Final Import Risk Analysis Report for Fresh Unshu Mandarin Fruit from Shizuoka Prefecture in Japan



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No (Ben-Dov et al. 2008)

Unshu mandarin is not a host (MAFF 2009).

No

Aulacaspis tubercularis (Newstead, 1906)

[Diaspididae]



White mango scale

Yes (Mito and Uesugi 2004)

Yes (APPD 2008; DAFWA 2008a)




No

Aulacorthum magnoliae (Essig and Kuwana, 1918)

[Aphididae]



Aphid

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Blackman and Eastop 2000)

No – Feeds on young leaves and buds of citrus (MAFF 1990).

No

Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach, 1843)

[Aphididae]



Foxglove aphid

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Berlandier 1997)




No

Bemisia giffardi (Kotinsky, 1907)

[Aleyrodidae]



Giffard whitefly

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Martin 1999). Not present in WA (DAWA 2003a).

No - All species of whitefly feed on leaves of plants (Arnett 1997).

No

Bothrogonia japonica (Ishihara)

[Cicadellidae]



Black-tipped leafhopper

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Day and Fletcher 1994; Fletcher and Larivière 2006)

No – Associated with leaves of unshu in Japan (MAFF 1990).

No

Carbula humerigera (Uhler, 1860)

[Pentatomidae]



Shieldbug

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Cassis and Gross 2002)

No – Adults and nymphs suck sap, associated with leaves of citrus (MAFF 1990)

No

Ceroplastes ceriferus (Fabricius, 1798)

[Coccidae]



Indian wax scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)




No

Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock, 1881

[Coccidae]



Florida wax scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Smith et al. 1997; Ben-Dov et al. 2005). Not present in WA (DAWA 2003a).

No – Associated with leaves and twigs of citrus (Smith et al. 1997).

No

Ceroplastes japonicus Green, 1921

[Coccidae]



Japanese wax scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)

No – Associated with leaves, twigs and branches of citrus (MAFF 1990).

No

Ceroplastes pseudoceriferus Green, 1935

[Coccidae]



Green scale

Yes (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)

No (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)

No – In Korea this pest is known to affect the leaves and roots of citrus (USDA 2002).

No

Ceroplastes rubens Maskell, 1893

[Coccidae]



Red wax scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Smith et al. 1997; Ben-Dov et al. 2005)




No

Chrysomphalus bifasciculatus Ferris, 1938

[Diaspididae]



False Florida red scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)

No – Associated with leaves and branches of citrus (MAFF 1990).

No

Chrysomphalus aonidum (Linnaeus, 1758)

[Syn.: Chrysomphalus ficus Ashmead, 1880]

[Diaspididae]


Circular black scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Smith et al. 1997; DAFWA 2008a)




No

Chrysomphalus dictyospermi (Morgan, 1889)

[Diaspididae]



Spanish red scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Ben-Dov et al. 2005; APPD 2008; DAFWA 2008a).




No

Cletus punctiger (Dallas, 1852)

[Coreidae]



Squash bug

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Cassis and Gross 2002)

No – Sucks sap from leaves of citrus (MAFF 1990).

No

Coccus discrepans (Green, 1904)

[Coccidae]



Soft scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)

No – Associated with leaves, twigs and branches of citrus (MAFF 1990; Ben-Dov et al. 2005).

No

Coccus hesperidum Linnaeus, 1758

[Coccidae]



Brown soft scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Smith et al. 1997; Ben-Dov et al. 2005)




No

Coccus longulus (Douglas, 1887)

[Syn.: Coccus elongatus (Signoret, 1873)]

[Coccidae]


Long brown scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Smith et al. 1997; Ben-Dov et al. 2005)




No

Coccus pseudomagnoliarum (Kuwana, 1914)

[Coccidae]



Citricola scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Zhang and Wu 2002)




No

Coccus viridis (Green, 1889)

[Coccidae]



Green coffee scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Smith et al. 1997; Ben-Dov et al. 2005), including WA (DAFWA 2008a)




No

Cryptotympana facialis (Walker, 1858)

[Cicadidae]



Cicada

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Moulds 1990; Moulds and Cowan 2004)

No – Adults feed on trunks, branches and twigs of citrus. Nymphs feed on roots (Aizu et al. 1984; MAFF 1990).

No

Dialeurodes citri (Ashmead, 1885)

[Aleyrodidae]



Citrus whitefly

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Martin 1999)

No – Associated with leaves of Citrus species; fruit is not directly affected (Jeppson 1989; Kim et al. 2000). Eggs, larvae, nymphs and adults are found on the underside of citrus leaves (Fasulo and Weems 2007).

No

Dialeurodes citrifolii (Morgan, 1893)

[Aleyrodidae]



Cloudy winged whitefly

Yes (Cab International 2007)

No (Smith et al., 1997)

No – Citrus sp are major hosts. Eggs, nymphs and adults are found on citrus leaves (Nguyen et al. 2001).

No

Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama, 1908)

[Psyllidae]



Asian citrus psyllid

Yes (MAFF 1990)

However, this pest is not present in the export areas (MAFF 2003)



No (Hollis 2002; Bellis et al. 2005)

No – Feeds on leaves and stems of citrus in Florida (Halbert 2006). Found on leaves and stems of citrus in India (Pande 1971).

