Final Import Risk Analysis Report for Fresh Unshu Mandarin Fruit from Shizuoka Prefecture in Japan



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Post-harvest chemical treatment for citrus canker

Disinfection treatment of fresh unshu mandarins in a registered packing house is recommended as a mandatory requirement. The operational procedures, below, are currently based on soaking fruit in solutions of chlorine or sodium ortho-phenylphenate tetrahydrate (SOPP tetrahydrate). In the event that other agents are to be used, these should be of an equivalent efficacy. MAFF would need to submit supporting documentation on the efficacy against X. citri subsp. citri and maintenance of active concentrations for other agents for approval by AQIS.

It is recommended that all fresh unshu fruit for export to Australia has been subjected to complete immersion in a water solution containing:


  • a minimum of 200 parts per million (ppm) available chlorine for a minimum of two minutes, with the pH maintained between 6.0 and 7.5

or

  • between 1.86% and 2% of a registered product that contains 95% sodium ortho-phenylphenate tetrahydrate (SOPP tetrahydrate) for at least one minute, with the pH of the solution maintained between 11.7 and 12.0.

It is recommended that registered packing houses have a documented system, approved by MAFF and AQIS, for measuring the available active constituents and pH levels in the water to ensure that they do not fall below the minimum recommended rates.

The level of available chlorine or SOPP tetrahydrate in the water is to be maintained at or above the required level. The available chlorine or SOPP tetrahydrate must be monitored and adjusted as required at the start of packing each day and every 30 minutes thereafter throughout the packing process.

Records of all chlorine or SOPP tetrahydrate monitoring, as listed above, are to be maintained and made available for audit by AQIS on request.

It is recommended that registered packing houses have an approved system in place to limit the build-up in the treatment tank of extraneous organic matter, including leaves, twigs, grass, weed, soil, slime or any other material that would interfere with the treatment.

Biosecurity Australia considers that these measures will reduce the likelihood of importation of X. citri subsp. citri to ‘extremely low’. The restricted risk would then be reduced to at least ’very low’, which would achieve Australia’s ALOP.


      1. Operational system for the maintenance and verification of phytosanitary status

A system of operational procedures is necessary to maintain and verify the phytosanitary status of fresh unshu mandarin fruit from the four designated export areas (Areas 1–4) near Fujieda City in Japan. This is to ensure that the recommended risk management measures have been met and are maintained.

It is recommended that Japan’s NPPO, or other relevant agency nominated by the NPPO, prepare a documented work plan for approval by AQIS that describes the phytosanitary procedures for the pests of quarantine concern for Australia and the various responsibilities of all parties involved in meeting this requirement.



Recognition of the competent authority

Japan’s Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) is the designated NPPO under the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC).

The objectives of the NPPO are to ensure that:


  • recommended service and certification standards, and recommended work plan procedures, are met by all relevant agencies participating in this program

  • recommended administrative processes are established that provide assurance that the recommended requirements of the program are being met.

Audit and verification

The objectives of the recommended requirement for audit and verification are to ensure that:



  • an effective approved documented system for the orchard, the packing house and during transport is in operation.

The phytosanitary system for unshu export production, certification of export orchards, pre-clearance inspection and certification is subject to audit by AQIS. Audits may be conducted at the discretion of AQIS during the entire production cycle and as a component of any pre-clearance arrangement.

AQIS orchard audits will measure compliance with orchard registration and identification, pest/disease management including maintenance of a spray diary/monitoring, record management, freedom of the designated export areas from symptoms of citrus canker, provision of typhoon data, and accreditation requirements, including accredited personnel for the recognition of all identified quarantine pests.

AQIS packing house audits of participants involved in pre-clearance arrangements will include the verification of compliance with packing house responsibilities, traceability, labelling, segregation and product security, MAFF/agency certification processes, and the use of accredited personnel for the above tasks.

