Final Import Risk Analysis Report for Fresh Unshu Mandarin Fruit from Shizuoka Prefecture in Japan



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Final Import Risk Analysis Report for Fresh Unshu Mandarin Fruit from Shizuoka Prefecture in Japan

July 2009

© Commonwealth of Australia 2009

This work is copyright. You may download, display, print and reproduce this material in unaltered form only (retaining this notice) for your personal, non-commercial use or use within your organisation. Apart from any use as permitted under the Copyright Act 1968, all other rights are reserved. Inquiries concerning reproduction and rights should be addressed to Communications Manager, Biosecurity Australia, or e-mailed to ba@biosecurity.gov.au.

Cite this report as:

Biosecurity Australia (2009) Final import risk analysis report for fresh unshu mandarin fruit from Shizuoka Prefecture in Japan. Biosecurity Australia, Canberra.

The Australian Government acting through Biosecurity Australia has exercised due care and skill in preparing and compiling the information in this publication. Notwithstanding, Biosecurity Australia, its employees and advisers disclaim all liability to the maximum extent permitted by law, including liability for negligence, for any loss, damage, injury, expense or cost incurred by any person as a result of accessing, using or relying upon any of the information in this publication.

Postal address:

Biosecurity Australia

GPO Box 858

CANBERRA ACT 2601

AUSTRALIA

Internet: www.biosecurityaustralia.gov.au

Cover image: Unshu mandarins ripening under hothouse cultivation in the off-season near Fujieda City, Japan. Photographed by Biosecurity Australia officer, July 2007.


Contents

Contents 1

Contents 1

Tables 7

Tables 7

Figures 7

Figures 7

Acronyms and abbreviations 11

Acronyms and abbreviations 11

Summary 15

Summary 15

1 Introduction 17

1 Introduction 17

1.1 Australia’s biosecurity policy framework 17

1.2 This import risk analysis 17

1.2.1 Background 17

1.2.2 Scope 18

1.2.3 Existing policy 19

1.2.4 Transition into the regulated process 19

1.2.5 Contaminating pests 20

1.2.6 Consultation 20



2 Method for pest risk analysis 21

2 Method for pest risk analysis 21

2.1 Stage 1: Initiation 21

2.2 Stage 2: Pest risk assessment 22

2.2.1 Pest categorisation 22

2.2.2 Assessment of the probability of entry, establishment and spread 22

Probability of entry 22

Probability of establishment 23

Probability of spread 24

Assigning qualitative likelihoods for the probability of entry, establishment and spread 24