The psyllid is a vector of the quarantinable pathogen Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticum (citrus greening). However, the psyllid does not occur on Honshu Island (Appendix E)



No


Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock, 1881)

[Diaspididae]



San Jose scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)




No

Diaspis boisduvalii Signoret, 1869

[Diaspididae]






Yes (Mito and Uesugi 2004; Inoue et al. 2006)

Yes (APPD 2008; Ben-Dov et al. 2008)

Not present in WA (DAFWA 2008b)



No – Affects the leaves and twigs of hosts and citrus is a host (Watson 2005).

No

Drosicha corpulenta (Kuwana, 1902)

[Margarodidae]



Giant mealybug

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)

No – Associated with leaves, twigs, buds and branches of citrus (MAFF 1990; Qu et al. 1996; USDA 2002).

No

Drosicha howardi (Kuwana, 1922)

[Margarodidae]



Margarodid scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)

No – Associated with leaves, twigs, buds and branches of citrus (MAFF 1990; Qu et al. 1996).

No

Duplaspidiotus claviger (Cockerell, 1901)

[Diaspididae]






Yes (Murakami 1970; Ben-Dov et al. 2008)

Yes (AICN 2008, APPD 2008; Ben-Dov et al. 2008).

Not present in WA (DAFWA 2008a).



No – Polyphagous species and citrus is a host. Affects the branches and twigs of hosts (Watson 2005). Not recorded as affecting citrus in Japan (Murakami 1970).

No

Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell, 1893)

[Pseudococcidae]



Pineapple mealybug

Yes (Mito and Uesugi 2004; Inoue et al. 2006)

Yes (APPD 2008; DAFWA 2008a)




No

Edwardsiana flavescens (Fabricius, 1794)

[Cicadellidae]



Small green leafhopper

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Day and Fletcher 1994; Fletcher and Larivière 2007b)

No – Although this species is associated with citrus fruit (MAFF 1990), whereby adults and nymphs feed by inserting their stylets into plant tissues (leaves and maturing citrus fruit) for short periods of time, adults fly off and nymphs hop/walk from fruit, once disturbed. Thus this species is likely to be removed from the pathway during harvesting and processing of fruit.

No

Empoasca arborescens Vilbaste, 1968

[Cicadellidae]



Leafhopper

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Day and Fletcher 1994; Fletcher and Larivière 2007a)

No – Although this species is associated with citrus fruit (MAFF 1990), whereby adults and nymphs feed by inserting their stylets into plant tissues (leaves and maturing citrus fruit) for short periods of time, adults fly off and nymphs hop/walk from fruit, once disturbed. Thus this species is likely to be removed from the pathway during harvesting and processing of fruit.

No

Empoasca onukii Matsuda, 1952

[Cicadellidae]



Tea green leafhopper

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Day and Fletcher 1994; Fletcher and Larivière 2007a)

No – Although this species is associated with citrus fruit (MAFF 1990), whereby adults and nymphs feed by inserting their stylets into plant tissues (leaves and maturing citrus fruit) for short periods of time, adults fly off and nymphs hop/walk from fruit, once disturbed. Thus this species is likely to be removed from the pathway during harvesting and processing of fruit.

No

Empoasca sakaii (Dworakowska, 1971)

[Cicadellidae]






Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Day and Fletcher 1994; Fletcher and Larivière 2007a)

No – Pest attacks leaves of lucerne and clover (Naito 1977). Inhabits citrus orchards (MAFF 2003).

No

Epiacanthus stramineus (Motschulsky, 1861)

[Cicadellidae]



Grape leafhopper

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Fletcher and Larivière 2006)

No – Associated with leaves (MAFF 1990); not on unshu fruit pathway (USDA 1995).

No

Eucalymnatus tessellatus (Signoret 1873)

[Coccidae]






Yes (Mito and Uesugi 2004)

Yes (APPD 2008; DAFWA 2008a)




No

Eucorysses grandis (Thunberg, 1783)

[Pentatomidae]



Shield bug

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Cassis and Gross 2002)

No – Adults and juveniles suck sap from citrus trees (MAFF 1990). Adults of this stinkbug lay eggs on leaves or branches. Recently hatched immatures congregate before dispersing to find other host plants (TFRI 2004).

No

Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell, 1893)

[Pseudococcidae]



Striped mealybug

Yes (Inoue et al. 2006; Ben-Dov et al. 2008)

Yes (Ben-Dov et al. 2008; DAFWA 2008a)




No

Fiorinia fioriniae (Targioni Tozzetti, 1867)

[Diaspididae]






Yes (Mito and Uesugi 2004; Ben-Dov et al. 2008)

Yes (AICN 2008; Ben-Dov et al. 2008)

Currently not known in WA (DAFWA 2008a,b)



No – Polyphagous species and citrus is a host. Affects the leaves of hosts (Watson 2005). Not recorded as affecting citrus in Japan (Murakami 1970) and unshu is not a host for this species in Japan (MAFF 2009).

