Final Import Risk Analysis Report for Fresh Unshu Mandarin Fruit from Shizuoka Prefecture in Japan



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Common name(s)

Camphor scale

Main hosts

Acer palmatum, Acer matsumurae, Alnus hirsuta, Castanea pubinervis, Castanopsis cuspidata, Cinnamomum camphor, Citrus junos, Citrus natsudaidai, Eurya japonica, Eurya ochracea, Ficus carica, Ficus kingiana, Illicium religiosum, Ligustrum, Michelia fuscata, Myrica rubra, Nephelium litchi, Olea fragrans, Osmanthus fragrans, Photinia glabra, Pyracantha angustifolia, Quercus phillyraeoides, Rhododendron arboretum, Rhus succedanea, Ternstroemia japonica, Thea japonica, Thea sasanqua, Thea sinensis. (Ben-Dov et al. 2005).

Distribution

India (Assam); Indonesia (Java); Sri Lanka; Taiwan; China (Honan); Georgia (Abkhaz ASSR, Adzhar ASSR); Japan (Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku); South Korea; Hawaiian Islands (Hawaii); United States of America (Alabama, California, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas, Virginia) (Ben-Dov et al. 2005).

Quarantine pest

Unaspis euonymi (Comstock, 1881)

Synonyms

Chionaspis euonymi Comstock, 1881

Chionaspis evonymi Targioni Tozzetti, 1884

Chionaspis nemausensis Signoret, 1886

Unaspis euconymi Tao, 1999

Unaspis euonymi Ferris, 1937

Unaspis evonymi Bodenheimer, 1953

Unaspis hakayamai Borchsenius, 1966

Unaspis hakayamai Takahashi & Kanda, 1939

Common name(s)

euonymus scale, spindle berry scale

Main hosts

Hosts include species of Aspidistra, Buxus, Celastrus, Citrus, Daphne, Euonymus, Fraxinus, Hedera, Hibiscus, Ilex, Jasminum, Ligustrum, Lonicera, Olea, Pachistima, Pachysandra, Prunus, Syringa and Viscum (Ben-Dov et al. 2008).

Distribution

Unaspis euonymi is present in Algeria, Argentina, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Bolivia, Bulgaria, Canada (British Columbia), Canary Islands, China (Guangdong, Guangxi, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Nei Monggol, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Hong Kong, Xizang), Egypt, France, Georgia (Abkhaz ASSR, Adzhar ASSR), Greece, Hungary, Iran, Israel, Italy, Japan (Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, Shikoku), Malta, Mexico, Morocco, Portugal, Romania, Russia (Krasnodar Kray), Sardinia, Sicily, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine (Krym (=Crimea) Oblast), United Kingdom (England), United States of America (Alabama, Arizona Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nebraska, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin), Uzbekistan and Yugoslavia (Macedonia) (Ben-Dov et al. 2008).

Quarantine pest

Planococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana, 1902)

Synonyms

Dactylopius kraunhiae Kuwana, 1902

Pseudococcus kraunhiae (Kuwana 1902)

Planococcus siakwanensis Borchsenius, 1962

Common name(s)

Japanese mealybug

Main hosts

Associated with the fruit, leaves and twigs of Citrus unshiu Marcow. (unshu mandarin) in Japan (MAFF 1990).

Other hosts include: Agave americana (Century plant), Artocarpus lanceolata, Casuarina stricta (she oak), Citrus nobilis (tangor), Citrus paradisi (grapefruit), Codiaeum variegatum pictum (variegated laurel), Coffea arabica (coffee), Crinum asiaticum (poison bulb), Cydonia sinensis (quince), Digitaria sanguinalis (crab-grass), Diospyros kaki (Japanese kaki), Ficus carica (fig), Gardenia jasminoides (common gardenia), Ilex sp. (holly), Magnolia grandiflora (magnolia), Musa basjoo (Japanese banana), Nandina domestica (heavenly bamboo), Nerium indicum (oleander), Olea chrysophylla (olive), Platanus orientalis (sycamore), Portulaca oleracea (portulaca), Trachycarpus excelsus fortunei (wind-mill palm), Wisteria floribunda (wisteria) (Ben-Dov et al. 2005).



Distribution

Planococcus kraunhiae is present in China, Korea, Philippines, Taiwan and the United States of America (Ben-Dov et al. 2005).

