Final Import Risk Analysis Report for Fresh Unshu Mandarin Fruit from Shizuoka Prefecture in Japan



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Hymenoptera (ants; bees; wasps)

Formica japonica Motschoulsky, 1866

[Formicidae]



Wood ants

Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Shattuck and Barnett 2001)

No – Pest of lawn grass. Preys on first instar larvae after hatching (MAFF 2003). Although this pest is listed on the MAFF (2003) pest list, there is no confirmation of it being on unshu mandarin or fruit of unshu mandarin.

No

Lasius niger (Linnaeus, 1758)

[Formicidae]



Common black ant

Yes (Kaneko 2002)

No (Shattuck and Barnett 2001)

No – Known to attend the brown citrus aphid (Toxoptera citricidus) and the cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii), on the tree stems of mandarin (Kaneko 2002, 2003).

No

Polyrhachis dives Smith, 1857

[Formicidae]






Yes (MAFF 2003)

Yes (Kohout 1988; Shattuck 1999).

Not present in WA (DAFWA 2008a).



No – Builds nests on the lower branches of trees between leaves and twigs, bound with silk (Kohout 1988).

No

Polyrhachis lamellidens Smith, 1874

[Formicidae]



Black ant

Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Shattuck and Barnett 2001)

No – Builds nests in hollow tree trunks or underground, or in rotten wood and bricks (JAID 2003; CAD 2008)

No

Lepidoptera (butterflies; moths)

Acanthopsyche nigraplaga (Wileman, 1911)

[Psychidae]



Bagworm moth

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Larvae feed on leaves of citrus (MAFF 1990), and various other plant species (Robinson et al. 2007).

No

Adoxophyes dubia Yasuda, 1998

[Tortricidae]



Smaller tea tortrix

Yes (MAFF 1990) as Adoxophyes sp., which in Japan includes Adoxophyes dubia Yasuda (Yasuda 1998a).

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

Yes – The species is difficult to discriminate from Adoxophyes orana and misidentifications are possible (Yasuda 1998a; Davis et al. 2006). Therefore, the pest is considered likely to be present on the importation pathway.

Yes

Adoxophyes honmai Yasuda 1988

[Tortricidae]



Smaller tea tortrix

Yes (MAFF 1990), as Adoxophyes sp., which in Japan includes Adoxophyes honmai Yasuda (Yasuda 1998a).

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

Yes – This species occurs on many trees and shrubs (Yasuda 1998a) including citrus in the Shizuoka Prefecture in Japan (Yasuda 1998b). The larvae of Adoxophyes species in general are voracious feeders, causing considerable harm to foliage, blossoms and fruit (Yasuda 1998a).

Yes

Adoxophyes orana fasciata Walsingham, 1900

[Tortricidae]



Summer fruit tortrix

Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

Yes – Has been reported on unshu (MAFF 2003). The larvae of Adoxophyes are polyphagous and important pests on various fruit crops. They are voracious feeders, causing considerable harm to foliage, blossoms and fruit (Yasuda 1998a).

Yes

Agrius convolvuli Linnaeus, 1758

[Sphingidae]



Sphingids

Yes (MAFF 2003)

Yes (Moulds 1981)




No

Agrotis ipsilon (Hüfnagel, 1766)

[Noctuidae]






Yes (Mizukoshi 1999)

Yes (Nielsen et al. 1996)




No

Anomis flava (Fabricius, 1775)

[Noctuidae]



Cotton leaf caterpillar

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Nielsen et al. 1996)




No

Anomis mesogona (Walker, 1858)

[Noctuidae]



Hibiscus looper

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Both larvae and adult noctuid moths are inactive during the day and hide amongst the foliage or leaf litter. During the night, adults usually feed on overripe or fermenting fruit (Common 1990). This species is not likely to follow the import pathway (USDA 2002).

No

Apamea aquila oriens (Warren, 1911)

[Syn.: Perigea affinis Draudt, 1950]

[Noctuidae]





Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – In Europe, pest feeds on Indian grass and other Graminae (MAFF 2003). Although this pest is listed on the MAFF (2003) pest list, there is no confirmation of it being on unshu mandarin or fruit of unshu mandarin.

