Final Import Risk Analysis Report for Fresh Unshu Mandarin Fruit from Shizuoka Prefecture in Japan



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      1. Unrestricted risk estimate

The unrestricted risk for X. citri subsp. citri is: LOW.

Unrestricted risk is the result of combining the probability of entry, establishment and spread with the outcome of overall consequences. Probabilities and consequences are combined using the risk estimation matrix shown in Table 2.5.

The unrestricted risk estimate for X. citri subsp. citri of ‘low’ exceeds Australia's ALOP. Therefore, specific risk management measures are required for this pest.


    1. Pest risk assessment conclusion

The unrestricted risk posed by pink citrus rust mite, mealybugs (four species), leafroller moths (four species), thrips (four species), apple heliodinid, Japanese orange fly, citrus canker and exotic pathotypes of citrus scab have been determined to exceed Australia’s ALOP. Therefore, risk management measures for these pests are required to reduce the risks to a level consistent with Australia’s ALOP. The unrestricted risk of the other pests assessed achieves Australia’s ALOP and therefore risk management measures are not required. The results of these risk estimates are summarised in Table 4.4. The rationale for each value of the pest risk assessment, summarised in this table, is described in the relevant sections above.

Table 4.4: Summary of risk assessments for quarantine pests for fresh unshu mandarin fruit from the production area



Pest name

Probability of

Overall probability of entry, establishment and spread

Consequences

Unrestricted risk

Entry

Establish-ment

Spread

Importation

Distribution

Overall (importation x distribution)

Eriophyid mites [Acarina: Eriophyidae]

Aculops pelekassi

High

Low

Low

Moderate

Moderate

Low

Moderate

Low

Spider mites [Acarina: Tetranychidae]

Panonychus citri

High

Low

Low

Moderate

Moderate

Low

Low

Very Low

Armoured scales [Hemiptera: Diaspididae]

Howardia biclavis (WA, SA)

High

Low

Low

High

Moderate

Low

Low

Very Low

Ischnaspis longirostris (WA) 

Lepidosaphes gloverii (SA)

Lepidosaphes pinnaeformis (WA)

Lopholeucaspis japonica

Morganella longispina (WA, SA)

Parlatoria cinerea

Parlatoria pergandii (WA, SA)

Parlatoria theae

Parlatoria ziziphi

Pseudaonidia duplex

Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (WA, SA)

Unaspis euonymi

Unaspis yanonensis

Pest name

Probability of

Overall probability of entry, establishment and spread

Consequences

Unrestricted risk

Entry

Establish-ment

Spread

Importation

Distribution

Overall (importation x distribution)

Mealybugs [Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae]

Planococcus kraunhiae

High

Moderate

Moderate

High

High

Moderate

Low

Low

Planococcus lilacinus

Pseudococcus comstocki

Pseudococcus cryptus

Leafroller moths [Lepidoptera: Tortricidae]

Adoxophyes dubia

Low

Moderate

Low

High

High

Low

Moderate

Low

Adoxophyes honmai

Adoxophyes orana fasciata

Homona magnanima

Bagworms [Lepidoptera: Psychidae]

Eumeta japonica

Very Low

Low

Very Low

High

High

Very Low

Moderate

Very Low

Eumeta minuscula

Apple heliodinid [Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae]

Stathmopoda auriferella

Moderate

High

Moderate

High

High

Moderate

Low

Low

Thrips [Thysanoptera: Thripidae]

Chaetanaphothrips orchidii (WA)

High

Moderate

Moderate

High

High

Moderate

Low

Low

Frankliniella intonsa

Frankliniella occidentalis (NT, Tas.)

Thrips palmi (NT, WA, SA, Tas.)


Fruit flies [Diptera: Tephritidae]

Bactrocera tsuneonis

Low

High

Low

High

High

Low

High

Moderate

Fungi [Miriangiales: Elsinoaceae]

Sphaceloma fawcettii

High

Low

Low

Moderate

Moderate

Low

Moderate

Low

Bacteria [Xanthomonadales: Xanthomonadaceae]

Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri

Low

Very Low

Very Low

High

High

Very Low

High

Low

The relevant state or territory for pests of regional concern are shown in parentheses.

  1. Pest risk management

    1. Pest risk management measures and phytosanitary procedures

In addition to Japan’s existing commercial production practices for the production of fresh unshu mandarin fruit and minimum border procedures in Australia, specific pest risk management measures, including operational systems, are recommended to achieve Australia's ALOP.

Japan proposed the following systems approach for the management of citrus canker based on export systems for existing export markets for production of fresh unshu mandarin for export to Australia:



  • MAFF to register and manage unshu mandarin production areas that are free from citrus canker. These areas would consist of an export zone and a buffer zone of a certain distance.