No

Fiorinia proboscidaria Green, 1900

[Diaspididae]



Armoured scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)

No – Associated with leaves and young shoots of citrus (MAFF 1990).

No

Fiorinia randiae Takahashi, 1934

[Diaspididae]






Yes (Ben-Dov et al. 2008)

No (Ben-Dov et al. 2008)

No – Citrus sp. are listed as host for this species (Ben-Dov et al. 2008), but unshu is not a host in Japan (MAFF 2009).

No

Fiorinia theae Green, 1900

[Diaspididae]



Camellia scale

Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)

No – Found on leaves, twigs and branches of unshu mandarin (Miller 2001; MAFF 2003).

No

Gargara genistae (Fabricius, 1775)

[Membracidae]






Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Day 1999; Fletcher and Larivière 2005a)

No – Pest of wisteria (MAFF 2003). Feeds on foliage of scotch broom (Syrett et al. 1999). Although this pest is listed on the MAFF (2003) pest list, there is no confirmation of it being on unshu mandarin or fruit of unshu mandarin.

No

Geisha distinctissima (Walker, 1858)

[Flatidae]



Green flatid planthopper

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Fletcher and Larivière 2004; Fletcher and Watson 2006)

No – Associated with leaves and twigs of citrus (MAFF 1990).

No

Geocoris varius (Uhler, 1860)

[Syn.: Piocoris varius]

[Lygaeidae]


Anthocorid bug

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Cassis and Gross 2002)

No – This species feeds on the sap of citrus trees (MAFF 1990). It has been reported to feed on unshu plants, but is unlikely to be associated with the fruit (Hirose et al. 1999).

No

Gergithus variabilis (Butler, 1875)

[Issidae]






Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Fletcher and Larivière 2005b)

No – Pest of mulberry and paper mulberry (MAFF 2003). Although this pest is listed on the MAFF (2003) pest list, there is no confirmation of it being on unshu mandarin or fruit of unshu mandarin.

No

Glaucias subpunctatus (Walker, 1867)

[Pentatomidae]



Polished green stink bug

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Cassis and Gross 2002)

No – Will not remain with the fruit during harvest or packing (USDA 2002).

No

Graptopsaltria nigrofuscata (Motschulsky, 1866)

[Cicadidae]



Large brown cicada

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Moulds 1990; Moulds and Cowan 2004)

No – Adults associated with trunks, branches or twigs of citrus. Nymphs are associated with roots (MAFF 1990).

No

Halyomorpha halys Stål, 1855

[Syn.: Halyomorpha mista (Uhler, 1860]

[Pentatomidae]


Brown marmorated stink bug

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Cassis and Gross 2002)

No – Although this species is associated with citrus fruit and sucks on fruits of many species, including mandarin, persimmon, plum, pome, pear and peach (Kawada and Kitamura 1983; Funayama 1996; MAFF 2003), adults fly off and nymphs hop/walk from fruit, once disturbed. Thus this species is likely to be removed from the pathway during harvesting and processing of fruit.

No

Hemiberlesia lataniae (Signoret, 1869)

[Diaspididae]



Palm scale

Yes (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)

Yes (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)




No

Hemiberlesia rapax (Comstock, 1881)

[Diaspididae]



Greedy scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Donaldson and Tsang 2006)




No

Hishimonus sellatus (Uhler, 1896)

[Cicadellidae]



Rhombic-marked leafhopper

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Day and Fletcher 1994)

No – Adults are associated with leaves of citrus (MAFF 1990). Pest attacks shoots of Morus alba, Humulus japonica and Ziziphus jujuba in Korea (Kim and Kim 1993). It is a vector of mulberry dwarf mycoplasma and jujube witches broom virus (Kim et al. 1985).

No

Homalogonia obtusa (Walker, 1868)

[Pentatomidae]



Four spotted stink bug

Yes (Funayama 2002)

No (Cassis and Gross 2002)

No – In Korea this pest is known to affect the leaves and roots of citrus (USDA 2002).

No

Homoeocerus unipunctatus (Thunberg, 1783)

[Coreidae]



Coreid bug

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Cassis and Gross 2002)

No – Adults and nymphs suck sap of citrus trees (MAFF 1990).

No

Howardia biclavis (Comstock, 1883)

[Diaspididae]



Mining scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Donaldson and Tsang 2006).

Not present in WA (DAWA 2003a).

Not present in SA (PIRSA 2008).


Yes – All parts of citrus plant are affected including the roots (MAFF 1990).

Yes

(for WA, SA)



Hygia opaca (Uhler, 1869)

[Coreidae]



Coreid bug

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Cassis and Gross 2002)

No – Adults and nymphs suck sap of citrus trees (MAFF 1990).

No

Icerya aegyptiaca (Douglas, 1890)

[Margarodidae]



Egyptian fluted scale

Yes (Ben-Dov et al. 2008)

Yes (APPD 2008; DAFWA 2008a)




No

Icerya purchasi Maskell, 1879

[Margarodidae]



Cottony cushion scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Smith et al. 1997)




No

Icerya seychellarum (Westwood, 1855)

[Margarodidae]



Yellow cottony cushion scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Smith et al. 1997; DAFWA 2008a).