No

Apochima excavata (Dyar, 1905)

[Geometridae]



Mulberry looper

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Larvae feed on leaves of citrus (MAFF 1990).

No

Apochima juglansiaria (Graeser, 1889)

[Gepmetridae]



Mulberry spinerlooper

Yes (Inoue et al. 1982)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – In Korea this pest is known to affect the leaves and roots of citrus (USDA 2002).

No

Aporia crataegi Linnaeus, 1758

[Pieridae]






Yes (Sato 1978)

No (Braby 2000)

No – In Korea this pest is known to affect the leaves and roots of citrus (USDA 2002).

No

Archips breviplicanus (Walsingham, 1900)

[Tortricidae]



Asiatic leafroller

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Larvae feed on leaves, buds and flowers of citrus (MAFF 1990). This pest is primarily associated with leaves, and is not likely to be on the unshu fruit pathway (USDA 1995, 2002).

No

Archips ingentanus (Christoph, 1881)

[Torticidae]






Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Eats into flower buds and also feeds on petals, leaves and young unshu fruit (MAFF 2003). This pest is primarily associated with leaves, and is not likely to be on the unshu fruit pathway (USDA 1995, 2002).

No

Archips podana Scopoli, 1763

[Torticidae]



Great brown twist moth

Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Mainly a pest of apple and pear affecting the leaves and young fruit. Citrus not listed as a host (CAB International 2004). Associated with leaves and not likely to be on the unshu fruit pathway (USDA 1995).

No

Archips xylosteanus Linnaeus, 1758

[Torticidae]



Apple leafroller

Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Associated with leaves on unshu (MAFF 2003), and not likely to be on the unshu fruit pathway (USDA 1995, 2002).

No

Artena dotata (Fabricius, 1794)

[Noctuidae]



Fruit-piercing moth

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Both larvae and adult noctuid moths are inactive during the day and hide amongst the foliage or leaf litter. During the night, adults usually feed on overripe or fermenting fruit (Common 1990). This species is not likely to follow the import pathway (USDA 2002).

No

Ascotis selenaria (Denis and Schiffermuller, 1775)

[Geometridae]



Mugwort looper

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Larvae feed on leaves of citrus (MAFF 1990; Robinson et al. 2007).


No

Attacus atlas (Linné, 1758)

[Saturnidae]



Giant atlas moth

Yes (MAFF 2009)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

Unshu mandarin is not a host (MAFF 2009).

No

Autographa gamma Linnaeus, 1758

[Noctuidae]






Yes (Kaneko 1995)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Both larvae and adult noctuid moths are inactive during the day and hide amongst the foliage or leaf litter. During the night, adults usually feed on overripe or fermenting fruit (Common 1990).

No

Bambalina spp.

[Psychidae]



Mulberry bagworm

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No, there are no species of this genus in Australia (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Larvae feed on leaves and bark of citrus (MAFF 1990; Lee et al. 1992).

No

Biston robustus robustus (Butler, 1879)

[Geometridae]



Giant geometrid

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Larvae feed on leaves of citrus (MAFF 1990).

No

Blenina senex Butler, 1878

[Nolidae]



Bark-like moth

Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Larvae eat persimmon leaves and build a cocoon under the surface of leaves (MAFF 2003). Although this pest is listed on the MAFF (2003) pest list, there is no confirmation of it being on unshu mandarin or fruit of unshu mandarin.

No

Cadra cautella Walker, 1863

[Pyralidae]






Yes (Kuwahara and Imura 1995)

Yes (Nielsen et al. 1996)




No

Calyptra lata Butler, 1881

[Noctuidae]



Larger orasia

Yes (Robinson et al. 2007)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Both larvae and adult noctuid moths are inactive during the day and hide amongst the foliage or leaf litter. During the night, adults usually feed on overripe or fermenting fruit (Common 1990).

No

Chalioides kondonis (Kondo, 1822)

[Psychidae]



Kondo white psychid

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No1 – Larvae feed on leaves of citrus (Nakashima and Shimizu 1972; MAFF 1990).

