Final Import Risk Analysis Report for Fresh Unshu Mandarin Fruit from Shizuoka Prefecture in Japan



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Hoplia communis Waterhouse, 1875

[Scarabaeidae]






Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Cassis et al. 1992)

No – Pest of pulse pastures, lawn grass, azaleas and rhododendrons (MAFF 2003). Although this pest is listed on the MAFF (2003) pest list, there is no confirmation of it being on unshu mandarin or fruit of unshu mandarin.

No

Hypomeces squamosus (Fabricius, 1792)

[Curculionidae]



Gold-dust weevil

Yes (Cab International 2007)

No (No records found)

No – Larvae feed on roots, adults feed on leaves. Citrus is recorded as a host (Cab International 2007).

No

Luperodes moorii (Baly, 1874)

[Chrysomelidae]






Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (No records found)

No – Gathers on nettle and alder trees (MAFF 2003). Although this pest is listed on the MAFF (2003) pest list, there is no confirmation of it being on unshu mandarin or fruit of unshu mandarin.

No

Luperomorpha funesta (Baly, 1874)

[Chrysomelidae]



Mulberry flea beetle

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (No records found)

No – Associated with leaves, roots or young fruits of citrus (Iba and Inoue 1977; MAFF 1990).

No

Maladera japonica (Motschulsky, 1857)

[Scarabaeidae]



Velvety chafer

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Cassis et al. 1992)

No – Feed on leaves and roots of citrus (MAFF 1990).

No

Maladera orientalis (Motschulsky, 1857)

[Scarabaeidae]



Smaller velvety chafer

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Cassis et al. 1992)

No – Adults feed on the leaves and larvae feed on the roots of citrus (MAFF 1990).

No

Melanotus fortnumi (Candèze, 1878)

[Elateridae]



Sweet potato wireworm

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Calder 1996, 1998)

No – Adults feed on leaves and larvae feed on roots of citrus (MAFF 1990; Matsui and Ueda 1992).

No

Melanotus legatus Candèze, 1860

[Elateridae]



Pectinate-horned click beetle

Yes (Kohno 1992)

No (Calder 1996)

No – In Korea this pest is known to affect the leaves and roots of citrus (USDA 2002).

No

Mesalcidodes trifidus (Pascoe, 1870)

[Curculionidae]



Weevil

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Klima 1934)

No – Adults are associated with leaves and lay eggs on stems of citrus (MAFF 1990, 2003). Associated with the leaves of kudzu plants (Frye et al. 2007). Not likely to be on the unshu fruit pathway (USDA 2002).

No

Mimela flavilabris Waterhouse, 1875

[Scarabaeidae]



Chafer beetle

Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Cassis et al. 1992)

No – Feeds on flowers and alder leaves. Other Mimela spp. feed on roots (Fernando 1971; Chakravarthy et al. 1989; Mitsuhashi 1989; IKIP 2002).

No

Mimela testaceipes (Motschulsky, 1860)

[Scarabaeidae]



Striated chafer

Yes (Torikura 1991)

No (Cassis et al. 2002)

No – Affects the leaves and roots of citrus in Korea (USDA 2002).

No

Nipponovalgus angusticollis (Waterhouse, 1875)

[Scarabaeidae]



Flattened flower chafer

Yes (Tanaka 1986)

No (Cassis et al. 2002)

No – In Korea this pest is known to affect the leaves and roots of citrus (USDA 2002).

No

Oxycetonia jucunda (Falderman, 1835)

[Scarabaeidae]



Citrus flower chafer

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Cassis et al. 1992)

No – Adults are associated with flowers, leaves, stems and larvae are associated with roots of citrus (MAFF 1990).


No

Pantomorus cervinus (Boheman, 1840)

[Curculionidae]



Fuller’s rose weevil

Yes (Mito and Uesugi 2004; CAB International 2007)

Yes (APPD 2008; DAFWA 2008a)




No

Phloeobius gigas Fabricius, 1775

[Anthribidae]






Yes (MAFF 2003)

Yes (Zimmerman 1994)




No

Phyllopertha irregularis (Waterhouse, 1875)

[Scarabaeidae]






Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Cassis et al. 1992)

No – Adults not associated with fruit, and larvae feed on roots.

No

Poecilophilides rusticola (Burmeister, 1842)

[Scarabaeidae]






Yes (ME 2002)

No (Cassis et al. 2002)

No – In Korea this pest is known to affect the leaves and roots of citrus (USDA 2002).

