Final Import Risk Analysis Report for Fresh Unshu Mandarin Fruit from Shizuoka Prefecture in Japan



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Appendix B: Additional data for quarantine pests

Quarantine pest

Howardia biclavis (Comstock, 1883)

Synonyms

Chionaspis biclavis Comstock, 1883

Chionaspis biclavis detecta Maskell, 1895

Megalodiaspis biclavis (Comstock, 1883)

Common name(s)

Mining scale

Main hosts

Associated with Citrus unshiu Marcow. (unshu mandarin) in Japan (MAFF 1990).

Other hosts include: Acacia pubescens (downy wattle), Acalypha grandis, Acalypha sp., Achras sapota (sapodilla), Allamanda cathartica schottia (yellow allamanda), Allamanda hendersonii (pahtoh), Althaea sp. (marshmallows), Andira inermis (angelin), Annona muricata (soursop), Annona reticulata (custard apple), Annona squamosa (sugar apple), Artemisia abrotanum (southern wormwood), Artocarpus integrifolia (jackfruit), Ascyrum sp., Bauhinia monandra (orchid tree), Bauhinia purpurea (purple orchid tree), Bauhinia variegata (orchid tree), Begonia sp. (begonias), Bignonia sp., Bixa orellana (achiote), Blighia sapida (akee), Brunfelsia nitida (lady of the night), Buddleia davidii (butterfly bush), Bursera simaruba (gumbilimbo tree), Cajanus cajan (pigeonpea), Calophyllum brasiliense (Santa María), Calophyllum sp., Camellia sinensis (tea), Carica papaya (papaya), Casearia sylvestris (crackopen), Cassia sp., Castanea sp., Casuarina sp. (she-oaks), Catesbaea spinosa (Catesby's lilythorn), Celtis sinensis (Chinese hackberry), Cestrum diurnum (day jasmine), Chiococca sp., Chrysalidocarpus lutescens (Madagascar palm), Chrysophyllum cainito (star apple), Cinchona succirubra (red quinine tree), Cinnamomum sp. (cinnamon), Cissus sicyoides (princess vine), Citharexylum sp. (coreopsis), Citrus aurantifolia (sour orange), Citrus limon (lemon), Citrus medica (citron), Clusia flava, Clusia lacuma nervosa, Clusia rosea (autograph tree), Codiaeum variegatum (croton), Coffea arabica (coffee), Combretum micropetalum, Cordia interrupta, Cordia macrostachya, Cordia polycephala, Cosmos caudatus (wild cosmos), Cotinus sp. (smoke trees), Croton discolor (maran), Croton lucidus (firebush), Cupania sp., Cuphea sp., Cydonia oblonga (quince), Datura suaveolens (angel's trumpet), Desmodium incanum (kaimi clover), Diospyros ebenum (ebony), Dodonaea sp. (hopbush), Duranta plumieri, Duranta repens (sky flower), Echites melaleuca, Elaeocarpus sp. (quandongs), Euonymus sp. (spindle trees), Eupatorium sp., Euphorbia sp. (milkweeds), Ficus aspera (clown fig), Ficus benjamina (weeping fig), Ficus carica (common fig), Ficus laurifolia, Flacourtia sp., Gardenia jasminoides (cape jasmine), Gardenia sp. (gardenia), Genipa americana (jaguar), Gesneria pedunculosa (arbol de navidad), Graptophyllum pictum (caricature plant), Grevillea robusta (silky oak), Guarea trichilioides (American muskwood), Guettarda scabra (roughleaf velvetseed), Hibiscus mutabilis (confederate rose), Hibiscus rosasinensis (Chinese hibiscus), Hibiscus sp. (hibiscus), Hibiscus syriacus (shrub althea), Hibiscus tiliaceus (mahoe), Hippomane mancinella (manzanillo), Hippomane sp., Hydnocarpus sp., Hydnocarpus wightiana (jangli), Ilex urbaniana var. riedlaei (Urban's holly), Indigophera sp. (indigoes), Inga laurina (sacky sac bean), Ipomoea tiliacea (sweet potato), Iresine