No

Chariaspilates formosaria Eversmann, 1837

[Geometridae]



Looper moth

Yes (Robinson et al. 2007)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Affects the leaves of citrus in Korea (USDA 2002).

No

Chrysodeixis eriosoma Doubleday, 1843

[Noctuidae]






Yes (Inomata et al. 2000)

Yes (Nielsen et al. 1996)




No

Cleora repulsaria (Walker, 1860)

[Geometridae]



Looper

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Larvae feed on leaves of citrus (MAFF 1990).

No

Cnidocampa flavescens Walker, 1855

[Limacodidae]






Yes (Ishii et al. 1984)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Affects the leaves of citrus in Korea (USDA 2002).

No

Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée, 1854)

[Pyralidae]



Yellow peach moth

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Nielsen et al. 1996)




No

Cusiara stipitaria (Oberthur, 1880)

[Geometridae]



Looper caterpillar

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Larvae feed on leaves of citrus (MAFF 1990).

No

Dendrolimus spectabilis Butler, 1877

[Lasiocampidae]



Pine moth

Yes (Kamata 2002)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Affects the leaves of citrus in Korea (USDA 2002).

No

Descoreba simplex (Butler, 1878)

[Geometridae]



Geometrid moth

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Larvae feed on leaves of citrus (MAFF 1990).

No

Dictyoploca japonica (Moore, 1862)

[Saturniidae]






Yes (Nagase and Masaki 1991)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Affects the leaves of citrus in Korea (USDA 2002).

Polyphagous pest of walnut and chestnut trees, adults lay egg masses on the trees and larvae feed on leaves (Iwakuma and Morimoto 1984).



No

Dysgonia arctotaenia (Guenée, 1852)

[Noctuidae]






Yes (Robinson et al. 2007).

Yes (Nielsen et al. 1996)

Not present in WA (DAFWA 2008b).



No – Affects the leaves of citrus in Korea (USDA 2002). Unshu is not a host for this species in Japan (MAFF 2009).

No

Ectropis bistortata Goeze, 1783

[Geometridae]



Geometrid moth

Yes (Sato 1979)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Affects the leaves of citrus in Korea (USDA 2002).

No

Ascotis selenaria cretacea (Butler, 1879

[Geometridae]



Japanese giant looper

Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Extremely polyphagous, feeding on citrus, pome fruit and pulses. Larvae feed on leaves of unshu (MAFF 2003). Serious pest of tea, affecting leaves, in Japan (Witjaksono et al. 1999)

No

Ectropis excellens (Butler, 1884)

[Geometridae]



Large brown-striped geometrid moth

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Larvae feed on leaves of citrus (MAFF 1990).

No

Endoclyta excrescens (Butler, 1877)

[Hepialidae]






Yes (Kan et al. 2002)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Affects the stem of citrus in Korea (USDA 2002).

No

Ercheia umbrosa (Butler, 1881)

[Noctuidae]



Noctuid moth

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Reported to suck sap of citrus trees (MAFF 1990). Both larvae and adult noctuid moths are inactive during the day and hide amongst the foliage or leaf litter. During the night, adults usually feed on overripe or fermenting fruit (Common 1990).

No

Eudocima fullonia (Clerck, 1764)

[Noctuidae]



Fruit piercing moth

Yes (MAFF 2003)

Yes (Smith et al. 1997; CAB International 2004)




No

Eudocima salaminia (Cramer, 1777)

[Noctuidae]



Fruit-piercing moth

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Nielsen et al. 1996; Smith et al. 1997).

Not present in WA (DAWA 2003a).



No – Adult moths fly to orchards during the night to suck sap from ripening, overripe or fermenting fruit, including citrus fruit (Common 1990; Smith et al. 1997). Ripening pierced fruit tends to fall to the ground (Fay 2005). Both larvae and adult noctuid moths are inactive during the day and hide amongst the foliage or leaf litter.