No

Protaetia brevitarsis Lewis, 1879

[Scarabaeidae]



White spotted flower chafer

Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Cassis et al. 1992)

No – Gathers on tree sap of unshu mandarin trees (MAFF 2003).

No

Protaetia orientalis Gory and Percheron, 1833

[Scarabaeidae]



May beetle

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Cassis et al. 1992)

No – Adults are associated with flowers, leaves, stems, and larvae feed on roots of citrus (MAFF 1990).

No

Psammoecus triguttatus Reitter, 1874

[Silvanidae]



Beetle

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Chûjô and Lee 1993)

No – Adults only feed on young citrus fruit (MAFF 1990).

No

Pseudocneorhinus bifasciatus Roelofs, 1880

[Curculionidae]



Gooseberry weevil

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Schenkling and Marshall 1931)

No – Larvae and adults feed on leaves of citrus (Maier 1983, 1986).

No

Pterolophia zonata (Bates, 1873)

[Cerambycidae]



White-caudate longicorn

Yes (Iwata 1998)

No (Breuning 1961)

No – In Korea this pest is known to affect the leaves and roots of citrus (USDA 2002).

No

Scepticus griseus (Roelofs, 1873)

[Curculionidae]



Rusty gourd-shaped weevil

Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Günther and Zumpt 1933)

No – Pest infests young shoots and leaves of unshu (MAFF 2003).

No

Scepticus insularis Roelofs, 1873

[Curculionidae]



Striped gourd-shaped weevil

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Günther and Zumpt 1933)

No – Adults feed on leaves and larvae feed on roots of citrus (MAFF 1990).

No

Xanthochroa waterhousei Harold, 1875

[Oedemeridae]






Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Schenkling 1915)

No – Larvae mainly live in rotten conifers. Adults gather on citrus flowers and are thought to feed on nectar and pollen (MAFF 2003).

No

Diptera (true flies; mosquitoes)

Atherigona orientalis Schiner, 1868

[Muscidae]



Pepper fruit fly

Yes (Pont 1992)

Yes (Pont 1992; DAFWA 2008a)




No

Bactrocera tsuneonis (Miyake, 1919)

[Syn.: Dacus cheni Chao 1987]

[Tephritidae]


Japanese orange fly

Yes (MAFF 1990)


No (Evenhuis 1999)

Yes – The pest is associated with citrus fruit in Japan (MAFF 1990; White and Elson-Harris 1994).

Yes


Contarinia okadai (Miyoshi, 1980)

[Cecidomyiidae]



Japanese citrus flower-bud midge

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Evenhuis 1999)

No – Larvae feed on flower buds of citrus (Harris and Yukawa 1980; MAFF 1990).

No

Drosophila simulans Sturtevant, 1919

[Drosophilidae]






Yes (Mito and Uesugi 2004)

Yes (APPD 2008; DAFWA 2008b)




No

Limonia amatrix (Alexander, 1922)

[Tipulidae]



Citrus crane fly

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Evenhuis 1999)

Yes – MAFF advised that this species has been recorded feeding on mandarin and other citrus fruit and that this pest does not occur in commercial citrus growing areas in Japan. Larvae of Limonia spp. require moist environments and are mostly associated with fungi, muddy earth, decaying wood and living roots. Eggs are laid in similar environments (Alexander 1920; CAB International 2007).

Yes

Hemiptera (aphids; leafhoppers; mealybugs; phyllids; scales; true bugs; whiteflies)

Alcimocoris japonensis (Scott, 1880)

[Pentatomidae]



Shield bug

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Cassis and Gross 2002)

No – Adults and nymphs suck the sap of citrus (MAFF 1990).

No

Aleurocanthus spiniferus (Quaintance, 1903)

[Aleyrodidae]



Citrus spiny whitefly

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Martin 1999).

Not present in WA (DAWA 2003a).



No – Associated with leaves of citrus (MAFF 1990). Mostly infests the underside of young leaves (Smith et al. 1997).

Citrus species are a major host. Eggs are laid and crawlers feed on the underside of leaves. Affects the leaves and stems (CAB International 2007).

No

Aleuroclava aucubae (Kuwana, 1911)

[Aleyrodidae]



Aucuba whitefly

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Martin 1999)

No – Associated with leaves of citrus (MAFF 1990). Not associated with unshu fruit (USDA 1995).

No

Aleurolobus marlatti (Quaintance, 1903)

[Aleyrodidae]



Marlatt whitefly

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Martin 1999).

Not present in WA (DAWA 2003a).



No – Associated with leaves of citrus (MAFF 1990; USDA 2002).