sp. (bloodleaf), Ixora coccinea (jungle geranium), Ixora sp., Jasminum humile (yellow jasmine), Jasminum sambac (Arabian jasmine), Jasminum simplicifolius (stiff jasmine), Jasminum trifoliatum, Jatropha integerrima (peregrine), Juglans sp. (walnuts), Justicia spicigera (mohintli), Justicia sp., Khaya sp. (African mahogany), Lagerstroemia indica (crepe myrtle), Landolphia heudelotii, Lantana camara (lantana), Leucaena sp., Ligustrum sp. (privets), Phyla stoechadifolia (southern fogfruit), Litchi sp. (lychee), Lonicera sp. (honeysuckles), Lucuma serpentaria, Manilkara zapota (sapodilla), Lycopersicon sp. (tomato), Maba buxifolia, Macadamia ternifolia (macadamia nut), Macaranga sp., Malphigia sp., Malus pumila (apple), Mammea americana (mamey apple), Mangifera indica (mango), Manilkara bidentata (ausubo), Manilkara zapota (sapodilla), Matisia cordata (South American sapote), Melia azederach (white cedar), Melicoccus bijugatus (Spanish lime), Metrosideros sp., Miconia laevigata (smooth johnnyberry), Microcitrus australasica (Australian finger lime), Microglossa zeylanica, Micropholis crysophylioides, Morinda sp., Moringa oleifera (horseradish tree), Morus nigra (black mulberry), Mundulea suberosa (silver bush, cork bush), Murraya exotica (Chinese box), Myrica cerifera (southern wax myrtle), Myristica macrantha, Dimocarpus longan (longan), Nerium oleander (oleander), Nyctanthes sambac (Arabian jasmine), Ochna sopata, Ocotea leucoxylon (loblolly sweetwood), Olea europaea (olive), Osteomeles anthyllidifolia (Hawai'i hawthorn), Parinari laurinum, Parthenocissus sp. (Boston ivy), Passiflora laurifolia (yellow water-lemon), Persea americana (avocado), Phoradendron sp. (mistletoes), Photinia wrightiana, Phytolaca rivinoides, Piper aduncum (spiked pepper), Piper methysticum (kava), Piper nigrum (black pepper), Piper rivinoides, Pithecellobium dulce (Manila tamarind), Pittosporum sp., Plectranthus amboinicus (Mexican mint), Plumeria alba (white frangipani), Poinsettia sp., Polyalthia longifolia (ashok tree), Pouteria campechiana (yellow sapote), Pouteria obovata (yellow boxwood), Prunus sp., Psidium guajava (guava), Psychotria uliginosa (wild coffee), Pterocarpus indicus (Burmese rosewood), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Pyrus sp. (pears), Quisqualis indica (Rangoon creeper), Raimannia sp. (evening primrose), Randia aculeata (white indigoberry), Raphiolepis sp. (hawthorns), Rhus leucantha (winged sumac), Royena sp., Ruta chalepensis (fringed rue), Saba senegalensis, Sapium sp. (milktree), Schinus sp. (peppertree), Sida sp., Solanum melongena (eggplant), Solanum seaforthianum (Brazilian nightshade), Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (light-blue snakeweed), Strobilanthes isophyllus, Swietenia sp. (mahogany)], Syzygium cleyeraefolium, Tabernaemontana citrifolia (milkwood), Tabernaemontana divaricata (pinwheelflower), Tamarindus sp. (tamarind), Tecoma capensis (cape honeysuckle), Terminalia catappa (Indian almond), Terminalia tomentosa (Indian laurel), Thea sp. (tea plant), Thouinia strata, Tithonia diversifolia (tree marigold), Toxicodendron sp. (poison ivy), Trachelospermum jasminoides (Chinese star jasmine), Trema micranthum (Jamaican nettletree), Trichilia sp., Triumfetta semitriloba (burbrush), Urena sp., Wistaria sp. (wisterias) (Ben-Dov et al. 2005).