Requirement for pre-clearance

The objectives of the recommended mandatory requirement for pre-clearance are to ensure that:



  • the recommended quarantine measures, including orchard surveys and required pesticide applications, product identification, AQIS inspection requirements, product security and documentation are met.

Under pre-clearance arrangements, AQIS officers would be involved in orchard inspections for pests of quarantine concern to Australia, in the direct verification of packing house procedures, and in fruit inspection. It would further include their involvement in auditing of other arrangements including registration procedures, existing commercial practices, traceability, handling of export fruit in a secure manner, movement controls etc.

Annual registration of export orchards

The objectives of this recommended procedure are to ensure that:



  • unshu mandarin fruit is sourced from MAFF registered export orchards producing export quality fruit, as the pest risk assessments are based on existing commercial production practices

  • export orchards from which unshu mandarin fruit is sourced can be identified so investigation and corrective action can be targeted rather than applying it to all contributing export orchards in the event that live pests are regularly intercepted during pre-clearance inspection

  • export orchards adhere to specific requirements for citrus canker as outlined above

  • registration of orchards for export to Australia are to be completed in winter before the start of each unshu mandarin season to allow pest control programs (including pesticide applications for citrus leafminer, scab and citrus canker) and inspection protocols for the identified quarantine pests to take place.

Registration of packing houses and auditing of procedures

The objectives of this recommended procedure are to ensure that:



  • unshu mandarin fruit is processed and packaged at MAFF registered packing houses, processing export quality fruit, as the pest risk assessments are based on existing commercial packing activities

  • reference to the registered packing house and the source orchard, by name or a number code, are clearly stated on cartons destined for export of fresh unshu mandarin fruit to Australia for trace back and auditing purposes.

It is recommended that MAFF registers the packing houses before the commencement of each harvest season.

Pre-export phytosanitary inspection and certification by MAFF

The objectives of this recommended procedure are to ensure that:



  • all lots are inspected by MAFF in accordance with official procedures for all visually detectable quarantine pests and other regulated articles (including soil, animal and plant debris) at a standard 600 unit sampling rate per lot whereby one unit is one unshu mandarin fruit (refer to Section 5.1.1)

  • a phytosanitary certificate (PC) is issued for each consignment upon completion of pre-export inspection and treatment to verify that the relevant measures have been undertaken offshore

  • each PC includes:

a description of the consignment (including grower number and packing house details)

and


an additional declaration that ‘The fruit in this consignment has been produced in Japan in accordance with the conditions governing entry of fresh unshu mandarin fruit to Australia and inspected and found free of quarantine pests’.

Pre-clearance phytosanitary inspection by AQIS

The objectives of this recommended procedure are to ensure that:



  • all lots are inspected by AQIS in accordance with official procedures for all visually detectable quarantine pests and other regulated articles (including soil, animal and plant debris) at a standard 600 unit sampling rate per lot whereby one unit is one unshu mandarin fruit (refer to Section 5.1.1).

  • The detection of dead or alive B. tsuneonis, for which area freedom is a prerequisite for export to Australia, would incur the suspension of the entire export program pending an investigation by MAFF and AQIS.

  • The detection of symptoms of citrus scab would incur the suspension of the source orchard from the export program for the remainder of the export season.

  • The detection of other quarantine pests would incur the rejection of the inspected lot and remedial action which includes the option for treatment.

  • The detection of symptoms of citrus canker would incur the suspension of the entire export program pending an investigation by MAFF and AQIS.

Packaging and labelling

The objectives of this recommended procedure are to ensure that:



  • unshu mandarin fruit proposed for export to Australia is not contaminated by quarantine pests or regulated articles (e.g. trash, soil and weed seeds)

  • unprocessed packing material (which may vector pests not identified as being on the pathway) is not imported with fresh unshu mandarin fruit

  • all wood material used in packaging of the commodity complies with AQIS conditions (see AQIS publication ‘Cargo Containers: Quarantine aspects and procedures)

  • secure packaging is used if consignments are not transported in sealed containers directly to Australia

  • the packaged unshu mandarin fruit is labelled with the orchard registration number for the purposes of trace back to registered orchards

  • the pre-cleared status of unshu mandarin fruit is clearly identified.