Time and volume of trade 25

2.2.3 Assessment of potential consequences 26

2.2.4 Estimation of the unrestricted risk 27

2.2.5 Australia’s appropriate level of protection (ALOP) 28

2.3 Stage 3: Pest risk management 28



3 Japan’s commercial production practices for Citrus unshiu 31

3 Japan’s commercial production practices for Citrus unshiu 31

3.1 Assumptions used to estimate unrestricted risk 31

3.2 Production area and designated export areas 31

3.3 Climate in the production area 36

3.4 Commercial production and export information 37

3.4.1 Description of unshu mandarin 37

3.4.2 Production 37

3.4.3 Cultivation practices 37

3.4.4 Post-harvest 40

3.4.5 Exports 41



4 Pest risk assessments for quarantine pests 43

4 Pest risk assessments for quarantine pests 43

4.1 Quarantine pests for pest risk assessment 43

4.2 Pink citrus rust mite 44

4.3 Citrus red mite 45

4.4 Armoured scales 45

4.4.1 Introduction 45

4.4.2 Probability of entry 45

4.4.3 Probability of establishment 47

4.4.4 Probability of spread 48

4.4.5 Probability of entry, establishment and spread 48

4.4.6 Consequences 48

4.4.7 Unrestricted risk estimate 49

4.5 Mealybugs 50

4.5.1 Introduction 50

4.5.2 Probability of entry 50

4.5.3 Probability of establishment 51

4.5.4 Probability of spread 52

4.5.5 Probability of entry, establishment and spread 53

4.5.6 Consequences 53

4.5.7 Unrestricted risk estimate 54

4.6 Leafroller moths 54

4.6.1 Introduction 54

4.6.2 Probability of entry 55

4.6.3 Probability of establishment 57

4.6.4 Probability of spread 57

4.6.5 Probability of entry, establishment and spread 58

4.6.6 Consequences 58

4.6.7 Unrestricted risk estimate 58

4.7 Bagworms 59

4.7.1 Introduction 59

4.7.2 Probability of entry 59

4.7.3 Probability of establishment 60

4.7.4 Probability of spread 60

4.7.5 Probability of entry, establishment and spread 61

4.7.6 Consequences 61

4.7.7 Unrestricted risk estimate 62

4.8 Apple heliodinid 62

4.8.1 Introduction 62

4.8.2 Probability of entry 62

4.8.3 Probability of establishment 63

4.8.4 Probability of spread 64

4.8.5 Probability of entry, establishment and spread 64

4.8.6 Consequences 64

4.8.7 Unrestricted risk estimate 65

4.9 Thrips 65

4.9.1 Introduction 65

4.9.2 Probability of entry 66

4.9.3 Probability of establishment 67

4.9.4 Probability of spread 68

4.9.5 Probability of entry, establishment and spread 68

4.9.6 Consequences 68

4.9.7 Unrestricted risk estimate 69

4.10 Japanese orange fly 70

4.10.1 Introduction 70

4.10.2 Probability of entry 70

4.10.3 Probability of establishment 72

4.10.4 Probability of spread 72

4.10.5 Probability of entry, establishment and spread 73

4.10.6 Consequences 73

4.10.7 Unrestricted risk estimate 74

4.11 Citrus scab 74

4.12 Citrus canker 75

4.12.1 Introduction 75

4.12.2 Probability of entry 75

4.12.3 Probability of establishment 83

4.12.4 Probability of spread 84

4.12.5 Probability of entry, establishment and spread 85

4.12.6 Consequences 85

4.12.7 Unrestricted risk estimate 86

4.13 Pest risk assessment conclusion 87



5 Pest risk management 91

5 Pest risk management 91

5.1 Pest risk management measures and phytosanitary procedures 91

5.1.1 Management for Aculops pelekassi, Stathmopoda auriferella, the mealybugs Planococcus kraunhiae and Pl. lilacinus, Pseudococcus comstocki and Ps. cryptus, the leafroller moths Adoxophyes dubia, A. honmai, A. orana fasciata and Homona magnanima, and the thrips Chaetanaphothrips orchidii, Frankliniella intonsa, F. occidentalis and Thrips palmi 94

5.1.2 Management for Bactrocera tsuneonis 94

5.1.3 Management for Sphaceloma fawcettii 95

5.1.4 Management for Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri 95

Registration of orchards in the designated export areas in Japan (Areas 1–4) 96

Freedom from symptoms of citrus canker for registration of orchards 96

Freedom from symptoms of citrus canker during the growing season 96

Additional survey of the designated export areas after typhoons 97

Mandatory copper sprays in accordance with the unshu mandarin spray calendar for Japan 97

Mandatory control for citrus leafminer in accordance with the unshu mandarin spray calendar for Japan 97

Movement restrictions for citrus canker host material 98

5.1.5 Operational system for the maintenance and verification of phytosanitary status 99

5.1.6 Uncategorised pests 102

5.2 Review of policy 102

Appendix A: Initiation and pest categorisation 105

Appendix A: Initiation and pest categorisation 105

Appendix B: Additional data for quarantine pests 201

Appendix B: Additional data for quarantine pests 201

Appendix C: Biosecurity framework 215

Appendix C: Biosecurity framework 215

Appendix D: Distribution of Japanese orange fly in Japan 221

Appendix D: Distribution of Japanese orange fly in Japan 221

Appendix E: Distribution of citrus greening and citrus psyllid in Japan 225

Appendix E: Distribution of citrus greening and citrus psyllid in Japan 225

Appendix F: Monitoring for citrus canker in the Shizuoka Prefecture 227

Appendix F: Monitoring for citrus canker in the Shizuoka Prefecture 227

Glossary 229

Glossary 229

References 233

References 233



Tables

Table 2.1: Nomenclature for qualitative likelihoods 24

Table 2.2: Matrix of rules for combining qualitative likelihoods 25

Table 2.3: Decision rules for determining the consequence impact score 27

Table 2.4: Decision rules for determining the overall consequence rating for each pest 27