No

Eudocima tyrannus (Guenée, 1852)

[Noctuidae]



Noctuid moth

Yes (MAFF 1990, 2003)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – This pest feeds mostly on Erythrina trees (Holloway et al. 2001). Both larvae and adult noctuid moths are inactive during the day and hide amongst the foliage or leaf litter. During the night, adults usually feed on overripe or fermenting fruit (Common 1990).

No

Eumeta japonica (Heylaerts, 1884)

[Psychidae]



Giant bagworm

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

Yes – Larvae feed on leaves, twigs and surface of citrus fruits (MAFF 1990). Important pest of shade and ornamental trees and shrubs in western Japan (Nishida 1983).

Yes

Eumeta minuscula (Butler, 1881)

[Psychidae]



Tea bagworm

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

Yes – Larvae feed on leaves, twigs and surface of citrus fruits (MAFF 1990). Important pest of shade and ornamental trees and shrubs in western Japan (Nishida 1983). The pest occurs in the Osaka region (Nishida 1983), but has been carried forward as there are no movement controls on fruit.

Yes

Eupithecia carearia Leech, 1897

[Geometridae]






Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Larvae eat the flowers and other parts of Rhododendron obtusum var. kaempferi, Abelia spathulata, Symplocos chinensis var. leucocarpa form pilosa, Euonymus alatus f. ciliato dentatus (MAFF 2003). Although this pest is listed on the MAFF (2003) pest list, there is no confirmation of it being on unshu mandarin or fruit of unshu mandarin.

No

Euproctis piperita Oberthür, 1880

[Lymantriidae]






Yes (Robinson et al. 2007)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – In Korea this pest is known to affect the leaves and roots of citrus (USDA 2002).

No

Euproctis pseudoconspersa Strand, 1923

[Lymantriidae]



Tea tussock moth

Yes (Arakaki et al. 1997)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – In Korea this pest is known to affect the leaves and roots of citrus (USDA 2002).

No

Euproctis pulverea Leech, 1888

[Lymantriidae]



Black-dotted yellow tussock moth

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Not associated with unshu fruit (USDA 1995); affects leaves of citrus (USDA 2002).

No

Euproctis similis (Fuessly, 1775)

[Lymantridae]



Gold-tail moth

Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Affects leaves of citrus (USDA 2002), apple and persimmon (MAFF 2003).

No

Glyphodes pyloalis Walker, 1859

[Pyralidae]






Yes (Honda et al. 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – In Korea this pest is known to affect the leaves and roots of citrus (USDA 2002).

No

Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner, 1805)

[Noctuidae]



African cotton bollworm

Yes (MAFF 2003)

Yes (Nielsen et al. 1996)




No

Helicoverpa assulta assulta Guenée, 1852

[Noctuidae]






Yes (Itagaki et al. 1983)

Yes (Nielsen et al. 1996)




No

Hemithea aestivaria Hübner, 1789

[Geometridae]



Common emerald

Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Larvae feed on leaves of unshu. Larvae over-winter on tree, and weave leaves together to pupate (MAFF 2003).

No

Homona coffearia Nietner, 1861

[Tortricidae]



Avocado leaf roller

Yes (MAFF 2003)

Yes (Pinese and Brown 1986)




No

Homona magnanima Diakonoff, 1948

[Tortricidae]



Large tea tortrix

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Associated with leaves and shoots of citrus (MAFF 1990; Kim et al. 2000). Intercepted on unshu fruit for export to the USA and New Zealand (MAFF 2009).

Yes

Hydraecia amurensis (Staudinger, 1892)

[Noctuidae]



Fruit piercing moth

Yes (USDA 1995)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Adults feed on unshu fruit, but would not be expected to remain with the fruit during processing (USDA 1995). Both larvae and adult noctuid moths are inactive during the day and hide amongst the foliage or leaf litter. During the night, adults usually feed on overripe or fermenting fruit (Common 1990).

No

Hyphantria cunea Drury, 1770

[Arctiidae]



Fall webworm

Yes (Gomi et al. 2004)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – In Korea this pest is known to affect the leaves and roots of citrus (USDA 2002).

No

Lemyra imparilis (Butler, 1877)

[Arctiidae]



Mulberry tiger moth

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Larvae feed on leaves and buds of citrus (MAFF 1990).