Distribution

Howardia biclavis is present in Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia (Queensland), Bahamas, Barbados, Bermuda, Bonin Islands, Brazil, China, Columbia, Cook Islands, Cuba, Czech Republic, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Federated States of Micronesia, Fiji, France, French Guiana, French Polynesia, Galapagos Islands, Germany, Ghana, Guyana, Haiti, Hawaiian Islands, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Mexico, Montserrat, New Caledonia, Niue, Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Peru, Philippines, Poland, Puerto Rico and Vieques Island, Russia, Saint Croix, Saint Kitts and Nevis Islands, Sardinia, Singapore, Spain, Sri Lanka, Rodriques Island, Sao Tome and Principe, South Africa, Taiwan, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobargo, United Kingdom, United States of America (California, District of Columbia, Florida, Kansas, Maryland, Missouri, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania), Vanuatu, Venezuela, Western Samoa, Zanzibar and Zimbabwe (Ben-Dov et al. 2005).

Quarantine pest

Ischnaspis longirostris (Signoret, 1982)

Synonyms

Ischnaspis filiformis Douglas, 1887

Ischnaspis longirostris Hempel, 1900

Ischnaspis piliformis Riley & Howard, 1893

Lepidosaphes ritsemabosi Fernald, 1903

Mytilaspis longirostris Signoret, 1882

Mytilaspis ritzemae Leonardi, 1901

Common name(s)

black thread scale, black line scale

Main hosts

The main hosts of Ischnaspis longirostris are Citrus, Cocos nucifera (coconut), Coffea (coffee), forest trees (woody plants) and Mangifera indica (mango) (CAB International 2007).

Distribution

Ischnaspis longirostris is present in the Admiralty Islands, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Australia (Northern Territory, Queensland, South Australia), Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Bonin Islands, Brazil (Bahia, Distrito Federal (=Brasilia), Espirito Santo, Minas Gerais, Parana, Para, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Sao Paulo), Cameroon, Canada (Ontario), Canary Islands, Cape Verde, Colombia, Cook Islands, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, France, French Polynesia (Tahiti), Germany, Ghana, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guam, Guinea, Guyana, Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii, Kauai, Lanai, Maui, Molokai, Oahu), India (Karnataka), Indonesia (Java), Ireland, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, Madagascar, Malaysia (Malaya), Martinique, Mauritius, Mexico, Mozambique, New Caledonia, Nigeria, Northern Mariana Islands (Saipan Island), Palau, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Philippines (Luzon), Portugal, Puerto Rico & Vieques Island (Puerto Rico), Reunion, Saint Croix, Sao Tome and Principe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Sweden, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago (Trinidad), Uganda, United Kingdom (England), United States of America (California (reported eradicated in California), Connecticut, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, Missouri, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia), U.S. Virgin Islands, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Western Samoa, Zaire, Zanzibar and Zimbabwe (Ben-Dov et al. 2008).

Quarantine pest

Lepidosaphes pinnaeformis Bouché, 1851

Synonyms

Aspidiotus pinnaeformis Bouché, 1851

Mytilaspis pinnaeformis Signoret, 1870

Mytilaspis machili Maskell, 1898

Lepidosaphes machili Fernald, 1903

Lepidosaphes pinnaeformis Green, 1905

Lepidosaphes tuberculata Malenotti, 1916

Lepidosaphes tubercolata Leonardi, 1920

Lepidosaphes tuberculatus Green, 1921

Scrupulaspis machili MacGillivray, 1921

Parlatoria pinnaeformis Bodkin, 1922

Lepidosaphes cymbidicola Kuwana, 1925

Lepidosaphes ezokihadae Kuwana, 1932

Lepidosaphes cinnamomi Takahashi, 1933

Lepidosaphes piniformis Lindinger, 1934

Mytilococcus piniformis Lindinger, 1936

Mytilococcus tuberculata Lupo, 1939

Lepidosaphes pinniformis Schmutterer, 1952

Eucornuaspis machili Borchsenius, 1963

Eucornuaspis pinnaeformis Wise, 1977

Mytilococcus machili Zahradník, 1977

Common name(s)