Quarantine pest

Planococcus lilacinus (Cockerell, 1905)

Synonyms

Pseudococcus tayabanus Cockerell, 1905

Dactylopius coffeae Newstead, 1908

Pseudococcus coffeae (Newstead, 1908)

Dactylopius crotonis Green, 1911

Pseudococcus crotonis (Green, 1911)

Pseudococcus deceptor Betrem, 1937

Tylococcus mauritiensis Mamet, 1939

Planococcus crotonis (Green, 1911)

Planococcus tayabanus (Cockerell, 1905)

Planococcus indicus Arasthi and Shafee, 1987

Common name(s)

Coffee mealybug

Main hosts

The host range of P. lilacinus is extremely wide. It attacks over 65 genera of plants in 35 families, including Anacardiaceae, Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, Leguminosae and Rutaceae (Ben-Dov et al. 2005). Planococcus lilacinus attacks Theobroma cacao (cocoa), Psidium guajava (guava), Coffea spp. (coffee), Mangifera indica (mango) (Ben-Dov et al. 2005), and other tropical and sub-tropical fruits and shade trees (IIE 1995).

Distribution

P. lilacinus occurs mainly in the Palaearctic, Malaysian, Oriental, Australasian and Neotropical regions, and is the dominant cocoa mealybug in Sri Lanka and Java (Entwistle 1972). Williams (1982) reported that the species was probably introduced into the South Pacific from Southern Asia.

In Asia, P. lilacinus is recorded from Bangladesh, Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Laos, Malaysia, Maldives, Myanmar, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, Viet Nam and Yemen (CAB International 2007).



Quarantine pest

Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana, 1902)

Synonyms

Dactylopius comstocki Kuwana, 1902

Common name(s)

Comstock mealybug, Japanese mealybug.

Main hosts

Associated with the fruit and branches of Citrus unshiu Marcow. (unshu mandarin) in Japan (MAFF 1990).

Other hosts include: Aesculus spp. (horse chestnut), Aglaia odorata (Chinese perfume tree), Alnus japonica (Japanese alder), Amaryllis vittata, Artemisia, Buxus microphylla (littleleaf boxwood), Camellia japonica (Camellia), Castanea (chestnut), Catalpa (northern catalpa), Celtis willdenowiana (enoki), Cinnamomum camphorae (camphor tree), Citrus (citrus), Crassula tetragona (miniature pine tree), Cydonia oblonga (quince), Cydonia sinensis (Chinese quince), Deutzia parviflora typical (gaura), Dieffenbachia picta (dumb cane), Erythrina indica (rainbow eucalyptus), Euonymus alatus (winged euonymus), Fatsia japonica (Japanese aralia), Ficus carica (fig), Fiwa japonica, Forsythia koreana (forsythia), Gardenia jasminoides (gardenia), Ginkgo biloba (ginkgo), Hydrangea (hydrangea), Ilex cornuta (Chinese holly), Ilex crenata microphylla (korean gem), Krauhnia, Lagerstroemia indica (crape myrtle), Ligustrum ibota angustifolium, Lonicera (honeysuckles), Loranthus (mistletoe), Malus pumila (paradise apple), Malus sylvestris (crab apple), Masakia japonica (Japanese euonymus), Monstera deliciosa (monstera), Morus alba (white mulberry), Musa (bananas), Nephelium lappaceum (rambutan), Opuntia dillenii (prickly pear), Orixa japonica (Japanese orixa), Pandanus (screwpines), Persica vulgaris (peach), Pinus thunbergiana (Japanese black pine), Populus (poplar), Prunus mume (Japanese apricot), Punica granatum (pomegranate), Pyrus communis (European pear), Pyrus serotina culta (black cherry), Rhamnus (buckthorn), Rhododendron mucronulatum (Korean rhododendron), Sasamorpha (bamboo), Taxus (yew), Torreya nucifera (Japanese torreya), Trema orientalis (nalita), Viburnum awabucki (acacia confuse), Zinnia elegans (zinnia) (Ben-Dov 2005b).



Distribution

Pseudococcus comstocki is present in Afghanistan, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Brazil, Canada, Canary Islands, China, Federated States of Micronesia, Indonesia, Iran, Italy, Japan, Kampuchea, Kazakhstan, Madeira Islands, Malaysia, Mexico, Northern Mariana Islands, Russia, Saint Helena, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, United States of America, Uzbekistan and Vietnam (Ben-Dov et al. 2005).