Table 2.5: Risk estimation matrix 28

Table 3.1: Coordinates for the production area 34

Table 3.2: Coordinates for the four designated export areas 34

Table 3.3: Rainfall and temperature figures for Shizuoka City 36

Table 3.4: Number of typhoons that approached the Tokai region 36

Table 3.5: The indicative unshu mandarin spray calendar (2007) for Japan 39

Table 4.1: Quarantine pests for fresh unshu mandarin fruit from the production area 43

Table 4.4: Summary of risk assessments for quarantine pests for fresh unshu mandarin fruit from the production area 88

Table 5.1: Phytosanitary measures recommended for quarantine pests for fresh unshu mandarin fruit from the designated export areas 92

Figures

Figure 3.1: Major citrus growing areas in Japan 32

Figure 3.2: The unshu mandarin production area and the designated export areas (Areas 1–4) near Fujieda City, Shizuoka Prefecture 33

33

Figure 3.3: Orchard within the designated export areas 35

Figure 3.5: Mature unshu mandarin tree grafted on Poncirus trifoliata 35

Figure 3.7: Fruit processing plant 35

Figure 3.4: Orchard within the designated export areas surrounded by tea, bamboo and mixed tree vegetation 35

Figure 3.6: Slashed interrows 35

Figure 3.8: Packing box for unshu mandarin fruit destined for the USA 35

Figure 3.9: Schematic layout of the processing steps at the current packing house at Fujieda City 42

Map of Australia





Acronyms and abbreviations




Term or abbreviation

Definition

ACG

Australian Citrus Growers Inc. (Citrus Australia Ltd; as of November 2008)

ALPP

Area of low pest prevalence

ALOP

Appropriate level of protection

APAL

Apple and Pear Australia Ltd

APHIS

Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, United States Department of Agriculture

APPD

Australian Plant Pest Database (Plant Health Australia)

AQIS

Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service

BA

Biosecurity Australia

CABI

CAB International, Wallingford, UK

CAD

Chinese Ant Database

CMI

Commonwealth Mycological Institute

DAFF

Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry

DAFWA

Department of Agriculture and Food – Western Australia

DAWA

Department of Agriculture – Western Australia (previous name of DAFWA)

DOACS

Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services

E

East

EPPO

European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization

FAO

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

FFTC

Food and Fertilizer Technology Centre (Taipei, Taiwan)

GPS

Global positioning system

ICA

Interstate Certification Assurance

IPM

Integrated Pest Management

IPPC

International Plant Protection Convention

IRA

Import Risk Analysis

ISPM

International Standard for Phytosanitary Measures

IVA

Independent Verification Assurance

JAID

Japanese Ant Image Database

JSAE

Japanese Society of Applied Entomology and Zoology

JSCC

Japan Society for Culture Collections

MAFF

Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (Japan)

MAFNZ

Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry – New Zealand

N

North

NaOCl

Sodium hypochlorite (bleach)

NPPO

National Plant Protection Organization

NSW

New South Wales

NT

Northern Territory

PC

Phytosanitary certificate




Term or abbreviation

Definition

Qld

Queensland

Tas.

Tasmania

Vic.

Victoria

WA

Western Australia
Abbreviations of units

Term or abbreviation

Definition

Are

unit for area of 10 m2

ºC

degree Celsius

ºF

degree Fahrenheit

kg

kilogram

km

kilometre

m

metre

μ

micrometre (one millionth of a metre)

ml

millilitre

mm

millimetre

ppm

parts per million

s

second




    Summary

This import risk analysis finalises a proposal from Japan for market access to Australia for fresh unshu mandarin fruit from the Shizuoka Prefecture.