No

Ischnaspis longirostris (Signoret, 1882)

[Diaspididae]



Black thread scale

Yes (Mito and Uesugi 2004; Inoue et al. 2006).

Yes (APPD 2008; Ben-Dov et al. 2008).

Not present in WA (DAFWA 2008a).



Yes – Citrus spp. are hosts for this species which usually feeds on leaves but is occasionally found on bark and fruit (Watson 2005).

Yes

(for WA)


Ishidaella albomarginata (Signoret, 1853)

[Cicadellidae]






Yes (MAFF 2003)

Yes (Fletcher and Larivière 2006).

Not present in WA (DAFWA 2008b).



No – Affects leaves and shoots of unshu in Japan (MAFF 2009)

No

Jacobiasca formosana (Paoli, 1936)

[Cicadellidae]



Castor leaf hopper

Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Fletcher and Larivière 2006)

No – Inhabits citrus orchards (MAFF 2003). Young and adult leaf hoppers feed on the sap from the lower surface of leaves of the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis) (Suddhiyam and Chuakittisak 2004). It is a major pest of tea, causing the shoots to wilt and drop off (Anon 2004a).

No

Kilifia acuminata (Signoret, 1873)

[Coccidae]



Acuminate scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)

No – Associated with branches, twigs and leaves of citrus (MAFF 1990). Associated with leaves of mango in Egypt (Salama and Saleh 1971).

No

Kolla atramentaria (Motschulsky, 1859)

[Cicadellidae]



Leafhopper

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Day and Fletcher 1994)

No – Associated with leaves of citrus (MAFF 1990).

No

Ledra auditura Walker, 1858

[Cicadellidae]



Auricled leafhopper

Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Fletcher 2002)

No – Pest of rice plants, apples, Chinese parasol tree, and oaks (MAFF 2003). Although this pest is listed on the MAFF (2003) pest list, there is no confirmation of it being on unshu mandarin or fruit of unshu mandarin.

No

Lepidosaphes beckii (Newman, 1869)

[Diaspididae]



Purple scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Smith et al. 1997; DAFWA 2007)




No

Lepidosaphes camelliae Hoke, 1921

[Diaspididae]



Camellia oystershell scale

Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)

No – Infests leaves of camellias including Sasanqua (MAFF 2003). Although this pest is listed on the MAFF (2003) pest list, there is no confirmation of it being on unshu mandarin or fruit of unshu mandarin.

No

Lepidosaphes conchiformis (Gmelin, 1789)

[Diaspididae]



Fig scale

Yes (Murakami 1970)

No (Ben-Dov et al. 2008)

No – This species has been recorded as infesting citrus in Pakistan (Ahmad and Ghani 1971). However, unshu is not a host in Japan (MAFF 2009).

No

Lepidosaphes gloverii (Packard, 1869)

[Diaspididae]



Glover scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Smith et al. 1997), including WA (DAFWA 2008a). Not present in SA (PIRSA 2008).

Yes – Associated with fruit, leaves, twigs and branches of citrus (Smith et al. 1997). Crawlers settle in sheltered sites, in older leaves and beneath fruit calyx lobes (Smith et al. 1997).

Yes

(for SA)


Lepidosaphes pinnaeformis Bouché, 1851

[Diaspididae]



Cymbidium scale

Yes (MAFF 2009)

Yes (APPD 2008).

Not in WA (DAFWA 2008a)



Yes – Affects leaf, stem and fruit (MAFF 2009).

Yes (for WA)

Lepidosaphes tokionis (Kuwana, 1902)

[Diaspididae]



Croton scale

Yes (Watson 2005; Ben-Dov et al 2008)

Yes (AICN 2008; APPD 2008).

Not present in WA (DAFWA 2008b).



No – Associated with Citrus maxima in Fiji (Williams and Watson 1988). Found on the leaves of hosts (Watson 2005). Unshu is not a host for this species in Japan (MAFF 2009).

No

Lepidosaphes ulmi (Linnaeus, 1758)

[Diaspididae]



Oystershell scale

Yes (MAFF 2003)

Yes (Ben-Dov et al. 2005).




No

Leptocorisa acuta (Thunberg, 1783)

[Alydidae]



Rice bug

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Cassis and Gross 2002).

Not present in WA (DAWA 2003a)



No – Associated with leaves and seeds of rice and cereals (citrus not listed as a host) (CAB International 2004). Although this pest is listed on the MAFF (2003) pest list, there is no confirmation of it being on unshu mandarin or fruit of unshu mandarin.

No

Leptocorisa chinensis (Dallas, 1852)

[Alydidae]



Rice bug

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Cassis and Gross 2002)

No – Pest of rice in Japan (Yokosuka et al. 1991). Although this pest is listed on the MAFF (1990) pest list, there is no confirmation of it being on unshu mandarin or fruit of unshu mandarin.

No

Lopholeucaspis cockerelli (Grandpre and Charmoy, 1899)

[Diaspididae]



Armoured scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Ben-Dov et al. 2005), but not in WA (DAFWA 2008b).

No – Associated with citrus leaves and shoots in Japan (MAFF 1990).