Quarantine pest

Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, 1918

Synonyms

Pseudococcus citriculus Green, 1922

Planococcus cryptus (Hempel, 1918)

Pseudococcus spathoglottidis Lit, 1992

Pseudococcus mandarinus Das and Ghose, 1996

Common name(s)

Citriculus mealybug

Main hosts

Ananas sativa, Annona muricata, Areca catechu, Artocarpus altilis, Artocarpus incisa (breadfruit), Artocarpus odoratissimus, Avicennia officinalis, Bauhinia purpurea, Calophyllum inophyllum, Citrus aurantifolia (lime), C. aurantium, C. grandis, C. limon (lemon), C. paradisi (grapefruit), C. reticulata (mandarin), C. sinensis (orange), Cocos nucifera (coconut), Coelogyne dayana, Coffea arabica (Arabian coffee), Coffea liberica, Crinum asiaticum, Cyrtostachys renda, Dillenia indica, Elaeis guineensis, Eugenia malaccensis, Garcinia kydia, Garcinia mangostana (mangosteen), Glycine max, Hevea brasiliensis (rubbertree), Hibiscus tiliaceus, Lansium domesticum, Litchi chinensis (lychee), Mangifera indica (mango), Melastoma melobothricum, Melastoma normale, Millettia niuewenhuisii, Moringa oleifera, Musa sapientum, Myristica fragrans, Nephelium lappaceum, Ocotea pedalifolia, Osbornia ocdonta, Pandanus upoluensis, Passiflora foetida, Persea americana (avocado), Phalaenopsis amatilis, Phoenix dactylifera, Piper methysticum, Psidium guajava (guava), Punica granatum, Raphioperdalum bellatulum, Rhizophora apiculata, Ryparosa fasciculata, Spathoglottis plicata, Strychnos vanpurkii, Tamarindus indica, Vanda teres, Vitis vinifera (grapevine) (Ben-Dov et al. 2005).

Distribution

Pseudococcus cryptus is widely distributed in South East Asia, tropical Africa, mideastern Mediterranean and South America.

Afghanistan, American Samoa, Andaman Islands, Argentina, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Brazil, British Indian Ocean Territory, Brunei, Cambodia, China, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Federated States of Micronesia, Hawaiian Islands, India, Indonesia, Iran, Israel, Japan, Kenya, Laos, Malaysia, Maldives, Mauritius, Nepal, Palau, Paraguay, Philippines, Singapore, South Korea, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, U.S. Virgin Islands, Viet Nam, Western Samoa, Zanzibar (Ben-Dov et al. 2005).



Quarantine pest

Adoxophyes dubia Yasuda, 1998

Synonyms




Common name(s)

Tea form

Main hosts

Lyonia sp., Ribes sp. (Yasuda 1998a), Aucuba japonica, Myrica rubra, Camellia sinensis (tea) Solanum nigrum (Sakamaki and Hayakawa 2004).

Distribution

Japan [southern Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu, Okinawa, the Ryukyu Islands] (Yasuda 1998a).

Quarantine pest

Adoxophyes honmai Yasuda, 1988

Synonyms




Common name(s)

Smaller tea tortrix, tea form, tea tortrix moth, smaller tea tortrix moth, tea tortricid moth

Main hosts

Camellia sinensis (tea) (Yasuda 1998a; Sakamaki and Hayakawa 2004), Hedera thombea (bean), Eucalyptus spp. (Nasu et al. 2004), Viburnum suspensum (Sakamaki and Hayakawa 2004).

Distribution

Japan [Honshu, possibly Shikoku and Kyushu] (Yasuda 1998a; Sakamaki and Hayakawa 2004).

Quarantine pest

Adoxophyes orana fasciata (Walsingham, 1900)

Synonyms

Adoxophyes fasciata Walsingham, 1900

Common name(s)

Leafroller moth, smaller tea tortrix, smaller tortrix, summer fruit tortrix, summer fruit tortrix moth, apple form

Main hosts

Associated with Citrus unshiu Marcow. (unshu mandarin) in Japan (MAFF 2003) (synonym: Citrus reticulata Blanco ‘Satsuma’, Citrus reticulata Blanco ‘Unshiu’).

Other hosts include: Malus pumila (apple) (CAB International 2004).



Distribution

Japan [Hokkaido and Honshu] (Yasuda 1998a; Sakamaki and Hayakawa 2004).