  • Publicly administered inspections for citrus canker, etc. to be conducted by MAFF phytosanitary officers, as employees of national phytosanitary bodies, and inspection assistants who would be commissioned by MAFF and who have specialist knowledge of pests and diseases.

  • Planting of citrus fruits that are markedly susceptible to citrus canker in the buffer zones would be restricted.

  • Pathological assays of fruit for X. citri subsp. citri using bacteriophages.

  • Joint inspections of orchards by Japanese and Australian phytosanitary officers (before harvest) and of export fruit at packing.

  • Surface disinfection of fruit.

Biosecurity Australia has considered the components of this systems approach in developing the following pest risk management measures for citrus canker in this report.

The pest risk management measures are based on the mandatory requirement for Japan to adhere to existing commercial practices (refer to Chapter 3), unless deviations from these requirements are approved by AQIS.

The recommended pest risk management measures will apply to the four designated export areas (Areas 1–4) near Fujieda City and registered packing houses.

The specific pest risk management measures and operational system recommended for fresh unshu mandarin fruit from four designated export areas (Areas 1–4) near Fujieda City and registered packing houses are summarised in Table 5.1.

Table 5.1: Phytosanitary measures recommended for quarantine pests for fresh unshu mandarin fruit from the designated export areas

Pest


Common name

Measures

Arthropods


Eriophyid mites [Acarina: Eriophyidae]

Aculops pelekassi


pink citrus rust mite

Inspection and, if required, remedial action




Mealybugs [Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae]

Planococcus kraunhiae

Planococcus lilacinus

Pseudococcus comstocki

Pseudococcus cryptus

Japanese mealybug

coffee mealybug

Comstock mealybug

citrus mealybug


Leafroller moths [Lepidoptera: Tortricidae]

Adoxophyes dubia

Adoxophyes honmai

Adoxophyes orana fasciata

Homona magnanima

leafroller moths



Thrips [Thysanoptera: Thripidae]

Chaetanaphothrips orchidii (WA)

Frankliniella intonsa

Frankliniella occidentalis (NT, Tas.)

Thrips palmi (NT, SA, Tas., WA)

citrus rust thrips intonsa flower thrips

western flower thrips

melon thrips



Heliodinids [Lepidoptera: Oecophoridae]

Stathmopoda auriferilla

apple heliodinid



Fruit flies [Diptera: Tephritidae]

Bactrocera tsuneonis

Japanese orange fly


Continuation with the existing surveillance program to verify area freedom







Pest


Common name

Measures

Pathogens


Sphaceloma fawcettii



citrus scab

(exotic pathotypes)



Orchard inspection, orchard control and orchard freedom from symptoms at inspection

Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri


citrus canker

Unshu mandarin fruit for export to Australia to be sourced only from registered orchards within the four designated export areas in Japan (Areas 1–4)

Freedom from symptoms of citrus canker in the designated export areas for a minimum of two years prior to registration of orchards each year for export to Australia

Freedom from symptoms of citrus canker during the growing season based on monitoring of the registered export orchards after petal fall and prior to harvest

An additional survey of the export areas if a typhoon should be recorded at the meteorological station in Shizuoka City before the end of August

Mandatory copper sprays in accordance with the unshu mandarin spray calendar for Japan in the registered export orchards

Mandatory control for citrus leafminer (Phyllocnistis citrella) in accordance with the unshu mandarin spray calendar for Japan in the registered export orchards

Restrictions on movement of host material into the export areas

Post-harvest chemical treatment.




Australian regional quarantine pests with regions concerned in parentheses


      1. Management for Aculops pelekassi, Stathmopoda auriferella, the mealybugs Planococcus kraunhiae and Pl. lilacinus, Pseudococcus comstocki and Ps. cryptus, the leafroller moths Adoxophyes dubia, A. honmai, A. orana fasciata and Homona magnanima, and the thrips Chaetanaphothrips orchidii, Frankliniella intonsa, F. occidentalis and Thrips palmi

Pink citrus rust mite (A. pelekassi), the apple heliodinid (S. auriferella), four species of mealybug, four species of leafroller moth and four thrips have been assessed to have an unrestricted risk estimate of ‘low’ (Table 5.1) and measures are therefore required to manage these risks.

Pre-export inspection by MAFF and pre-clearance inspection by AQIS are recommended as the pest risk management measures for these pests. Consignments for pre-clearance are inspected by appropriately trained AQIS officers using the standard AQIS inspection protocol, which includes optical enhancement where necessary and inspection under fruit sepals.

The requirement is that each lot for inspection be free of quarantine pests based on finding no quarantine pests in a sample of 600 units (one unit equals a single unshu mandarin fruit) from each lot, whereby a lot is defined as all unshu mandarin fruit packed for export to Australia each day by a registered packing house. Freedom from pests by inspection of 600 units achieves a confidence level of 95% that no more than 0.5% of units in the lot are infested.

