Final Import Risk Analysis Report for Fresh Unshu Mandarin Fruit from Shizuoka Prefecture in Japan



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Straminopila
















Phytophthora citrophthora (R.E. Sm. & E.H. Sm.) Leonian

[Pythiaceae]



Brown rot

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Cook and Dube 1989; Shivas 1989; APPD 2007)




No

Phytophthora nicotianae Breda de Haan

[Pythiaceae]



Black shank

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Cook and Dube 1989; Shivas 1989; APPD 2007)




No

Pythium aphanidermatum (Edson) Fitzp.

[Pythiaceae]



Root rot

Yes (CAB International 2004)

Yes (Shivas 1989; APPD 2007)




No

Pythium irregulare Buisman

[Pythiaceae]



Root rot

Yes (CAB International 2004)

Yes (Shivas 1989; APPD 2007)




No

Pythium splendens Hans Braun

[Pythiaceae]



Root rot

Yes (CAB International 2004)

Yes (Shivas 1989; APPD 2007)




No

VIRUSES

Citrus leaf rugose virus

[Genus: Ilarvirus]



Citrus leaf rugose

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Brunt et al. 1996).

Not present in WA (DAWA 2003b).



Yes – Fruits of infected trees are small and lumpy (Brunt et al. 1996).

Yes (for WA only)

Citrus psorosis virus

[Genus: Ophiovirus]



Psorosis complex

Yes (CMI 1984)

Yes (Fraser and Broadbent 1979; Cook and Dube 1989).

Not present in WA (DAWA 2003b).



Yes – Graft-transmitted disease (Derrick and Barthe 2000). Therefore if the plant is infected the virus may enter the fruit via phloem.

Yes (for WA only)

Apple stem grooving virus

(Syn: Citrus tatter leaf virus)

[Genus: Capillovirus]


Tatter leaf and citrange stunt

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Brunt et al. 1996).

Not present in WA (DAWA 2003b).



Yes – Graft-transmitted virus (MAFF 1990; Miyakawa and Ito 2000). Although generally associated with leaves, buds and trunk (MAFF 1990; Miyakawa and Ito 2000) the virus may enter the fruit via phloem.

Yes (for WA only)

Citrus tristeza virus

(Syn: Hassaku dwarf virus)

[Genus: Closterovirus]


Citrus quick decline

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Cook and Dube 1989; Brunt et al. 1996). Two sweet orange stem pitting strains restricted only to Queensland and are under official control in other States including WA (DAWA 2003a; PHA 2004b).

Yes – Disease is readily graft-transmitted (Lee and Bar-Joseph 2000) and if the plant is infected the virus may enter the fruit via phloem.

Yes

Citrus enation – woody gall virus

Vein enation

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes (Brunt et al. 1996).

Not present in WA (DAWA 2003b).



Yes – Transmitted by insect vectors and grafting (Brunt et al. 1996). Although generally associated with leaves and stems (MAFF 1990) it may enter the fruit via phloem.

Yes (for WA only)

Citrus yellow mottle associated virus

Citrus yellow mottle disease

Yes (MAFF 1990)

No (No records found)

Yes – Graft transmissible agent (Garnsey 2000). Therefore if the plant is infected the virus may enter the fruit via phloem.

Yes

Satsuma dwarf virus

(Syn: Citrus mosaic virus, natsudaidai dwarf virus, navel orange infectious mottling virus).

(Genus: Sadwavirus)


Satsuma dwarf

Yes (MAFF 1990); Citrus mosaic strain of this virus has been reported only from Japan and is widespread and increasing in importance there (EPPO 2005).

No (EPPO 2005)


Yes – Graft transmitted disease. The citrus mosaic strain of this virus produces symptoms on fruits. On satsumas, these are green blotches or ring shaped spots on the rind at colour break and delayed colouring of the spotted area (MAFF 1990; Iwanami and Koizumi 2000; EPPO 2005).

Yes

VIROIDS

Citrus bent leaf viroid

(Genus: Apscaviroid)






Yes (Ito et al. 2002)

No–Presence in WA unknown (DAWA 2003a)

Yes – Graft transmissible (Ashulin et al. 1991). Therefore if the plant is infected the viroid may enter the fruit via phloem.

Yes

Citrus exocortis viroid

(Genus: Pospiviroid)



Exocortis

Yes (MAFF 1990)

Yes, (Cook and Dube 1989; Duran-Vila et al. 2000b).

Not present in WA (DAWA 2003b).



Yes– – Graft transmissible (Duran-Vila et al. 2000b). Therefore if the plant is infected the viroid may enter the fruit via phloem.

Yes (for WA only)

Citrus viroid III

(Genus: Apscaviroid)






Yes (Ito et al. 2002)

No–Presence in WA unknown (DAWA 2003a)

Yes – Graft transmissible (Najar and Duran-Vila 2004). Therefore if the plant is infected the viroid may enter the fruit via phloem.

Yes

Citrus viroid IV

(Genus:Cocadviroid)






Yes (Ito et al. 2002)

No–Presence in WA unknown (DAWA 2003a)

Yes – Graft transmissible (Najar and Duran-Vila 2004). Therefore if the plant is infected the viroid may enter the fruit via phloem.

Yes

Citrus viroid original source

(Genus: Apscaviroid)






Yes (Ito et al. 2002)

No–Presence in WA unknown (DAWA 2003a)

Yes – Graft transmissible (Vernière et al. 2004). Therefore if the plant is infected the viroid may enter the fruit via phloem.

Yes

Hop stunt viroid

(Genus: Hostuviroid)



Cachexia

Yes (Shikata 1990)

Yes (CAB International 2004).

Not present in WA (DAWA 2003b).



Yes – Graft-transmitted (Duran-Vila et al. 2000a). Therefore although generally associated with leaves (Momma and Takahashi 1982; Roy and Ramachandran 2003) the viroid may enter the fruit via phloem. The citrus type Hop stunt viroid has been isolated from the fruit peel of Etrog citron (Shikata 1990).

Yes (for WA only)
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