Quarantine pest

Homona magnanima (Diakonoff, 1948)

Synonyms




Common name(s)

Oriental tea tortrix, leaf roller

Main hosts

Main hosts of H. magnanima are Arachis, Camellia sinensis (tea), Chrysanthemum indicum (chrysanthemum), Citrus, Diospyros kaki (persimmon), Eurya, Glycine, Lithocarpus edulis, Malus domestica (apple), Nandina domestica (heavenly bamboo), Paeonia (peonies), Paulownia tomentosa (paulownia), Podocarpus, Prunus (stone fruit), Prunus avium (sweet cherry), Pyrus (pears), Rhododendron (Azalea), Rosa (roses) and Solanum melongena (aubergine) (CAB International 2007).

Distribution

Homona magnanima is present in Japan (Honshu, Kyushu), Taiwan (CAB International 2007) and Korea (Lee et al. 1992).

Quarantine pest

Eumeta japonica (Heylaerts, 1884)

Synonyms




Common name(s)

Giant bagworm

Main hosts

Larvae feed on the leaves, twigs and surface of fruit of Citrus unshiu Marcow. (unshu mandarin) in Japan (MAFF 1990).

Other hosts include: Castanea crenata, Lithocarpus edulis (Robinson et al. 2007), Pyrus pyrifolia (Japanese pear) (Izawa et al. 2000), Quercus acutissima, Quercus glauca, Quercus serrata, Quercus variabilis (Robinson et al. 2007).



Distribution

Eumeta japonica is present in Japan (Robinson et al. 2007).

Quarantine pest

Eumeta minuscula Butler, 1881

Synonyms

Clania minuscula (Butler, 1881)

Cryptothelea minuscula (Butler, 1881)

Mahasena minuscula (Butler, 1881)

Common name(s)

Tea bagworm

Main hosts

Larvae feed on the leaves, twigs and surface of fruit of Citrus unshiu Marcow. (unshu mandarin) in Japan (MAFF 1990).

Other hosts include: Abelia grandiflora, Acacia mangium, Araucaria cunninghamii, Averrhoa carambola (star fruit), Camellia sinensis (tea), Castanea crenata, Citrus spp., Coffea liberica, Diospyros kaki (persimmon), Eucalyptus deglupta, Eugenia jambos, Lantana spp., Lithocarpus edulis, Mimosa pigra, Prunus spp., Psidium guajava (guava), Pyrus spp., Quercus acutissima, Quercus cerris, Quercus phillyraeoides, Quercus serrata, Quercus variabilis, Shorea maxima, Theobroma cacao, Toxicodendron succedaneum (Robinson et al. 2007).



Distribution

Eumeta minuscula is present in China (CAB International 2004); Hong Kong, India, Japan (Robinson et al. 2007); Korea [Republic of] (CAB International 2004); Malaysia (Robinson et al. 2007); Vietnam (CAB International 2004).

Quarantine pest

Stathmopoda auriferella (Walker, 1864)

Synonyms

Gelechia auriferella Walker, 1864

Stathmopoda adulatrix Meyrick, 1917

Stathmopoda theoris Meyrick, 1906

Common name(s)

Apple heliodinid

Main hosts

The larvae feed on the fruit, flowers and leaves of Citrus unshiu Marcow. (unshu mandarin) in Japan (MAFF 1990).

Other hosts include: Acacia nilotica (Robinson et al. 2007), Actinidia deliciosa (kiwifruit) (Yamazaki and Sugiura 2003), Albizia altissima (Robinson et al. 2007), Citrus reticulata (mandarin) (Yamazaki and Sugiura 2003), Citrus sinensis (navel orange) (CAB International 2004), Cocos nucifera (coconut palm), Coffea canephora (coffee), Coffea liberica (liberica coffee), Helianthus annuus (sunflower) (Yamazaki and Sugiura 2003), Kerria communis (lac scale) (Robinson et al. 2007), Malus pumila var. domestica (fuji apple) (AQIS 1998), Mangifera indica (mango) (CAB International 2004); Persea spp. (avocado) (Yamazaki and Sugiura 2003), Nephelium ophiodes, Pinus roxburghii (chir pine), Prunus salicina, Prunus persica (peach), Prunus persica var. nucipersica (nectarine), Punica granatum (pomegranate) (Yamazaki and Sugiura 2003), Sorghum bicolor bicolor (sorghum), Tistania sp (Robinson et al. 2007), Vitis vinifera (table grape) (Yamazaki and Sugiura 2003).


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