If quarantine pests and/or regulated articles (including soil, animal and plant debris) are detected during inspections, remedial action is to be taken. Remedial action may include one or more of the following:



  • treatment and re-inspection of the lot to ensure no viable quarantine pests or other regulated articles are present

  • removal of the lot from the export pathway to Australia.

Biosecurity Australia considers that these measures will reduce the likelihood of importation for these pests to at least ‘very low’. The restricted risk for all of these pests would then be reduced to at least ‘very low’, which would achieve Australia’s ALOP.

      1. Management for Bactrocera tsuneonis

Japanese orange fly (B. tsuneonis) does not occur on Honshu Island and has never been reported in the Shizuoka Prefecture (Appendix D). An existing monitoring program for the detection of B. tsuneonis and for any other fruit flies is in place in the unshu mandarin production area near Fujieda City. Traps consist of cuelure, methyl eugenol and protein baited lures (Appendix D). MAFF provided the results of fortnightly monitoring data for the detection of B. tsuneonis in the production area near Fujieda City, for the years 2001–2007. All trap results were negative for B. tsuneonis.

It is recommended that absence of B. tsuneonis in unshu orchards registered for export to Australia be confirmed by continuation of the existing surveillance program for B. tsuneonis to verify area freedom for the designated export areas.

The finding of any live or dead B. tsuneonis associated with unshu manadrin consignments would indicate non-compliance with the pest free area status. Therefore, if any live or dead B. tsuneonis are detected at inspections, the export program to Australia will be suspended until Biosecurity Australia and MAFF are satisfied that appropriate corrective action has been taken to re-instate the pest free area status for B. tsuneonis or an alternative risk management measure has been developed and approved as an alternative.

Biosecurity Australia considers that these measures will reduce the likelihood of importation of B. tsuneonis to ‘extremely low’. The restricted risk would then be reduced to ‘very low’, which would achieve Australia’s ALOP.



      1. Management for Sphaceloma fawcettii

Exotic pathotypes of citrus scab (S. fawcettii) have been assessed to have an unrestricted risk estimate of ‘low’ and measures are therefore required to manage this risk.

Visual inspection of fruit on its own is not considered to be an appropriate risk management option, as external signs of infection may not be present. If infected fruit was not detected at inspection, citrus scab may enter, establish and spread in Australia.

It is recommended that the risk of citrus scab in unshu orchards registered for export to Australia be managed by a mandatory fungicidal spray program to prevent infection by S. fawcettii. MAFF approved effective fungicide applications are to be integrated into the pesticide spray program and applied at critical infection periods.

It is recommended that MAFF manages the adherence of growers to the MAFF approved orchard control program for citrus scab. Information on the application of the control program must be made available by MAFF, on request by AQIS.

The detection of citrus scab during the pre-export phytosanitary inspections will result in removal of the source orchard from the export program for the remainder of the shipping season.

Biosecurity Australia considers that these measures will reduce the likelihood of importation of S.  fawcettii to at least ‘low’. The restricted risk would then be reduced to at least ‘very low’, which would achieve Australia’s ALOP.



      1. Management for Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri

Citrus canker (Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri) has been assessed to have an unrestricted risk estimate of ‘low’ and measures are therefore required to manage this risk.

Visual inspection of fruit on its own is not considered to be an appropriate risk management measure, considering the closeness of hosts in the production area relative to the designated export areas, the unavailability of survey data for citrus canker in the production area (excluding the four designated export areas) and the biology of the pathogen.

It is recognised that citrus canker has not been reported from the designated export areas for the past 40 years during regular surveys that are timed to coincide with the period of optimal symptom expression during the production season. However, as the four designated export areas are located within the production area where there is the potential for low pest prevalence, measures are required.

Biosecurity Australia recommends a systems approach for citrus canker, requiring the following mandatory measures for the importation of unshu mandarin fruit from Japan:



  • unshu mandarin fruit for export to Australia to be sourced only from registered orchards within the four designated export areas in Japan (Areas 1–4)

  • freedom from symptoms of citrus canker in the designated export areas for a minimum of two years prior to registration of orchards for export to Australia each season

  • freedom from symptoms of citrus canker during the growing season based on monitoring in the registered export orchards after petal fall and prior to harvest

  • an additional survey of the export areas if a typhoon should be recorded at the meteorological station in Shizuoka City before the end of August

  • copper sprays in accordance with the unshu mandarin spray calendar for Japan in the registered export orchards

  • control of citrus leafminer in accordance with the unshu mandarin spray calendar for Japan in the registered export orchards

  • restrictions on movement of host material into the export areas

  • post-harvest chemical treatment.

Registration of orchards in the designated export areas in Japan (Areas 1–4)

It is recommended that only orchards located within the designated export areas (Areas 1–4) are permitted for export to Australia. The minimum requirement for registration of orchards for export to Australia is their location within the designated export areas. This requirement is contingent upon the absence of symptoms of the disease determined by regular surveys.