No

Lymantria dispar japonica (Motschulsky, 1861)

[Lymantriidae]



Asian gypsy moth

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Larvae feed on leaves of citrus (Schaefer et al. 1986; MAFF 1990).

No

Mahasena aurea (Butler, 1881)

[Psychidae]



Case moth

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Larvae feed on leaves of citrus (MAFF 1990) and on buds and leaves of Ginkgo biloba (Lee et al. 1997).

No

Mamestra brassicae (Linnaeus, 1758)

[Noctuidae]



Cabbage armyworm

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (CAB International 2004)

No – Larvae feed on leaves, normally vegetable leaves (MAFF 1990). Larvae are found on wild and cultivated plants of cabbages and other Brassica species (Sannino and Espinosa 1999; Mazzei et al. 2004). Not associated with fruit pathway.

No

Megabiston plumosaria (Leech, 1891)

[Geometridae]



Tea geometrid

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Larvae feed on leaves and buds of citrus (MAFF 1990).

No

Monema flavescens Walker, 1855

[Limacodidae]



Oriental moth

Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Infests leaves and stems of citrus, apple, chestnut, persimmon, pear and Prunus (MAFF 2003).

No

Ophiusa coronata (Fabricius, 1775)

[Noctuidae]



Fruit piercing moth

Yes (MAFF 2003)

Yes (Nielsen et al. 1996)




No

Ophiusa tirhaca Cramer, 1780

[Noctuidae]






Yes (Kita 1991)

Yes (Nielsen et al. 1996)




No

Ophthalmodes irrorataria Bremer and Grey 1853

[Geometridae]






Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Larvae found on Rosaceae, including Malus toringo, apple, Malus halliana, Pourthiaea villosa var. laevis, and Sorbus alnifolia (MAFF 2003). Although this pest is listed on the MAFF (2003) pest list, there is no confirmation of it being on unshu mandarin or fruit of unshu mandarin.

No

Oraesia emarginata (Fabricius, 1794)

[Noctuidae]



Fruit-piercing moth

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Nielsen et al. 1996).

Not present in WA (DAWA 2003a).



No – Both larvae and adult noctuid moths are inactive during the day and hide amongst the foliage or leaf litter. During the night, adults usually feed on overripe or fermenting fruit (Common 1990). Larvae overwinter in clusters of weeds and soil cracks around Cocculus trilobus in China (Liu et al. 2001). This species is not likely to follow the import pathway (USDA 2002).

No

Oraesia excavata (Butler, 1878)

[Noctuidae]



Fruit-piercing moth

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Both larvae and adult noctuid moths are inactive during the day and hide amongst the foliage or leaf litter. During the night, adults usually feed on overripe or fermenting fruit (Common 1990). Larvae overwinter in clusters of weeds and soil cracks around Cocculus trilobus in China (Liu et al. 2001). This species is not likely to follow the import pathway (USDA 2002).

No

Papilio bianor dehaanii (C. and R. Felder, 1864)

[Papilionidae]



Bianor peacock

Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996; Braby 2000)

No - Larvae feed on leaves of several Rutaceae, including species of citrus, Orixa, Phellodendron, Poncirus, Skimmia and Zanthoxylum (Robinson et al. 2007).

No

Papilio helenus nicconicolens (Butler, 1881)

[Papilionidae]



Red Helen

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996; Braby 2000)

No – Larvae feed on leaves of citrus (MAFF 1990). Adults feed in flowers (Collins and Morris 1985).

No

Papilio maackii Ménétriés, 1859

[Papilionidae]






Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996; Braby 2000)

No – Most common in lowland and montane mixed forests with Phellodendron amurensis, the host plant. In outbreak years, larvae may also feed on leaves of Rutaceae (Anon. 2004b).

No

Papilio memnon thunbergii (von Siebold, 1824)

[Papilionidae]



Great mormon

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996; Braby 2000)

No – Larvae feed on leaves of citrus (MAFF 1990). Adults feed in flowers (Collins and Morris 1985).