No

Lopholeucaspis japonica (Cockerell, 1897)

[Diaspididae]



Pear white scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Ben-Dov et al. 2005, CAB International 2007)

Yes – Associated with citrus fruit in Japan (Murakami 1970).

Yes


Machaerotypus sibiricus (Lethierry, 1876)

[Membracidae]






Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Fletcher and Larivière 2005a)

No – Pest of plum, persimmon, chestnut, mulberry, and paper mulberry (MAFF 2003). Associated with leaves of unshu (USDA 2002).

No

Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green, 1908)

[Pseudococcidae]



Pink hibiscus mealybug

Yes (Inoue et al. 2006; Ben-Dov et al. 2008)

Yes (Gullan 2000; APPD 2008; DAFWA 2008a)




No

Macrosiphum euphorbiae (Thomas, 1878)

[Aphididae]



Potato aphid

Yes (MAFF 2003)

Yes (Berlandier 1997)




No

Megacopta punctatissimum (Montandon, 1894)

[Plataspidae]



Bean pentatomid

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Cassis and Gross 2002)

No – Adults and nymphs feed on the sap of citrus trees (MAFF 1990). Nymphs feed on young branches of the weed Pueraria lobata in Japan (Tayutivutikul and Yano 1990).

No

Meimuna opalifera (Walker, 1850)

[Cicadidae]



Cicada

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Moulds 1990; Moulds and Cowan 2004)

No – Adults are associated with trunks, branches and twigs of citrus trees. Nymphs are on roots (MAFF 1990).

No

Melanaspis sulcata Ferris, 1943

[Diaspididae]






Yes (Deitz and Davidson 1986)

No (no records found)

No – Melanaspis sp. occurs on trunks, branches, stems and leaves of hosts (Deitz and Davidson 1986).

No

Mesepora onukii (Matsumura, 1905)

[Tropiduchidae]






Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Fletcher and Watson 2006; Fletcher and Larivière 2007b)

No – Infests Crinum spp. (MAFF 2003). Although this pest is listed on the MAFF (2003) pest list, there is no confirmation of it being on unshu mandarin or fruit of unshu mandarin.

No

Milviscutulus mangiferae (Green, 1889)

[Coccidae]



Mango shield scale

Yes (Mito and Uesugi 2004)

Yes (Grimshaw and Donaldson 2007; DAFWA 2008b)




No

Morganella longispina (Morgan, 1889)

[Diaspididae]



Plumose scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Donaldson and Tsang 2006). Not present in WA (Naumann 1993; DAFWA 2008a).

Not present in SA (PIRSA 2008).



Yes – (Hamon 1981)

Yes for WA, SA)

Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776)

[Aphididae]



Green peach aphid

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Wilson et al. 2002)




No

Nephotettix cincticeps Uhler, 1896

[Cicadellidae]



Rice green leafhopper

Yes (Guy et al. 1992)

No (Fletcher and Watson 2006)

No – In Korea this pest is known to affect the leaves and roots of citrus (USDA 2002).

No

Nezara antennata Scott, 1874

[Pentatomidae]



Green stink bug

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Cassis and Gross 2002)

No – Nezara species lay their eggs on the under surface of leaves (Kobayashi 1959). Adults and nymphs suck the sap from citrus trees (MAFF 1990); both of these life stages would dislodge from feeding sites when disturbed.

No

Nezara viridula (Linnaeus, 1758)

[Pentatomidae]



Southern green stink bug

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Clarke 1992; Smith et al. 1997)




No

Nipaecoccus viridis (Newstead, 1894)

[Syn.: Nipaecoccus vastator (Maskell, 1895)]

[Pseudococcidae]


Spherical mealybug

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Smith et al. 1997; Ben-Dov et al. 2005)




No

Nisia atrovenosa (Lethierry, 1888)

[Flatidae]



Striated planthopper

Yes (Catendig 2004)

No (Fletcher and Watson 2006)

No – Affects the leaves of citrus in Korea (USDA 2002).

No

Nysius plebejus Distant, 1883

[Lygaeidae]



Seed bug

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Cassis and Gross 2002)

No – Seed feeder (Hong 1986; Kim et al. 1994). Unshu mandarin fruit is seedless (Chapter 3).

No

Oceanaspidiotus spinosus (Comstock 1883)

[Diaspididae]






Yes (Takagi 1984)

No (Ben-Dov et al, 2008)

No – Found on citrus twigs in North America (Takagi 1984).

No

Octaspidiotus stauntoniae (Takahashi, 1933)

[Diaspididae]



Armoured scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)

No – Associated with leaves and young shoots of citrus. Not recorded on citrus on mainland Japan (MAFF 1990). Lives on leaves of host plants (Ben-Dov et al. 2005).

No

Oliarus quadricinctus Matsumura, 1914

[Cixiidae]






Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Fletcher and Watson 2006)

No – Adult cixiids feed on phloem fluid of stems and do not feed on fruit. They may feed on larger veins of leaves too. The nymphs are more cryptic, feeding on roots in cracked soil (M Fletcher, pers. comm. 24 November 2004).