Specific conditions for storage and transport of produce

The objectives of this recommended procedure are to ensure that:



  • product for export to Australia is secure by segregation from non-precleared product and to prevent mixing or cross-contamination with produce destined elsewhere

  • the quarantine integrity of the commodity during storage and movement is maintained.

Remedial action(s) for non-compliance – on-arrival verification

The objectives of the recommended requirements for remedial action(s) for non-compliance during on-arrival verification are to ensure that:



  • any quarantine risk is addressed by remedial action, as appropriate, for consignments that do not comply with import requirements.

      1. Uncategorised pests

If an organism is detected on fresh unshu mandarin fruit during the pre-clearance inspection, that has not been categorised, it will require assessment by Biosecurity Australia to determine its quarantine status and if phytosanitary action is required. The detection of any pests of quarantine concern not already identified in the analysis may result in remedial action, as appropriate.

    1. Review of policy

Australia reserves the right to review and amend the import policy if circumstances change.

Australia is prepared to review the policy after a substantial volume of trade has occurred.

The NPPO, or other relevant agency nominated by the NPPO, must inform AQIS immediately of any change in the distribution of Japanese orange fly, citrus greening or the Asian citrus psyllid in Japan or the detection of any new pests of unshu mandarin that are of potential quarantine concern to Australia.

Appendices


Appendix A: Initiation and pest categorisation

Appendix A 1: Pest categorisation for fresh unshu mandarin fruit from Japan – Presence/absence in Australia and pathway association for arthropods and pathogens7, 8, 9, 50, 61, 12

Pest

Common name

Present in Japan

Present in Australia

Presence on fresh unshu mandarin fruit

Consider further

INVERTEBRATA

ACARI (mites)

Aculops pelekassi (Keifer, 1959)

[Eriophyidae]



Pink citrus rust mite

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Smith et al. 1997)

Yes – Feeds on green stems, leaves and fruits of citrus (McCoy 1996; Futch et al. 2001; Childers et al. 2004).

Yes

Brevipalpus californicus (Banks, 1904)

[Tenuipalpidae]



Citrus flat mite

Yes (Mito and Uesugi 2004)

Yes (Smith et al. 1997; DAFWA 2008a)




No

Brevipalpus lewisi McGregor, 1949

[Tenuipalpidae]



Citrus flat mite

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Halliday 1998)




No

Brevipalpus obovatus Donnadieu, 1875

[Tenuipalpidae]



Privet mite

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Halliday 1998).

Not present in WA (DAWA 2003a).



No – Feeds on leaves, stems and petioles (Jeppson et al. 1975).

No

Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes, 1939)

[Tenuipalpidae]



False spider mite

Yes (CIE 1970a)

Yes (Halliday 2000; DAFWA 2008a)




No

Bryobia rubrioculus (Scheuten, 1857)

[Tetranychidae]



Bryobia mite

Yes (MAFNZ 2000)

Yes (Halliday 1998)




No

Eotetranychus kankitus Ehara, 1955

[Tetranychidae]



Citrus yellow mite

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Halliday 1998)

No – Attacks citrus trees, withering branches and causing leaves, flowers and fruit to fall (Chen 1999). This pest can attack leaves, flowers, shoots and fruitlets, with young leaves receiving the most damage (Yang 1998).

No

Eotetranychus sexmaculatus (Riley, 1890)

[Syn.: Eotetranychus asiaticus Ehara, 1966]

[Tetranychidae]


Six-spotted spider mite

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Halliday 1998) including WA (Fisher and Learmonth 2006)




No

Eutetranychus orientalis (Klein, 1936)

[Tetranychidae]



Citrus brown mite

Yes (Mito and Uesugi 2004)

Yes (Walter et al. 1995; DAFWA 2008a)




No

Panonychus citri (McGregor, 1916)

[Tetranychidae]



Citrus red mite

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Halliday 1998).