purple scale, cymbidium scale, Machilus oystershell, mussel scale

Main hosts

The hosts of Lepidosaphes pinnaeformis include Rhapis sp., Tetradymia glauca, Tetradymia sp., Cercidiphyllum japonicum, Cercidiphyllum sp., Cycas revolute, Cycas sp., Daphniphyllum membranaceum, Daphniphyllum sp., Elaeagnus sp., Croton sp., Quercus sp., Illicium religiosum, Illicium sp., Stauntonia keitaoensis, Stauntonia sp., Cinnamomum camphora, Cinnamomum japonicum, Cinnamomum kanchirai, Cinnamomum pedunculata, Cinnamomum sp., Lindera communis, Lindera oldhamii, Lindera sp., Litsea glauca, Litsea sp., Machilus kusanoi, Machilus sp., Machilus thunbergii, Machilus thunbergii glaucescens, Neolitsea sericea, Neolitsea sp., Persea sp., Phoebe sp., Magnolia grandiflora, Magnolia sp., Michelia compressa, Michelia orchidis, Michelia sp., Ficus sp., Cattleya sp., Cymbidium oleifolium, Cymbidium pendulum, Cymbidium sp., Cymbidium tracyanum, Cymbidium virescens, Cymbidium yamajii, Dendrobium sp., Banksia sp., Pomaderris apetala, Pomaderris sp., Prunus persica, Prunus sp. Pyrus cydonia, Pyrus sp., Ophiopogon sp., Citrus aurantium, Citrus sp., Phellodendron amurense, Phellodendron sachalinense, Phellodendron sp., Taxus cuspidate and Taxus sp. (Ben-Dov et al. 2008).

Distribution

Lepidosaphes pinnaeformis is distributed in Angola, Argentina, Australia (Tasmania), Brazil, China (Hainan, Shanxi (=Shansi)), Crete, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, France, Germany, Guatemala, Guyana, Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii), India (West Bengal), Iran, Italy, Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku), Latvia, Malta, Morocco, Portugal, Spain, Syria, Taiwan, Turkey, United Kingdom (England), United States of America (California, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania), Uzbekistan (Tashkent Oblast) and Vietnam (Ben-Dov et al. 2008).

Quarantine pest

Lopholeucaspis japonica (Cockerell, 1897)

Synonyms

Leucaspis japonicus Cockerell, 1897

Leucaspis japonica darwiniensis Green, 1916

Leucodiaspis japonica (Cockerell, 1897)

Leucodiaspis hydrangeae Takahashi, 1934

Leucodiaspis japonica darwiniensis (Green, 1916)

Leucaspis hydrangeae (Takahashi, 1934)

Lopholeucaspis japonica (Cockerell, 1897)

Lopholeucaspis japonica darwiniensis (Green 1916)

Lopholeucaspis menoni (Borchsenius, 1964)

Lopholeucaspis darwiniensis (Green 1916)

Leucaspis menoni Takagi, 1969

Common name(s)

Pear white scale

Main hosts

Associated with Citrus unshiu Marcow. (unshu mandarin) in Japan (MAFF 1990).