No

Oliarus subnubila (Uhler, 1896)

[Cixiidae]






Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Fletcher and Watson 2006)

No – Adult cixiids feed on phloem fluid of stems and do not feed on fruit. They may feed on larger veins of leaves too. The nymphs are more cryptic, feeding on roots in cracked soil (M Fletcher, pers. comm. 24 November 2004). Albizia julibrissin Durazz. is a host (MAFF 2003)

No

Orchamoplatus mammaeferus (Quaintance and Baker, 1917)

[Aleyrodidae]



Croton whitefly

Yes (USDA 1995)

Yes (Martin and Gillespie 2001; DAFWA 2008a)




No

Orientus ishidae (Matsumura, 1902

[Cicadellidae]



Japanese leafhopper

Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Fletcher 2002)

No – Damages apple and other fruit trees of Rosaceae (MAFF 2003). Feeds on leaflets of Gleditsia (Valley and Wheeler 1985). Although this pest is listed on the MAFF (2003) pest list, there is no confirmation of it being on unshu mandarin or fruit of unshu mandarin.

No

Orosanga japonicus (Melichar, 1898)

[Ricaniidae]



Ricaniid planthopper

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Fletcher and Watson 2006)

No – Associated with leaves and twigs of citrus (MAFF 1990).

No

Orthobelus flavipes (Uhler, 1896)

[Membracidae]



Sharpshooter bug

Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Fletcher and Larivière 2005a)

No – Not likely to follow the unshu fruit pathway (USDA 2002). Although this pest is listed on the MAFF (2003) pest list, there is no confirmation of it being on unshu mandarin or fruit of unshu mandarin.

No

Parabemisia myricae (Kuwana, 1927)

[Aleyrodidae]



Myrica whitefly

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Martin 1999)

No – Associated with leaves and stems. May be associated with young fruit and fruitlets of citrus (MAFF 1990; CAB International 2004).

No

Paradasynus spinosus (Hsiao, 1963)

[Coreidae]



Coreid bug

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Cassis and Gross 2002)

No – Adults and nymphs suck sap of citrus trees (MAFF 1990).

No

Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner, 1861)

[Coccidae]



Nigra scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)




No

Parlatoria camelliae Comstock, 1883

[Diaspididae]






Yes (Murakami 1970; Ben-Dov et al. 2008)

Yes (Ben-Dov et al. 2008)

Not present in WA (DAFWA 2008b)



No – Affects the leaves of Citrus sp. (Watson 2005). Citrus sp. are not recorded as hosts for this species in Japan (Murakami 1970).

No

Parlatoria cinerea Hadden in Doane and Hadden, 1909

[Diaspididae]



Armoured scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)

Yes – Associated with fruit, leaves, stems and branches of citrus (Williams and Watson 1988).

Yes

Parlatoria pergandii Comstock, 1881

[Diaspididae]



Chaff scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Smith et al. 1997).

Not present in WA (APPD 2007; DAFWA 2008a).

Not present in SA (PIRSA 2008).


Yes – Associated with trunk, branches, twigs, leaves and fruit of citrus. Mostly present on fruit under the calyces (Miller 1997; Smith et al. 1997).

Yes (for WA, SA)

Parlatoria proteus (Curtis, 1843)

[Diaspididae]



Cattleya scale, orchid scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)




No

Parlatoria theae Cockerell, 1896

[Diaspididae]



Tea parlatoria scale

Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)

Yes – Polyphagous pest, which hosts include citrus. Found on all aerial plant parts, especially twigs (Watson 2005). Affects the leaves and fruit of citrus in Korea (USDA 2002). Infests branches and trunks of rose, plum, Zathoxylum piperitum, and tea, but also infests leaf surface of Japanese aucuba, and Viburnum awabuki (MAFF 2003).

Yes

Parlatoria ziziphi (Lucas, 1853)

[Diaspididae]



Black parlatoria scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No

(CAB International 2007; DAFWA 2008a)



Yes – Infests citrus fruit and leaves, eggs laid on fruit (Jeppson 1989; Fasulo and Brooks 2004).

Yes

Parthenolecanium corni (Bouché, 1844)

[Coccidae]






Yes (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)

No (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)

No – Affects the leaves of citrus in Korea (USDA 2002).

No

Penthimia nitida (Distant, 1912)

[Cicadellidae]



Leafhopper

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Day and Fletcher 1994)

No – Associated with leaves of citrus (MAFF 1990).

No

Petalocephala discolor (Uhler, 1896a)

[Cicadellidae]






Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Fletcher 2002)

No – Inhabits sawtooth oak (Quercus acutissima Carruthers) (MAFF 2003). Although this pest is listed on the MAFF (2003) pest list, there is no confirmation of it being on unshu mandarin or fruit of unshu mandarin.

No

Phenacoccus pergandei Cockerell, 1896

[Pseudococcidae]






Yes (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)

No (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)

No – Affects the leaves of citrus (USDA 2002).

Also associated with leaves and stems of Mallotus japonicus (Hashimoto et al. 1980).



No

Physopelta cincticollis (Stål, 1863)

[Largidae]



Largid bug

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Cassis and Gross 2002)

No – Adults and nymphs suck sap from citrus trees (MAFF 1990).

No

Physopelta gutta (Burmeister, 1874)

[Largidae]



Largid bug

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Cassis and Gross 2002).