Distribution restricted to Orange, Gosford and Sydney in New South Wales, where it is subject to quarantine restrictions (Smith et al. 1997).




Yes – Feeds on fruit, leaves and green twigs of citrus. Can cause pale stippling of rind, fruit may appear dull (Smith et al. 1997). Mites can develop and mature on ripe orange fruit in California (Jeppson et al. 1975).

Yes


Panonychus ulmi (Koch, 1835)

[Tetranychidae]



European red spider mite

Yes (MAFF 2003)

Yes (Halliday 1998)




No

Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead, 1879)

[Eriophyidae]



Citrus rust mite

Yes (CIE 1970b)

Yes (Smith et al. 1997; DAFWA 2008b)




No

Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Banks, 1904)

[Tarsonemidae]



Broad mite

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Halliday 1998)




No

Tetranychus cinnabarinus (Boisduval, 1867)

[Tetranychidae]



Carmine spider mite

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Halliday 1998)

No – Associated with leaves on citrus, cotton and tomato (MAFF 1990; CAB International 2004).

No

Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida, 1927

[Tetranychidae]



Kanzawa spider mite

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Halliday 1998).

Not present in WA (DAWA 2003a).



No – Associated with leaves and stems on citrus (MAFF 1990; CAB International 2004).

No

Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836

[Tetranychidae]



Two spotted mite

Yes (MAFNZ 2000)

Yes (Halliday 1998)




No

INSECTA (insects)

Coleoptera (beetles)

Actenicerus orientalis (Candèze, 1899)

[Elateridae]



Click beetle

Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Calder 1996; 1998)

No – Adults gather on flowers of unshu. Larvae are saprophagous (MAFF 2003).

No

Adoretus sinicus Burmeister, 1855

[Scarabaeidae]



Chinese rose beetle, Flower beetle, Scarab

Yes (MAFF 1990; Furuno 1993)

No (Cassis et al. 1992, 2002)

No – Affects the flowers and leaves of citrus in Korea. Larvae feed on roots (MAFF 1990; USDA 2002).

No

Adoretus tenuimaculatus Waterhouse, 1875

[Scarabaeidae]



Brown chestnut chafer, Flower beetle, Scarab

Yes (MAFF 1990; Furuno 1993)

No (Cassis et al. 1992, 2002)

No – Affects the flowers and leaves of citrus in Korea. Larvae feed on roots (MAFF 1990; USDA 2002).


No

Agrilus alesi Oben, 1935

[Buprestidae]



Ales' flatheaded citrus borer

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Bellamy 2001)

No – Adults bore into cambium of branches or trunks of citrus and are also associated with leaves (MAFF 1990).

No

Agrilus auriventris Saunders, 1873

[Buprestidae]



Citrus flatheaded borer

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Bellamy 2001)

No – Adults bore into cambium of branches or trunks of citrus and are also associated with leaves (MAFF 1990).

No

Agrypnus binodulus binodulus (Motschulsky, 1860)

[Syn.: Lacon binodulus Motschulsky, 1860]

[Elateridae]


Wireworm

Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Calder 1996, 1998)

No – Sprouting seeds and below ground portions of young seedlings suffer feeding damage (MAFF 2003).

No

Amystax satanus Nakane, 1963

[Curculionidae]



Weevil

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (No records found)

No – Associated with leaves of citrus (MAFF 1990).

No

Anomala albopilosa albopilosa Hope, 1839

[Scarabaeidae]



Cane white grubs

Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Cassis et al. 2002)

No – Pest of strawberries, grapes, persimmons and podocarps (MAFF 2003). Pest of sugarcane in Japan (Hokyo and Nagamine 1978) and also found feeding on leaves of kanaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) (Hiramatsu et al. 2001). Although this pest is listed on the MAFF (2003) pest list, there is no confirmation of it being on unshu mandarin or fruit of unshu mandarin.

