruits: pedicellate, cup-shaped, 4 x 3 mm; rim thin; disc narrow, descending; valves 3-4, below rim level, sometimes deeply enclosed; seed grey-brown-black.
Derivation of names: botanical - from Normanton on Gulf of Carpentaria, where species first collected; common - refers to Normanton and to bark type.
Taxonomy: Subgenus Symphyomyrtus.

Section Adnataria - (see E. intertexta).

Subsection Apicales - (see E. intertexta).

Series Buxeales - (see E. intertexta).

Subseries Amissae - (see E. intertexta).

Supraspecies Cambageanae - leaves glossy, concolorous.


Related species: supraspecies includes 8 species: E. populnea and E. brownii (very closely related); E. normantonensis and E. sparsa (very closely related); E. cambageana (slightly isolated from above and following); E. absita, E. behriana, and E. cuprea (very closely related). Subseries comprises 3 supraspecies and 14 species.
General: widespread and disjunct occurrences in west-central Queensland and central Northern Territory; of no local economic value. Introduced into Zimbabwe in 1980s for trials for arid-region fuelwood plantations; several plantings made, including one at Domboshawa Training Centre on outskirts of Harare.

EUCALYPTUS POLYBRACTEA R.T. Baker Blue-leaved mallee
Habit: typical multistemmed mallee up to 5-10 m tall.

Bark: rough, persistent on lower half of stems, box-type, thin, fibrous, tight, grey; becoming ribbony or papery on upper stems; finally smooth, dark grey, light grey, and pinkish grey.

Adult leaves: petiolate, alternate, narrow-lanceolate or linear, 60-110 x 4-11 mm, concolorous, bluish grey or bluish green. Venation distinct, at acute angle to midrib, intra-marginal vein distinct; reticulation dense, oil glands very numerous.

Inflorescences: axillary, simple, 7-flowered (sometimes 11); peduncles terete to slightly angular, 4-15 mm long; pedicels generally stout, angular, 1-6 mm long, with angles continuing as fine ribs along hypanthia and opercula; buds club-shaped or diamond-shaped, glaucous, 5-7 x 3-4 mm, no scar (2 opercula retained to flowering); operculum conical, hemispherical, or hemispherical-apiculate; flowers white, March-June.

Fruits: pedicellate, cup-shaped to barrel-shaped, 3-5 x 3-5 mm, faintly ribbed; rim thin; disc broad, descending; valves 3-5, enclosed; seed grey-brown-black.
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