Australia has existing quarantine policy that allows the importation of various citrus fruits from Israel, New Zealand, Spain and specific states of the United States of America (Arizona, California, Texas) for human consumption. There is no policy that exists for the importation of unshu mandarin fruit into Australia.

This final report recommends that the importation of fresh unshu mandarin fruit (Citrus unshiu Marcow.) to Australia from four designated export areas in the Shizuoka Prefecture be permitted, subject to specific quarantine conditions.

This import policy allows fruit from four designated export areas surveyed for over 40 years and found free of citrus canker. However, as these areas are located in a production area where there is the potential for low pest prevalence, measures are required. The conditions include a requirement that the designated export areas are surveyed at least twice a year and found free from citrus canker.

The report takes account of stakeholders’ comments on a 2002 technical issues paper and the 2008 draft import risk analysis report.

The report identifies pink citrus rust mite, apple heliodinid, mealybugs, leafroller moths, thrips, Japanese orange fly, citrus scab and citrus canker as pests that require quarantine measures to manage risks to a very low level in order to achieve Australia’s appropriate level of protection (ALOP).

The recommended quarantine measures are a combination of risk management measures and an operational system that will reduce the risk associated with the importation of fresh unshu mandarin fruit from four designated export areas (Areas 1–4) near Fujieda City, Shizuoka Prefecture, into Australia to a very low level consistent with Australia’s ALOP, specifically:


  • inspection for pink citrus rust mite, apple heliodinid, mealybugs, leafroller moths and thrips, and remedial action if these pests are detected

  • continuation of the existing surveillance program for Japanese orange fly to verify area freedom for the designated export areas

  • orchard inspection, orchard control and orchard freedom from symptoms of citrus scab

  • a systems approach for citrus canker, requiring the following mandatory measures:

  • unshu mandarin fruit for export to Australia to be sourced only from registered orchards within four designated export areas in Japan (Areas 1–4)

  • freedom from symptoms of citrus canker of the designated export areas for a minimum of two years prior to registration of orchards for export to Australia each season

  • freedom from symptoms of citrus canker during the growing season based on monitoring of the registered export orchards after petal fall and prior to harvest

  • an additional survey of the export areas if a typhoon should be recorded at the meteorological station in Shizuoka City before the end of August of each year

  • copper sprays in accordance with the unshu mandarin spray calendar for Japan for the registered export orchards

  • control for citrus leafminer in accordance with the unshu mandarin spray calendar for Japan for the registered export orchards

  • restrictions on movement of host material into the export areas

  • post-harvest chemical treatment

  • a supporting operational system to maintain and verify the phytosanitary status of consignments. The Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS) will verify that the recommended phytosanitary measures have occurred and will be present to pre-clear consignments prior to export.

Japan is to immediately notify AQIS of any changes to the current distribution of citrus greening outside of the export areas and the current movement restrictions for its host commodities.

Citrus rust thrips has been identified as a quarantine pest for Western Australia, western flower thrips has been identified as a quarantine pest for Tasmania and the Northern Territory and melon thrips has been identified as a quarantine pest for Western Australia, South Australia, Tasmania and the Northern Territory. The recommended quarantine measures take account of these regional differences.



    1 Introduction

1.1 Australia’s biosecurity policy framework

Australia's biosecurity policies aim to protect Australia against the risks that may arise from exotic pests1 entering, establishing and spreading in Australia, thereby threatening Australia's unique flora and fauna, as well as those agricultural industries that are relatively free from serious pests.

The import risk analysis (IRA) process is an important part of Australia's biosecurity policies. It enables the Australian Government to formally consider the risks that could be associated with proposals to import new products into Australia. If the risks are found to exceed Australia’s appropriate level of protection (ALOP), risk management measures are proposed to reduce the risks to an acceptable level. But, if it is not possible to reduce the risks to an acceptable level, then no trade will be allowed.