No

Anomala cuprea (Hope, 1839)

[Scarabaeidae]



Cupreous chafer

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Cassis et al. 2002)

No – Adults feed on leaves of citrus and larvae feed on roots (MAFF 1990; USDA 1995).

No

Anomala orientalis (Waterhouse, 1875)

[Scarabaeidae]



Chafer

Yes (Togashi 1980)

No (Cassis et al. 2002)

No – In Korea this pest is known to affect the leaves and roots of citrus (USDA 2002).

No

Anomala rufocuprea Motschulsky, 1860

[Scarabaeidae]



Chafer

Yes (Yokoyama et al. 1998)

No (Cassis et al. 2002)

No – In Korea this pest is known to affect the leaves and roots of citrus (USDA 2002).

Adults feed on leaves of alder, Sakhalin knotweed, kanaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) and are found on flowers of other plants (Hiramatsu et al. 2001; IKIP 2002).



No

Anthrenus verbasci (Linnaeus, 1767)

[Dermestidae]



Variegated carpet beetle

Yes (Kuwahara and Nakamura 1985)

Yes (CSIRO 1991)




No

Aphotistus notabilis Candèze, 1873

[Elateridae]






Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Calder 1996; 1998)

No – Elaterid larvae feed in soil on plant material or other soil insects. Adults occasionally come to flowers to feed (Calder 1996). Although this pest is listed on the MAFF (2003) pest list, there is no confirmation of it being on unshu mandarin or fruit of unshu mandarin.

No

Aplotes roelofsi Chevrolat, 1885

[Syn.: Sphenophorus carinicollis Roelofs, 1875]

Current preferred name inferred from the MOKUROKU database (Tadauchi and Inoue 2007)

[Curculionidae]






Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Zimmerman 1993)

No – Feeds on the stem of the Asiatic dayflower (Commelina communis) in Japan (Morimoto 1978). Although this pest is listed on the MAFF (2003) pest list, there is no confirmation of it being on unshu mandarin or fruit of unshu mandarin.

No

Araecerus coffeae (Fabricius, 1801)

[identified as A. fasciculatus in MAFF, 1990]

There is debate on the synonymy of A. coffeae and A fasciculatus (Zimmerman 1994; Valentine 2005). In this IRA these two species are considered synonymous.

[Anthribidae]



Coffee bean weevil

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Zimmerman 1994)




No

Athemus suturellus suturellus (Motschulsky, 1860)

[Cantharidae]



Leather winged beetle

Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Calder 1998)

No – Cantharid adults are predacious (MAFF 2003) but also feed on pollen, nectar and fresh foliage. Larvae are general predators on small arthropods in the soil and leaf litter (Lawrence and Britton 1994). Although this pest is listed on the MAFF (2003) pest list, there is no confirmation of it being on unshu mandarin or fruit of unshu mandarin.

No

Athemus vitellinus (Kiesenwetter, 1874)

[Cantharidae]






Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Calder 1998)

No – Cantharid adults are predacious (MAFF 2003) but also feed on pollen, nectar and fresh foliage. Larvae are general predators on small arthropods in the soil and leaf litter (Lawrence and Britton 1994). Although this pest is listed on the MAFF (2003) pest list, there is no confirmation of it being on unshu mandarin or fruit of unshu mandarin.

No

Aulacophora femoralis (Motschulsky, 1857)

[Chrysomelidae]



Cucurbit leaf beetle

Yes (Whalon et al. 2003)

No (Wilcox 1972)

No – In Korea this pest is known to affect the leaves and roots of citrus (USDA 2002).

No

Aulacophora nigripennis Motschulsky, 1857

[Chrysomelidae]



Pumpkin beetle

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Wilcox 1972)

No – Larvae and adults feed on leaves of citrus (MAFF 1990).