Not present in WA (DAFWA 2008b).



No – Adults and nymphs suck sap from citrus trees (MAFF 1990).

No

Pinnaspis aspidistrae (Signoret, 1869)

[Diaspididae]



Fern scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Williams and Watson 1988).

Not present in WA (DAWA 2003a).



No – Associated with leaves of citrus (MAFF 1990).

No

Pinnaspis buxi (Bouche, 1851)

[Diaspididae]






Yes (Inoue et al. 2006; Ben-Dov et al. 2008)

Yes (APPD 2008; DAFWA 2008a)




No

Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley, 1898)

[Diaspididae]



Hibiscus snow scale

Yes (MAFNZ 2000)

Yes (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)




No

Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813)

[Pseudococcidae]



Citrus mealybug

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Smith et al. 1997; Ben-Dov et al. 2005)




No

Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana, 1902)

[Pseudococcidae]



Japanese mealybug

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)

Yes – Associated with fruit, leaves and twigs of citrus (MAFF 1990).

Yes

Planococcus lilacinus (Cockerell, 1905)

[Pseudococcidae]



Coffee mealybug

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)

Yes – Associated with fruit, leaves and twigs of citrus (MAFF 1990).

Yes

Platypleura kaempferi (Fabricius, 1794)

[Cicadidae]



Kaempfer cicada

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Moulds 1990; Moulds and Cowan 2004)

No – Adults associated with trunks, branches and twigs of citrus trees. Nymphs are on roots (MAFF 1990).

No

Plautia stali Scott, 1874

[Pentatomidae]



Brownwinged greenbug

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Cassis and Gross 2002)

No – Although this species sucks on citrus fruit (MAFF 1990; Moriya 1996), adults fly off and nymphs hop/walk from fruit, once disturbed. Thus this species is likely to be removed from the pathway during harvesting and processing of fruit.

No

Protopulvinaria pyriformis (Cockerell, 1894)

[Coccidae]



Pyriform scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Smith et al. 1997)

No – Associated with leaves and twigs of citrus (MAFF 1990).


No

Pseudaonidia duplex (Cockerell, 1896)

[Diaspididae]



Camphor scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)

Yes – Attacks all parts of Citrus species, including leaves, branches and fruit (Jeppson 1989; Kim et al. 2000). Mainly associated with twigs and branches but can be found on fruit and leaves (Watson 2005). Citrus unshiu is recorded as a host (Murakami 1970).

Yes

Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Green, 1896)

[Diaspididae]



Trilobite scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Williams and Watson 1988).

Not present in WA (DAWA 2003a).

Not present in SA (PIRSA 2008).


Yes – Associated with fruit and leaves of citrus (MAFF 1990; Miller 1997).

Yes

(for WA, SA)



Pseudaulacaspis pentagona (Targioni Tozzetti, 1886)

[Diaspididae]



White peach scale

Yes (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)

Yes (Ben-Dov et al. 2005); APPD 2008).

Not present in WA (DAFWA 2008a).



No – Associated with the leaves of unshu mandarin in Korea (USDA 2002). In Japan, this species is not recorded on citrus, but is found on twigs, branches and trunks of other hosts (Murakami 1970). Unshu is not a host for this species in Japan (MAFF 2009).

No

Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana, 1902)

[Pseudococcidae]



Comstock mealybug

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)

Yes – Associated with fruit and branches of citrus (Musaev and Bushkov 1977; Grafton-Cardwell et al. 2003).

Yes

Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, 1918

[Pseudococcidae]



Citrus mealybug

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)

Yes – Associated with fruit, leaves and twigs of citrus (MAFF 1990; Ben-Dov et al. 2005).

Yes

Pseudococcus longispinus (Targioni Tozzetti, 1867)

[Pseudococcidae]



Longtailed mealybug

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)




No

Psylla coccinea Kuwayama, 1908

[Psyliidae]






Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Hollis 2002)

No – Found on Akebia quinata, Stauntonia hexaphylla and Akebia trifoliata (MAFF 2003). Although this pest is listed on the MAFF (2003) pest list, there is no confirmation of it being on unshu mandarin or fruit of unshu mandarin.

No

Pulvinaria aurantii Cockerell, 1896

[Coccidae]



Cottony citrus scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)

No – Associated with leaves, twigs and branches of citrus (MAFF 1990; Cui et al. 1997).

No

Pulvinaria citricola Kuwana, 1914

[Coccidae]



Cottony citrus scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)

No – Associated with leaves, twigs and branches of citrus (MAFF 1990; Cui et al. 1997).

No

Pulvinaria okitsuensis Kuwana, 1914

[Coccidae]



Cottony citrus scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)

No – Associated with leaves and twigs of citrus (MAFF 1990).

No

Pulvinaria psidii (Maskell, 1893)

[Coccidae]



Green shield scale

Yes (Mito and Uesugi 2004; Inoue et al. 2006)

Yes (Qin and Gullan 1992; DAFWA 2008a)




No

Pulvinaria polygonata Cockerell, 1905

[Coccidae]



Cottony citrus scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Ben-Dov et al. 2005).

Not present in WA (DAWA 2003a).