Successive Australian Governments have maintained a conservative, but not a zero risk, approach to the management of biosecurity risks. This approach is expressed in terms of Australia's ALOP, which reflects community expectations through government policy and is currently described as providing a high level of protection aimed at reducing risk to a very low level, but not to zero.

Australia’s IRAs are undertaken by Biosecurity Australia using teams of technical and scientific experts in relevant fields, and involves consultation with stakeholders at various stages during the process. Biosecurity Australia provides recommendations for animal and plant quarantine policy to Australia’s Director of Animal and Plant Quarantine (the Secretary of the Australian Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry). The Director, or delegate, is responsible for determining whether or not an importation can be permitted under the Quarantine Act 1908, and if so, under what conditions. The Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS) is responsible for implementing appropriate risk management measures.

More information about Australia’s biosecurity framework is provided in Appendix C of this report and in the Import Risk Analysis Handbook 2007 located on the Biosecurity Australia website www.biosecurityaustralia.gov.au.

1.2 This import risk analysis

1.2.1 Background

In 1989, Japan indicated that it wished to send fresh unshu mandarin fruit, Citrus unshiu Marcow., to Australia and subsequently provided pest lists in 1990 and 1992. In 1998, Japan advised that access for fresh unshu mandarin was their next priority after fuji apple (Malus pumila Miller var. domestica Schneider), for which Japan gained access from the Aomori Prefecture into Australia in December 1998.

In a letter in March 2001, Japan proposed to export fresh unshu mandarin fruit from the whole of the Shizuoka Prefecture. Following Japan’s letter in March 2001, Biosecurity Australia issued a Plant Biosecurity policy memorandum (PBPM 2001/05) advising stakeholders of Japan’s import proposal for fresh unshu mandarin fruit from the whole of the Shizuoka Prefecture into Australia.

On 29 January 2002 (PBPM 2002/03), stakeholders were advised of the commencement of an IRA for the importation of fresh unshu mandarin fruit from Japan. This was followed by the release of a technical issues paper for this IRA (PBPM 2002/49) on 6 December 2002, in which stakeholders were invited to provide comments on the background to the IRA and preliminary results of pest categorisation. Comments made by stakeholders on the technical issues paper were considered and, where appropriate, incorporated into the draft IRA report (July 2008). Copies of the relevant memoranda are available on the Biosecurity Australia website www.biosecurityaustralia.gov.au.

In December 2003, following stakeholder comments on the technical issues paper and further discussions with Japan’s Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) on the incidence of citrus canker within the Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan limited its proposal to four smaller designated export areas (Area 1–4) near Fujieda City within the Shizuoka Prefecture on Honshu Island. Fruit from these areas is exported to phytosanitary markets, including the USA and New Zealand which impose phytosanitary conditions for citrus canker. However, the designated export areas (Area 1–4) near Fujieda City have been monitored for citrus canker since export to the United States of America (USA) commenced in 1968 and have had no incidence of citrus canker during this period.

Officers from Biosecurity Australia observed the production of unshu mandarin in the designated export areas near Fujieda City in June 2006. In July 2007, officers from Biosecurity Australia visited the designated export areas to verify the commercial production practices, and the local packing house where fruit from the export areas is packed.

A draft IRA report was issued in July 2008 for stakeholder comment. Comments received were considered and, where appropriate, incorporated into the provisional final IRA report.



      1. Scope

This report assesses the biosecurity risks associated with the importation into Australia of individual fresh unshu mandarin (Citrus unshiu) fruit, with all other vegetative parts removed, from the production area near Fujieda City, in the Shizuoka Prefecture, as described in Chapter 3. This production area includes the four designated areas from which fresh unshu mandarin fruit is currently exported with phytosanitary conditions to the USA and New Zealand (Figures 3.1 and 3.2).

The unrestricted risk for the identified quarantine pests is assessed for the production area, taking into account commercial production practices. Phytosanitary conditions for the export of fresh unshu mandarin fruit to the USA and New Zealand were not considered when assessing the unrestricted risk.