No

Aleurothrixus floccosus (Maskell, 1895)

[Aleyrodidae]



Woolly whitefly

Yes (Kanmiya and Sonobe 2002)

No (Smith et al. 1997)

No – Generally associated with leaves of citrus (Kerns et al. 2004), and affects the leaves of unshu in Japan (MAFF 2009). Distributed in Okinawa region of southern Japan (MAFF 2009)

No

Anacanthocoris concoloratus (Uhler)

[Coreidae]



Adzuki bean bug

Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Cassis and Gross 2002)

No – Pest of pulses (MAFF 2003). Not associated with unshu fruit (USDA 1995).

No

Anacanthocoris striicornis (Scott, 1874)

[Coreidae]



Larger squash bug

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Cassis and Gross 2002)

No – Adults can suck the sap from citrus plants (MAFF 1990). Not associated with unshu fruit (USDA 1995).

No

Andaspis hawaiiensis (Maskell, 1895)

[Syn. Lepidosaphes moorsi Doane and Ferris, 1916]

[Diaspididae]


Armoured scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)

Yes – This scale has been recorded damaging the leaves and fruit of citrus in Western Samoa (Williams and Watson 1988).

Yes

Antonina crawii Cockerell, 1900

[Pseudococcidae]



Bamboo scale

Yes (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)

Yes (Ben-Dov et al. 2005).

Not present in WA (DAFWA 2008b).



No – Associated with leaves of citrus in Korea (USDA 2002). Unshu is not a host for this species in Japan (MAFF2009).

No

Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell, 1879)

[Diaspididae]



Red scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Smith et al. 1997)




No

Aonidiella citrina (Coquillett, 1891)

[Diaspididae]



Yellow scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Smith et al. 1997), including WA (Watson 2005)




No

Aonidiella comperei McKenzie, 1937

[Diaspididae]






Yes (Inoue et al. 2006; Ben-Dov et al. 2008)

Yes (APPD 2008; DAFWA 2008a)




No

Aonidiella inornata McKenzie, 1938

[Diaspididae]






Yes (Inoue et al. 2006; Ben-Dov et al. 2008)

Yes (APPD 2008; DAFWA 2008a)




No

Apheliona ferruginea (Matsumura, 1931)

[Cicadellidae]



Citrus leafhopper

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Day and Fletcher 1994; Fletcher 2002)

No – Although this species is associated with citrus fruit (MAFF 1990) whereby adults and nymphs feed by inserting their stylets into plant tissues (leaves and maturing citrus fruit) for short periods of time, adults fly off and nymphs hop/walk from fruit once disturbed. Thus this species is likely to be removed from the pathway during harvesting and processing of fruit.

No

Aphis craccivora (Koch, 1854)

[Aphididae]



Cowpea aphid

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Berlandier and Sweetingham 2003)




No

Aphis fabae Scopoli, 1763

[Aphididae]



Black bean aphid

Yes (Cab International 2007; Sugimoto 2008)

No (No records found)

No – Mainly a pest of beans, citrus is a minor host. Aphids are sap sucking and are found on stems and on the underside of leaves (CAB International 2007). Unshu is not a host for this species in Japan (MAFF 2009).

No

Aphis gossypii Glover, 1877

[Aphididae]



Cotton aphid

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Smith et al. 1997)




No

Aphis spiraecola (Patch, 1914)

[Aphididae]



Spiraea aphid

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Blackman and Eastop 2000)




No

Aphrophora intermedia Uhler, 1896

[Aphrophoridae]



Common spittlebug

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Fletcher 2006; Fletcher and Larivière 2006)

No– Associated with leaves and young shoots of citrus (MAFF 1990).

No

Aphrophora stictica (Matsumura, 1903)

[Aphrophoridae]



Spittlebug

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Fletcher 2006; Fletcher and Larivière 2006)

No – Adults are associated with leaves of citrus (MAFF 1990). Pest of soybeans, citrus and pasture grasses (MAFF 2003).

No

Aspidiotus destructor Signoret, 1869

[Diaspididae]



Coconut scale

Yes (MAFF 2003)

Yes (Ben-Dov et al. 2005; APPD 2007)




No

Aspidiotus excisus Green, 1896

[Diaspididae]






Yes (Mito and Uesugi 2004; Inoue et al. 2006)

No (Ben-Dov et al. 2008)

No – Citrus is listed as a host (Williams and Watson 1988; Watson 2005). Associated with leaves and stems (Watson 2005).

No

Asterococcus muratae Kuwana, 1907

[Cerococcidae]






Yes (MAFF 2009)
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