No – Associated with leaves and twigs of citrus (Smith et al. 1997).

No

Pygomenida bengalensis (Westwood, 1837)

[Pentatomidae]



Shield bug

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Cassis and Gross 2002)

No – Adults and nymphs are phloem-feeders (MAFF 1990). It is a pest of rice in Sri Lanka (Bambaradeniya et al. 2004). Although this pest is listed on the MAFF (2003) pest list, there is no confirmation of it being on unshu mandarin or fruit of unshu mandarin.

No

Recilia dorsalis (Motschulsky, 1859)

[Cicadellidae]



Zig-zag striped leafhopper

Yes (Ishijima et al. 2004)

Yes (Chapman and Myers 1987; Fletcher and Watson 2006)




No

Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch, 1856)

[Aphididae]



Green corn aphid

Yes (MAFF 2003)

Yes (Berlandier 1997)




No

Rhynchocoris humeralis (Thunberg, 1783)

[Pentatomidae]



Citrus stink bug

Yes (JSAE 1987)

No (Cassis and Gross 2002)

No – Although this species sucks on citrus fruit (TDAIS 2005), adults fly off and nymphs hop/walk from fruit, once disturbed. Thus this species is likely to be removed from the pathway during harvesting and processing of fruit. Sucking is also likely to incur fruit drop (FFTC 2003).

No

Riptortus clavatus (Thunberg, 1783)

[Alydidae]



Bean bug

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Cassis and Gross 2002)

No – Not a pest of citrus (CAB International 2004). Although this pest is listed on the MAFF (1990) pest list, there is no confirmation of it being on unshu mandarin or fruit of unshu mandarin.

No

Saissetia citricola (Kuwana, 1909)

[Coccidae]



Soft scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)

No – Associated with leaves, twigs and branches of citrus (MAFF 1990).

No

Saissetia coffeae (Walker, 1852)

[Coccidae]



Hemispherical scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)




No

Saissetia oleae (Olivier, 1791)

[Coccidae]



Black scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)




No

Sarucallis kahawaluokalani (Kirkaldy, 1907)

[Aphididae]



Crepe myrtle aphid

Yes (Patti 1984)

No (CAB International 2004)

No – In Korea this pest is known to affect the leaves and roots of citrus (USDA 2002).

No

Sinomegoura citricola (van der Goot, 1917)

[Aphididae]



Aphid

Yes (MAFF 2003)

Yes (Blackman and Eastop 2000).

Not present in WA (DAFWA 2008b).



No – Associated with leaves and branches of citrus in Japan (MAFF 2003).

No

Sogatella furcifera (Horvath, 1899)

[Delphacidae]



White-beaked rice planthopper

Yes (Guy et al. 1992)

Yes (Fletcher and Watson 2006)




No

Takahashia japonica (Cockerell, 1896)

[Coccidae]



String cottony scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)

No – Associated with leaves and twigs of citrus (MAFF 1990; Ben-Dov et al. 2005).

No

Tartessus ferrugineus ferrugineus (Walker, 1851)

[Cicadellidae]



Leafhopper

Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Fletcher 2002)

No – associated with leaves (MAFF 2003).

No

Tinocallis zelkowae (Takahashi, 1919)

[Aphididae]



Zelkova aphid

Yes (Blackman and Eastop 1994)

No (Blackman and Eastop 1994)

No – In Korea this pest is known to affect the leaves and roots of citrus (USDA 2002).

No

Toxoptera aurantii (Fonscolombe, 1841)

[Aphididae]



Black citrus aphid

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Smith et al. 1997)




No

Toxoptera citricidus (Kirkaldy, 1907)

[Aphididae]



Tropical citrus aphid

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Blackman and Eastop 2000)




No

Toxoptera odinae (van der Goot, 1917)

[Syn.: Longiunguis spathodeae (van der Goot, 1918)]

[Aphididae]


Udo aphid

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Blackman and Eastop 2000)

No – Associated with leaves and young shoots of citrus (MAFF 1990).

No

Unaspis euonymi (Comstock, 1881)

[Diaspididae]



Euonymus scale

Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Ben-Dov et al. 2005)

Yes – Attacks almost all parts of the host above ground in Missouri (Hollinger 1923). Affects the leaves, stems and fruit of citrus in Korea (USDA 2005). Pest recorded on Citrus grandis (Ben-Dov et al. 2005).

Yes

Unaspis yanonensis (Kuwana, 1923)

[Diaspididae]



Arrowhead scale

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Smith et al., 1997; CAB International 2007; EPPO 2007)

Yes – Present on branches and fruit of citrus (Jeppson 1989). Can settle on twigs, leaves, stems and fruit and feed on cell sap (Itioka et al. 1992, 1997).

Yes

Zyginella citri (Matsumura, 1909)

[Cicadellidae]



Smaller citrus leafhopper

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Day and Fletcher 1994)

No – Although this species is associated with citrus fruit (MAFF 1990), whereby adults and nymphs feed by inserting their stylets into plant tissues (leaves and maturing citrus fruit) for short periods of time, adults fly off and nymphs hop/walk from fruit, once disturbed. Thus this species is likely to be removed from the pathway during harvesting and processing of fruit.

No

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