Export volumes to Australia are expected to be small, as the total area of the designated export areas (Areas 1–4) consists of only about 25 hectares. Export volumes of fresh unshu mandarin fruit to the USA from these designated export areas averaged a total of 230 tonnes per annum between 1995 and 2005 (APHIS 2006). Since February 2000, small quantities of fresh unshu mandarins have also been exported from the same export areas to New Zealand. During their site visit in 2007, Biosecurity Australia officers were informed that a total production of 600 tonnes was forecasted for the 2006/07 season.

This import policy specifically relates to the assessment of the identified pests, including citrus canker, and the potential for the introduction of these pests on the fruit pathway of unshu mandarin from four designated export areas (Areas 1–4) in Japan into Australia. This policy does not represent or replace Australia’s import policy for any other citrus canker host commodities. Each future commodity import request will be assessed on its own merits.



      1. Existing policy

International policy

Fresh mandarins/tangerines (Citrus reticulata) may be imported for human consumption into Australia from Israel, New Zealand, Spain and the USA (California, Arizona, Texas), subject to specific import conditions. Other fresh citrus fruit, including cumquat, calamondin, etrogs, grapefruit, lemon, lime, orange, pomelo, tangelo and tangor are also permitted entry into Australia from various exporting countries, subject to specific quarantine measures. Details of the current import requirements for citrus fruit are available at the AQIS Import Conditions database http://www.aqis.gov.au/icon.



Domestic arrangements

The Australian Government is responsible for regulating the movement of plants and plant products into and out of Australia. However, the state and territory governments are responsible for plant health controls within Australia. Legislation relating to resource management or plant health may be used by state and territory government agencies to control interstate movement of plants and their products.



      1. Transition into the regulated process

The Australian Government announced changes to the IRA process on 18 October 2006. The new regulated process applies to all IRAs announced by Biosecurity Australia on or after the commencement of the Quarantine Amendment Regulations 2007 (No.1) on 5 September 2007.

On 12 September 2007, Biosecurity Australia announced in Biosecurity Australia Policy Memorandum (BAPM) 2007/20 the transitional arrangements for its current import proposal work program. In the memorandum, stakeholders were advised that the import proposal for fresh unshu mandarin fruit from Japan would be finalised under the regulated IRA process. It also advised that previous work or comparable steps already completed would not be repeated under the regulated process.

On 19 March 2008, Biosecurity Australia announced in Biosecurity Australia Advice (BAA) 2008/9 the formal commencement of an IRA under the regulated process to consider the proposal to import fresh unshu mandarin from Japan. It also advised that the analysis would be undertaken as a standard IRA requiring completion within 24 months. The IRA process is described in the Import Risk Analysis Handbook 2007.

Stakeholders were also advised that although the regulations allow a timeframe of 24 months to complete a standard IRA, in view of the significant body of work already undertaken, a draft IRA report was expected to be released by 30 July 2008.



      1. Contaminating pests

In addition to the pests of fresh unshu mandarin from designated export areas (Areas 1–4) near Fujieda City that are identified in this IRA, there are other organisms that may arrive with the fruit. These organisms could include pests of other crops or predators and parasitoids of other arthropods. Biosecurity Australia considers these organisms to be contaminating pests that could pose sanitary and phytosanitary risks. These risks are addressed by standard operating procedures.

      1. Consultation

In August 2002, Biosecurity Australia released a technical issues paper for stakeholder consideration containing the background to this IRA and the categorisation of identified pests (BA 2002). Comments were received from five stakeholders and were incorporated into the draft IRA report (July 2008), where appropriate.

Comments were received from nine stakeholders on the draft IRA report. These were also considered and, where appropriate, were incorporated into the provisional final IRA report.



  1. Method for pest risk analysis

In accordance with the International Plant Protection Convention, the technical component of a plant IRA is termed a ‘pest risk analysis’ (PRA). Biosecurity Australia has conducted this PRA in accordance with the International Standards for Phytosanitary Measures (ISPMs), including ISPM 2: Framework for Pest Risk Analysis (FAO 2007) and ISPM 11: Pest Risk Analysis for Quarantine Pests, including analysis of environmental risks and living modified organisms (FAO 2004).