Other hosts include: Acer palmatum (Japanese maple), Acer saccharum (sugar maple), Acer sp. (maple), Alnus japonica (Japanese alder), Camellia sinensis (tea), Camellia sp., Celastrus orbiculatus (Oriental bittersweet vine), Chaenomeles lagenaria (flowering quince), Citrus aurantium (sour orange), Citrus nobilis deliciosa, Citrus sp., Cytisus scoparius (scotch broom), Cytisus sp. (broom), Diospyros kaki (persimmon), Distylium racemosum (Isu tree), Enkianthus sp., Euonymus alata (winged spindle tree), Euphorbia sp., Eurya crenatifolia, Fagus sp. (beech), Ficus bengalensis (banyan tree), Ficus carica (fig tree), Ficus glomerata, Ficus orbicularis, Ficus religiosa (Bo-tree), Ficus sp. (figs), Fraxinus japonica (Japanese ash), Hydrangea integra, Hydrangea sp., Ligustrum sp. (privet), Liquidambar formosana, Magnolia souleana, Malus pumila (apple), Malus sp., Paeonia moutan (Chinese tree-peony), Paeonia sp., Paeonia suffruticosa (tree peony), Pittosperum tobira, Poncirus trifoliata (Japanese bitter orange), Populus sp. (poplar), Prunus mume (Japanese apricot), Prunus sp., Pyracantha sp. (firethorns), Pyrus serotina (wild pear), Pyrus sp. (pears), Rhododendron sp. (rhododendrons), Rosa sp. (roses), Salix aegyptiaca (Mediterranean willow), Salvadora sp., Styrax japonica (Japanese snowbell), Syringa vulgaris (common lilac), Tilia miqueliana (lime), Ulmus sp. (elm), Viburnum macrocephalum keteleeri (Chinese snowball), Vitis sp., Vitis vinifera (grape), Zelkova serrata (Japanese zelkova) (Ben-Dov et al. 2005).



Distribution

Lopholeucaspis japonica is present in Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Brazil, China, Georgia, India, Iran, Japan, Korea, Pakistan, Turkey, Russia, Ukraine and the United States of America (CAB International 2007).

Quarantine pest

Parlatoria theae (Cockerell, 1896)

Synonyms

Parlatoreopsis theae Kawai, 1972

Parlatoria dives McKenzie, 1945

Parlatoria euonymi McKenzie, 1945

Parlatoria pergandei dives Bellio, 1929

Parlatoria pergandei theae Kuwana, 1902

Parlatoria theae Leonardi, 1903

Parlatoria theae euonymi Cockerell, 1897

Parlatoria theae evonymi Leonardi, 1903

Parlatoria theae viridis Cockerell, 1896

Parlatoria theae viridis Leonardi, 1903

Parlatoria viridis Cockerell, 1897

Syngenaspis theae MacGillivray, 1921

Syngenaspis theae euonymi MacGillivray, 1921

Syngenaspis theae viridis MacGillivray, 1921

Common name(s)

Tea parlatoria scale

Main hosts

Parlatoria theae is a polyphagous species. It has been recorded on hosts from 21 families. Host include species of Acer, Arbutus, Aucuba, Bauhinia, Camellia, Celtis, Citrus, Codiaeum, Cornus, Crataegus, Diospyros, Elaeagnus, Enkianthus, Eriobotrya, Euonymus, Euphorbia, Eurya, Hibiscus, Ilex, Magnolia, Malus, Osmanthus, Persea, Photinia, Poncirus, Prunus, Pyracantha, Pyrus, Ribes, Rosa, Staphylea, Syringa, Trochodendron, Viburnum and Vitis (Watson 2008).

Distribution

Parlatoria theae is present in Belgium, Canada (Ontario (In the Ontario Agricultural College greenhouse at Guelph.)), China (Fujian, Guangdong, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Liaoning, Ningxia, Shandong, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang), France, Georgia, Greece, Hawaiian Islands, Iran, Italy, Japan (Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku), Madeira Islands, Netherlands, Philippines, Portugal, Russia, Spain, Taiwan, Ukraine, United Kingdom (England) and United States of America (California, District of Columbia, Georgia , Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, New York, North Carolina, Texas, Virginia) (Ben-Dov et al. 2008).

Quarantine pest

Pseudaonidia duplex (Cockerell, 1896)

Synonyms

Aspidiotus theae Maskell, 1891, nom. nud.

Aspidiotus duplex Cockerell, 1896

Aspidiotus theae rhododendri Green, 1900

Pseudaonidia rhododendri Fernald, 1903

Pseudaonidia rhododendri thearum Fernald, 1903
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