No

Papilio polytes polycles (Fruhstorfer, 1902)

[Papilionidae]



Black citrus swallowtail

Yes (JSAE 1987)

No (Braby 2000)

No – Early instar larvae feed openly on the upper surface of young leaves, including citrus; mature larvae rest on twigs among foliage away from their feeding areas (CAB International 2004). Adults feed on nectar from low growing flowers (Collins and Morris 1985; CAB International 2004).

No

Papilio polytes polytes Linnaeus, 1758

[Papilionidae]



Common mormon

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996; Braby 2000)

No – Larvae feed on leaves of citrus (MAFF 1990). Adults feed in flowers (Collins and Morris 1985).

No

Papilio protenor demetrius (Cramer, 1782)

[Papilionidae]



Spangle

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996; Braby 2000)

No – Larvae feed on leaves of citrus (MAFF 1990). Adults feed in flowers (Collins and Morris 1985).

No

Papilio xuthus (Linnaeus, 1767)

[Papilionidae]



Chinese yellow swallowtail

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996; Braby 2000)

No – Larvae feed on leaves of citrus (MAFF 1990). Adults feed in flowers (Collins and Morris 1985) and leaves (Lee et al. 1992) of citrus

No

Parallelia maturata (Walker, 1858)

[Syn.: Dysgonia maturata (Walker, 1858)]

[Noctuidae]


Purplish thick-legged moth

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Both larvae and adult noctuid moths are inactive during the day and hide amongst the foliage or leaf litter. During the night, adults usually feed on overripe or fermenting fruit (Common 1990). This species is not likely to follow the import pathway (USDA 2002).

No

Paranerita inequalis inequalis (Rothschild, 1909)





Yes (MAFF 1990; 2003)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Feeds on leaves of unshu. It is omniphagous and sometimes proliferates and strips leaves completely (MAFF 2003)

No

Parasa consocia Walker, 1865

[Limacodidae]






Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Feeds on leaves of persimmon, pear, plum and cherry. Particularly prevalent in trees along streets (MAFF 2003). Associated with leaves of citrus (USDA 2002).

No

Parasa sinica Moore, 1877

[Limacodidae]






Yes (CAB International 2004)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – In Korea this pest is known to affect the leaves and roots of citrus (USDA 2002).

No

Parnara guttata (Bremer and Grey, 1852)

[Hesperiidae]



Rice skipper

Yes (CAB International 2004)

No (Braby 2000)

No – In Korea this pest is known to affect the leaves and roots of citrus (USDA 2002).

No

Peridroma saucia (Hubner, 1808)

[Noctuidae]



Variegated cutworm; Pearly underwing moth

Yes (Inomata et al. 2002; CAB International 2007)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Although this species has been recorded to damage leaves, stems and fruit of Citrus species in Korea (Kim et al. 2000), it is not a pest of unshu mandarin fruit in Japan (MAFF 2009).

No

Phalera assimilis (Bremer and Grey, 1852)

[Notodontidae]






Yes (Robinson et al. 2007)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – In Korea this pest is known to affect the leaves and roots of citrus (USDA 2002).

No

Phyllocnistis citrella (Stainton, 1856)

[Gracillariidae]



Citrus leafminer

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Smith et al. 1997; Herbison-Evans and Crossley 2004)




No

Planociampa antipala (Prout, 1930)

[Geometridae]



Looper moth

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Larvae feed on leaves of citrus (MAFF 1990).

No

Plusiodonta casta (Butler, 1878)

[Noctuidae]



Noctuid moth

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Adults suck sap of citrus trees (MAFF 1990). Adults are primarily fruit-piercers and fly off from fruit, once disturbed. Larvae feed on Stephanoa japonica (Common 1990).

No

Plusiodonta coelonota (Kollar, 1844)

[Noctuidae]



Noctuid moth

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Nielsen et al. 1996).

Not present in WA (DAWA 2003a).



No – Feeds on leaves of several plants. No records on citrus (Robinson et al. 2007). Although this pest is listed on the MAFF (1990) pest list, there is no confirmation of it being on unshu mandarin or fruit of unshu mandarin.

