Final Import Risk Analysis Report for Fresh Unshu Mandarin Fruit from Shizuoka Prefecture in Japan



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Appendix A 2: Potential for establishment or spread and associated consequences for pests of fresh unshu mandarin fruit from the production area

Scientific name

Common name

Potential for establishment or spread in the PRA area

Potential for economic consequences

Consider pest further







Feasible/ not feasible

Comments

Significant/ not significant

Comments




ARTHROPODS

ACARI (mites)

Aculops pelekassi

[Eriophyidae]



Pink citrus rust mite

Feasible

Citrus varieties are the only known hosts (Childers et al. 2004) and this species has a high reproductive rate (Seki 1981). The mites congregate at leaf edges (Futch et al. 2001) and so are easily distributed by wind.

Significant

Fruit damage is the main concern, although the mite also damages leaves and stems (Childers et al. 2004). It is considered to be of major economic importance in humid citrus-growing regions of the world (McCoy 1996).

Yes

Panonychus citri

[Tetranychidae]



Citrus red mite

Feasible

Wide host range (CAB International 2004) and already established in Australia, being restricted to the Orange, Gosford and Sydney in New South Wales, where it is subject to quarantine restrictions (Smith et al. 1997).

Significant

Considered an economically important and widespread pest of citrus crops (CAB International 2004).

Yes


INSECTA (insects)

Diptera (true flies, mosquitoes)

Bactrocera tsuneonis

[Tephritidae]



Japanese orange fly

Feasible

Infests fruits within Citrus spp. (White and Elson-Harris 1994).

Significant

Serious and widespread pest of citrus in subtropical areas of Japan, Taiwan, Vietnam, China (Zhang 1989; White and Elson-Harris 1994; EPPO 2007) requiring control measures where it occurs (Wang et al. 1990; Zhang 1989). Male flies are non-lure responsive (White and Elson-Harris 1994).


Yes

Limonia amatrix (Alexander, 1922)

[Tipulidae]



Citrus crane fly

Feasible

The host range for this species is unknown apart from feeding on Citrus unshiu. However other Citrus spp. are wide spread in Australia and similar climatic conditions exist between the designated export areas in Japan and Australia.


Not significant

No evidence could be found of economic or environmental damage due to this species.

No

Hemiptera (aphids; leafhoppers; mealybugs; psyllids; scales; true bugs; whiteflies)

Andaspis hawaiiensis

[Diaspididae]



Armoured scale

Feasible

One record of this scale species (a few specimens) affecting leaves and fruit in Western Samoa (Williams and Watson 1988). Williams and Watson (1988) report that this species was found on numerous other plant species, including Falcataria mollucana (syn. Albizia falcataria).

Not significant

Economically not significant.

No

Howardia biclavis

[Diaspididae]



Mining scale

Feasible

Wide host range (Williams and Watson 1988) including several garden ornamentals (Zimmerman 1948), high reproductive rate (Beardsley and Gonzalez 1975) and already established in eastern Australia on various hosts. Long distance dispersal occurs by passive transport of infested plant material (Tenbrink and Hara 1994).

Significant

Mining scale feeds on plant sap causing loss of vigour, deformation of infested plant parts, loss of leaves, and sometimes death of the plant (Beardsley and Gonzalez 1975). Listed as a serious and widespread pest (Miller and Davidson 1990).

Yes

(for WA, SA)



Ischnaspis longirostris

[Diaspididae]



Black thread scale

Feasible

This species has a wide host range (Williams and Watson 1988) and is already established in Queensland (APPD 2008). Can be dispersed by wing and plant material (Beardsley and Gonzalez 1975).

Significant

Considered an important pest in Malaysia, Brazil and the USA (Watson 2005).

Yes

(for WA)


Lepidosaphes gloverii

[Diaspididae]



Glover scale

Feasible

Wide host range, although most commonly found on citrus (Williams and Watson 1988) and already established in New South Wales and Queensland (Smith et al. 1997). Can be easily dispersed by wind and plant material (Williams and Watson 1988).

Significant

Heavy infestation can cause a delay in the development of colour in maturing fruit (Bruwer 1998).

Yes (for SA)

Lepidosaphes pinnaeformis

[Diaspididae]



Purple scale

Feasible

Wide host range, including commercial fruit trees (Pyrus, Prunus, Citrus). Already established in New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria (APPD 2008) and Tasmania (Ben-Dov et al. 2005).

Significant

Heavy infestation on the fruit can lead to yield loss, distortion and discolouration.

Yes (for WA)

Lopholeucaspis japonica

[Diaspididae]



Pear white scale

Feasible

Polyphagous pest whose main crop hosts are species of citrus (CAB International 2004). Easily dispersed by wind, birds, or fruit pickers (Williams and Watson 1988).

Significant

Attacks all citrus severely and trees are killed by heavy infestations (CAB International 2004). It has caused serious problems on satsumas (Citrus unshiu), mandarins and lemons in Azerbaijan and Georgia (CAB International 2004).