A PRA is ‘the process of evaluating biological or other scientific and economic evidence to determine whether a pest should be regulated and the strength of any phytosanitary measures to be taken against it’ (FAO 2008). A pest is ‘any species, strain or biotype of plant, animal, or pathogenic agent injurious to plants or plant products’ (FAO 2008).

Quarantine risk consists of two major components, the probability of a pest entering, establishing and spreading in Australia from imports and the consequences should this happen. These two components are combined to give an overall estimate of the risk.

Unrestricted risk is estimated taking into account the existing commercial production practices of the exporting country and that minimal on arrival verification procedures will apply. Restricted risk is estimated with phytosanitary measure(s) applied. A phytosanitary measure is ‘any legislation, regulation or official procedure having the purpose to prevent the introduction and spread of quarantine pests, or to limit the economic impact of regulated non-quarantine pests’ (FAO 2008).

A glossary of the terms used is provided at the back of this IRA report.

The PRA was conducted in the following three consecutive stages.

2.1 Stage 1: Initiation

Initiation identifies the pest(s) and pathway(s) that are of quarantine concern and should be considered for risk analysis in relation to the identified PRA area.

The initiation point for this PRA was the receipt of a technical submission from the National Plant Protection Organisation (NPPO) for access to the Australian market for the commodity. This submission included information on the pests associated with the production of the commodity, including the plant part affected, and the existing commercial production practices for the commodity.

The pests associated with the crop and the exported commodity were tabulated from information provided by the NPPO of the exporting country, literature and database searches, and evidence that the pest is likely to infest or infect the commodity. This information is set out in Appendix A.

For this PRA, the ‘PRA area’ is defined as Australia for pests that are absent, or of limited distribution and under official control. For areas with regional freedom from a pest, the ‘PRA area’ may be defined on the basis of a state or territory of Australia or may be defined as a region of Australia consisting of parts of a state or territory or several states or territories.

For pests that had been considered by Biosecurity Australia in other risk assessments and for which import policies already exist, a judgement was made on the likelihood of entry of pests on the commodity and whether existing policy is adequate to manage the risks associated with its import. This judgement was based on ISPM 11 (FAO 2004) and included an assessment of the biology of the pest, environmental conditions and any significant differences between the pathways for entry. Where appropriate, the previous policy has been adopted.

2.2 Stage 2: Pest risk assessment

A pest risk assessment (for quarantine pests) is: ‘the evaluation of the probability of the introduction and spread of a pest and of the likelihood of associated potential economic consequences’ (FAO 2008).

In this PRA, pest risk assessment was divided into the following interrelated processes:

2.2.1 Pest categorisation

Pest categorisation identifies which of the pests identified in Stage 1 require a pest risk assessment. The categorisation process examines, for each pest, whether the criteria in the definition for a quarantine pest are satisfied. A ‘quarantine pest’ is a pest of potential economic importance to the area endangered thereby and not yet present there, or present but not widely distributed and being officially controlled, as defined in ISPM 5: Glossary of phytosanitary terms (FAO 2008).

The pests identified in Stage 1 were categorised using the following primary elements to identify the quarantine pests for the commodity being assessed:



  • identity of the pest

  • presence or absence in the PRA area

  • regulatory status

  • potential for establishment and spread in the PRA area

  • potential for economic consequences (including environmental consequences) in the PRA area.

The results of pest categorisation are set out in Appendix A. The quarantine pests identified during pest categorisation were carried forward for pest risk assessment and are listed in Table 4.1.

2.2.2 Assessment of the probability of entry, establishment and spread

Details of how to assess the ‘probability of entry’, ‘probability of establishment’ and ‘probability of spread’ of a pest are given in ISPM 11 (FAO 2004). A summary of this process is given below, followed by a description of the qualitative methodology used in this IRA.

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