For the first two years of trade, the inspection records for citrus canker that are currently collected in the designated export areas, as part of the existing export protocols for unshu mandarins to the USA and New Zealand, can be used to meet the requirements for registration of the designated export areas (Areas 1–4) to Australia.

Freedom from symptoms of citrus canker for registration of orchards

It is recommended that freedom from symptoms of citrus canker for a period of two years prior to export be required for the annual registration of orchards for export to Australia.

A sampling regime of 600 randomly selected unshu mandarin trees across the whole of each of the designated export areas is recommended. This sampling regime is based on finding no symptoms of citrus canker on all above-ground plant parts, including fruit and rootstock shoots. Freedom from symptoms of citrus canker in the inspection of 600 trees achieves a confidence level of 95% that no more than 0.5% of trees in each of the designated export areas have symptoms of citrus canker. MAFF would need to provide the results of these surveys to AQIS.

Freedom from symptoms of citrus canker during the growing season

It is recommended that field surveillance for symptoms of the disease be carried out in the registered export orchards at two sampling times; following petal fall during early fruit development and immediately prior to harvest5. AQIS officers would have significant involvement in the pre-harvest orchard inspection (refer to Requirement for pre-clearance, below). The ongoing need for joint orchard inspection may be re-assessed after a period of significant trade.

A sampling regime of 600 randomly selected unshu mandarin trees for registered orchards in each of the designated export areas at each of the two sampling times, is recommended. This sampling regime is based on finding no symptoms of citrus canker on all above-ground plant parts, including fruit and rootstock shoots. Freedom from symptoms of citrus canker in the inspection of 600 trees achieves a confidence level of 95% that no more than 0.5% of trees in registered orchards in each of the designated export areas have symptoms of citrus canker.

It is recommended that the detection of citrus canker at any time in the designated export areas leads to suspension of the entire export program. Suspension of the entire export program is considered justified, given the close proximity and small size of the individual export orchards, and possible effects of wind in the introduction and spread of the pathogen to the area. This measure will remain in place until such time as AQIS and MAFF are satisfied that appropriate corrective action has been taken to allow reinstatement. Applications for resumption of export to Australia can be made after a minimum of two years, ascertained by the absence from symptoms of citrus canker from the designated export areas (Areas 1–4).

Additional survey of the designated export areas after typhoons

Mid to late summer coincides with early fruit development when fruit is most susceptible to citrus canker.

It is recommended that if a typhoon is registered at the meteorological bureau at Shizuoka City between the after petal fall inspection and the end of August, then an additional survey for symptoms of citrus canker, will be required for the designated export areas 60 days after the last typhoon recorded by the end of August.

A sampling regime of 600 randomly selected unshu mandarin trees across the whole of each of the designated export areas is recommended. This sampling regime is based on finding no symptoms of citrus canker on all above-ground plant parts, including fruit and rootstock shoots. Freedom from symptoms of citrus canker in the inspection of 600 trees achieves a confidence level of 95% that no more than 0.5% of trees in each of the designated export areas have symptoms of citrus canker. Data from orchard inspections following typhoons is to be made available to AQIS in a routine manner6.

Mandatory copper sprays in accordance with the unshu mandarin spray calendar for Japan

It is recommended that mandatory copper sprays be applied in the registered export orchards at the times set out in the unshu mandarin spray calendar for Japan (refer to Table 3.5).

Mandatory control for citrus leafminer in accordance with the unshu mandarin spray calendar for Japan

It is recommended that mandatory insecticide sprays be applied for the control for citrus leafminer (Phyllocnistis citrella) in the registered export orchards at the times set out in the unshu mandarin spray calendar for Japan (refer to Table 3.5).

Movement restrictions for citrus canker host material

It is recommended that the following movement restrictions into the designated export areas (Areas 1–4) apply:



  • Staff working in orchards infected with citrus canker, and vehicles and equipment used in citrus canker infected orchards, are not to be allowed entry into the designated export areas without following appropriate decontamination procedures.

  • Fruit harvested for export is to be placed in clean bins and transported to the designated packing house under quarantine security if the conveyance has to pass through a non-quarantine area. Vehicles must be appropriately decontaminated if they have been used to transport citrus canker infected material.

  • Only unshu mandarin plants, and no other rutaceous hosts (neither vegetative plant parts nor fruit), are to be grown or carried into the designated export areas (Areas 1–4). Compliance with these movement requirements are subject to audit by AQIS.

These movement restrictions into the designated export areas are recommended to be implemented by MAFF notification. Copies of this notification and procedures to monitor the movement restrictions are to be made available to AQIS prior to the initial registration of export orchards in the designated export areas (Areas 1–4) near Fujieda City.
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