Yes

Morganella longispina

[Diaspididae]



Plumose scale

Feasible

Polyphagous pest of citrus and many other commercial and ornamental hosts (Ben-Dov et al. 2005; CAB International 2007). Already established on the east coast of Australia (APPD 2007).

Significant

Williams and Watson (1988) informed on damage caused by this species to grapefruit, lemon, and fig in Tahiti.

Yes (for WA, SA)

Parlatoria cinerea

[Diaspididae]



Armoured scale

Feasible

Wide host range, although most commonly found on citrus. Can be easily dispersed by wind and plant material (Williams and Watson 1988).

Significant

Williams and Watson (1988) record this species as a common pest on the stems, branches, leaves and fruit of citrus. Branches often die and sometimes the entire tree can perish (Williams and Watson 1988).

Yes

Parlatoria pergandii

[Diaspididae]



Chaff scale

Feasible

Restricted host range most commonly found on citrus (Williams and Watson 1988) and already established in Queensland (Smith et al. 1997); easily dispersed by wind and plant material (Williams and Watson 1988).

Significant

Causes green spot on fruit making them unsuitable for the fresh market (Cartwright and Browning 2003). Listed as a serious and widespread pest (Miller and Davidson 1990).

Yes (for WA, SA)

Parlatoria theae Cockerell, 1896

[Diaspididae]



Tea parlatoria scale

Feasible

Wide host range (Watson 2005). Can be dispersed by wing and plant material (Beardsley and Gonzalez 1975).

Significant

This species is an important pest of camellia in the USA and a pest of apple in the Republic of Georgia and Turkey (Watson 2005).

Yes

Parlatoria ziziphi

[Diaspididae]



Black parlatoria scale

Feasible

Feeds almost exclusively on citrus and is rarely recorded on other hosts. It has established in the USA. This species attaches firmly to the fruit and so can disperse with product movement (Fasulo and Brooks 2004).

Significant

High numbers of scales can adhere strongly to the fruit, making it unsightly and unsaleable in fresh fruit markets (Fasulo and Brooks 2004). Scales have been intercepted by AQIS inspectors on citrus fruit imported from California into Australia.

Yes

Planococcus kraunhiae

[Pseudococcidae]



Japanese mealybug

Feasible

Wide host range, including several ornamentals (Narai and Murai 2002; Ben-Dov et al. 2005). Between two and three generations per annum occur in Japan (USDA 1995). Long distance dispersal is by wind and movement of plant material (USDA 1995).

Significant

This species is a significant pest of mandarins. Satsuma mandarins from Japan require methyl bromide fumigation for this pest for export to the US (Misumi et al. 1994; USDA 1995). It is also a serious pest of pear and persimmon (Tanaka and Kobayashi 1971; Park and Hong 1992)

Yes

Planococcus lilacinus

[Pseudococcidae]



Coffee mealybug

Feasible

Wide host range including several garden ornamentals (Ben-Dov et al. 2005); easily dispersed by wind and plant material (Williams and Watson 1988).

Significant

This species is a serious pest of cocoa (Cox 1989) causing severe damage to young trees by killing the tips of branches. It is such an important pest of coffee, cocoa, custard apples, coconuts and mandarins in parts of India that chemical control is warranted (Ben-Dov 1994; CAB International 2004).

Yes

Pseudaonidia duplex

[Diaspididae]



Camphor scale

Feasible

Wide host range (Ben Dov et al. 2005) and suitable climate present in the PRA area. Easily dispersed by wind, plant material or fruit pickers (Williams and Watson 1988).

Significant

Attacks all parts of Citrus species, including leaves, branches and fruit (Jeppson 1989; Kim et al. 2000; Watson 2005).

Yes

Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis

[Diaspididae]



Trilobite scale

Feasible

Wide host range (Williams and Watson 1988) and suitable climate present in PRA area. Easily dispersed by wind, plant material or fruit pickers (Williams and Watson 1988).

Significant

This species affects the trunks, leaves and fruit of hosts (Pantoja and Peńa 2006), including Citrus maxima (Morton 1987).

Yes

(for WA, SA)



Pseudococcus comstocki

[Pseudococcidae]



Comstock mealybug

Feasible

Wide host range (Ben-Dov et al. 2005) and high reproductive rate (Meyerdirk and Newell 1979).

Significant

Capable of causing serious economic losses in several horticultural crops (Murakami et al. 1967; Bartlett et al. 1978; Ervin et al. 1983; Weires 1984; Park and Hong 1992; CAB International 2004).

Yes

Pseudococcus cryptus

[Pseudococcidae]



Citrus mealybug

Feasible

Wide host range (Ben-Dov et al. 2005). Easily dispersed by wind and plant material (Williams and Watson 1988).

Significant

Accidentally introduced into Israel where it became a pest of citrus (Ben-Dov 1988).