No

Blitopertha orientalis Reitter, 1903

[Scarabaeidae]



Oriental beetle

Yes (MAFF 1990; CABI and EPPO 1997a)

No (Cassis et al. 1992)

No – Larvae feed on the roots and adults feed on the leaves and flowers of citrus (Davidson and Peairs 1966; MAFF 1990, 2003).

No

Cassida obtusata Boheman, 1854

[Chrysomelidae]



Flea beetle

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Borowiec and Świętojańska 2004)

No – Associated with flowers and leaves of citrus (MAFF 1990).

No

Chlorophorus annularis (Fabricius, 1787)

[Cerambycidae]



Bamboo longhorn beetle

Yes (MAFF 2003)

Yes (McKeown 1947; APHIS 2000)




No

Corymbitodes gratus (Lewis, 1894)

[Elateridae]






Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Calder 1996, 1998)

No – Gathers on new foliage of broad leaf trees in early spring, and also commonly gathers on flowers (MAFF 2003). Although this pest is listed on the MAFF (2003) pest list, there is no confirmation of it being on unshu mandarin or fruit of unshu mandarin.

No

Ectinohoplia obducta (Motschulsky, 1857)

[Scarabaeidae]



Scarab

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Cassis et al. 1992)

No – Associated with flowers of citrus (MAFF 1990).

No

Ectinus sericeus sericeus (Candèze, 1878)

[Elateridae]



Wheat wireworm

Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Calder 1996, 1998)

No – Pest of barley, sweet corn, potatoes, sweet potatoes, Chinese radish, Chinese cabbage and cabbage (MAFF 2003). Although this pest is listed on the MAFF (2003) pest list, there is no confirmation of it being on unshu mandarin or fruit of unshu mandarin.

No

Epuraea domina (Reitter, 1873)

[Nitidulidae]



Sap beetle

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (No records found)

No – Associated with flowers of citrus (MAFF 1990) and decayed fruit (Hayashi 1978).

No

Epuraea japonica (Motschulsky, 1860)

[Nitidulidae]



Sap beetle

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (No records found)

No – Associated with flowers of citrus (MAFF 1990) and decayed fruit (Hayashi 1978).

No

Eucetonia pilifera (Motschulsky, 1860)

[Scarabaeidae]



Flower beetle

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Cassis et al. 1992)

No – Adults feed on the pollen and nectar of citrus flowers (MAFF 1990, 2003).

No

Eucetonia roelofsi (Harold, 1880)

[Scarabaeidae]



Flower beetle

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Cassis et al. 1992)

No – Adults feed on flowers of citrus (MAFF 1990; IKIP 2002).

No

Glycyphana fulvistemma (Motschulsky, 1860)

[Scarabaeidae]



Scarab beetle

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Cassis et al. 1992)

No – Adults are associated with flowers of citrus (MAFF 1990).

No

Haptoncurina paulula Reitter, 1873

[Nitidulidae]



Sap beetle

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (no records found)

No – Associated with flowers of citrus (MAFF 1990) and decayed fruit (Hayashi 1978).

No

Holotrichia kiotonensis (Brenske, 1894)

[Scarabaeidae]



Black chafer

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Cassis et al. 1992)

No – Adults feed on leaves of citrus and larvae feed on roots (MAFF 1990). Melolonthine larvae are root feeders damaging pastures and crops; adults are chafers often causing defoliation of trees during outbreaks; adults when disturbed will often fall to the ground or take flight (Booth et al. 1990).

No

Holotrichia picea (Motschulsky, 1857)

[Scarabaeidae]



Chafer

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Cassis et al. 1992)

No – Melolonthine larvae are root feeders damaging pastures and crops; adults are chafers often causing defoliation of trees during outbreaks; adults when disturbed will often fall to the ground or take flight (Booth et al. 1990).

No
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