No

Psorosticha melanocrepida (Clarke, 1962)

[Oecophoridae]



Citrus leafroller

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Associated with leaves of citrus (MAFF 1990). Not associated with unshu fruit (USDA 1995).

No

Pylargosceles steganioides (Butler, 1878)

[Geometridae]



Two-wavy-lined geometrid

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Larvae feed on leaves of citrus (MAFF 1990).

No

Samia cynthia pryeri (Butler, 1978)

[Saturniidae]






Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Larvae eat leaves of many plants, including Amur cork tree, sawtooth oak, Styrax japonica, and camphor (MAFF 2003). Although this pest is listed on the MAFF (2003) pest list, there is no confirmation of it being on unshu mandarin or fruit of unshu mandarin.

No

Sarcopolia illoba (Butler, 1878)

[Noctuidae]



Mulberry caterpillar

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Adults suck sap of citrus trees (MAFF 1990).

No

Scythropiodes leucostola (Meyrick, 1921)

[Lecithoceridae]



Tube caterpillar

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Larvae feed on leaves of citrus (MAFF 1990).

No

Serrodes campana (Guenée, 1852)

[Noctuidae]



Fruit-piercing moth

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Nielsen et al. 1996).

Not present in WA (DAWA 2003a).



No – Adults are attracted to fermenting fruits (Common 1990). Adults are primarily fruit-piercers of mandarins and other fruit (Bänziger 1982). Adults fly off from fruit, once disturbed.

No

Spilosoma lubricipeda (Linnaeus, 1758)

[Arctiidae]



White ermine moth

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Larvae feed on leaves of citrus (MAFF 1990).

No

Spodoptera exigua Hübner, 1808

[Noctuidae]






Yes (CAB International 2004)

Yes (Nielsen et al. 1996)




No

Spodoptera litura (Fabricius, 1775)

[Lepidoptera: Noctuidae]



Common cutworm

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Nielsen et al. 1996)




No

Stathmopoda auriferella (Walker, 1864)

[Oecophoridae]



Apple heliodinid

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

Yes – Larvae feed on fruit, flowers and leaves of citrus (MAFF 1990). The pest occurs in the Osaka region (Yamazaki and Sugiura 2003), but has been carried forward as there are no movement controls on fruit.

Yes

Synanthedon hector Butler, 1878

[Sesiidae]






Yes (CAB International 2004)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – In Korea this pest is known to affect the leaves and roots of citrus (USDA 2002).

No

Telorta acuminata (Butler, 1878)

[Noctuidae]



Noctuid moth

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Adults suck sap of citrus trees (MAFF 1990).

No

Trichoplusia ni (Hubner, 1802)

[Noctuidae]



Cabbage looper

Yes (CAB International 2007)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Eggs are laid on the upper surface of citrus leaves, and larvae feed on the leaves of citrus (Jeppson 1989). Unshu is not a host for this species in Japan (MAFF 2009).

No

Thyas juno (Dalman, 1823)

[Noctuidae]






Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Both larvae and adult noctuid moths are inactive during the day and hide amongst the foliage or leaf litter. During the night, adults usually feed on overripe or fermenting fruit (Common 1990). This species is not likely to follow the import pathway (USDA 2002).

No

Xestia c-nigrum (Linnaeus, 1758)

[Noctuidae]



Spotted cutworm

Yes (CAB International 2004)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Both larvae and adult noctuid moths are inactive during the day and hide amongst the foliage or leaf litter. During the night, adults usually feed on overripe or fermenting fruit (Common 1990).

No

Xylena formosa (Butler, 1878)

[Noctuidae]



Cutworm

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Adults feed on the sap from citrus trees (MAFF 1990).

No

Zamacra juglansiaria Graeser, 1888

[Geometridae]






Yes (MAFF 2003)

No (Nielsen et al. 1996)

No – Larvae eat leaves of walnut, elm, beech and rose (MAFF 2003). Although this pest is listed on the MAFF (2003) pest list, there is no confirmation of it being on unshu mandarin or fruit of unshu mandarin.

No
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