Yes

Unaspis euonymi (Comstock, 1881)

[Diaspididae]



Euonymus scale

Feasible

Wide host range including many Euonymus spp. (Ben-Dov et al. 2005). Can be dispersed by wing and plant material (Beardsley and Gonzalez 1975).

Significant

Is a significant pest of Euonymus spp. in the USA and Turkey (Van Driesche et al. 1998; Van Driesche and Nunn 2003; Ozyurt and Ulgenturk 2007).

Yes

Unaspis yanonensis

[Diaspididae]



Arrowhead scale

Feasible

First instar larvae can be naturally be dispersed by wind and animals. Can be dispersed internationally on citrus fruits (Cab International 2007).

Significant

Significant pest of Citrus species in Japan, and can kill heavily infested trees (Murakami 1970). Attacked fruits lose their commercial value because of the feeding punctures of the pest (CAB International 2007).

Yes

Lepidoptera (butterflies; moths)

Adoxophyes dubia

[Tortricidae]



Smaller tea tortrix

Feasible

The species is recorded on Ribes (Yasuda 1998a), Camellia sinensis and some other plant species (Sakamaki and Hayakawa 2004) in Japan.

Significant

Ribes species and Camellia sinensis are important commercial crops in Australia and are hosts to this pest (Yasuda 1998a; Sakamaki and Hayakawa 2004). The pest would have significant consequences on these crops if it should arrive in Australia.

Yes

Adoxophyes honmai

[Tortricidae]



Smaller tea tortrix

Feasible

Hosts include Citrus spp., Camellia sinensis (tea), Actinidia deliciosa (kiwi fruit) and Quercus spp., etc (Yasuda 1998b).

Significant

Important commercial crops like citrus, tea, grape, kiwi fruit and oak are hosts (Yasuda 1998b). The pest can have significant consequences on these crops if it should arrive in Australia.

Yes

Adoxophyes orana fasciata

[Tortricidae]



Summer fruit tortrix

Feasible

Host range includes apple (CAB International 2004) and Japanese pear (Yukinari 1996). It is capable of flight between host plants and orchards (Shirasaki 1989).

Significant

It is a pest of a wide range of economic crops such as apple, pear, apricot, citrus, cherry, currants, berry fruits, etc and important tree species such as oak and willow (Davis et al. 2006), and is serious enough in Japan to warrant control measures such as biological control and mating disruption (Oku 1993; Sekita 1996).

Yes

Homona magnanima

[Tortricidae]



Large tea tortrix

Feasible

Hosts include apple, pear, stonefruit, persimmons, tea and roses (CAB International 2007). Adults are capable longrange fliers (Shirai and Kosugi 1997)

Significant

Economically important pest. Larval feeding can severely damage foliage and young shoots which can lead to defoliation and crop loss (Takaji 1976)

Yes

Eumeta japonica

[Psychidae]



Giant bagworm

Feasible

Host range includes Fagaceae species and other ornamental plants (Zhang 1994; Robinson et al. 2007). High fecundity (Nishida 1983).

Female Psychidae are not winged, but remain in the larval case to copulate and lay their eggs. First instar larvae spin quantities of silk, which may act as a balloon and enable the larva to be transported by wind. The larva soon constructs a small conical case of silk and plant material. Winged male adults are capable of rapid flight (Common 1990).



Significant

This species is an important pest of ornamental trees and shrubs in Japan (Nishida 1983; Zhang 1994). It is a minor pest of Japanese pear (Izawa et al. 2000).

Yes

Eumeta minuscula

[Psychidae]



Tea bagworm

Feasible

Host range includes citrus, pears, apricots, tea, persimmons, cherries (Zhang 1994). High fecundity (Nishida 1983).

Female Psychidae are not winged, and remain in the larval case to copulate and lay their eggs. First instar larvae spin quantities of silk, which may act as a balloon and enable the larva to be transported by wind. The larva soon constructs a small conical case of silk and plant material. Winged male adults are capable of rapid flight (Common 1990).



Significant

This species is an important pest of ornamental trees and shrubs in Japan (Nishida 1983), and a pest of several crop species (Zhang 1994).

Yes

Stathmopoda auriferella

[Oecophoridae]



Apple heliodinid

Feasible

Larvae feed on fruit, flowers and leaves of citrus (MAFF 1990). Other species of Stathmopoda are widely distributed in Australia, but none are fruit pests (Common 1990).

Significant

Pest of kiwifruit in Korea (Park et al. 1994). Pest of navel orange, mango (Badr et al. 1986) and grapes (APHIS 2003).

Yes

Orthoptera (crickets; grasshoppers; katydids)

Ornebius kanetataki

[Gryllidae]



Fruit cricket

Feasible

Adults occur between August and November in Japan (Hashimoto 2005). Overwinters at the egg stage (Kim 2000).

Not significant

Ornebius kanetataki causes shallow rind damage to citrus fruit in Japan (UEC 2002), and there is no evidence that it damages any other plant species.

No
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