Final Import Risk Analysis Report for Fresh Unshu Mandarin Fruit from Shizuoka Prefecture in Japan



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Distribution

Egypt (Badr et al. 1986); Greece (Nel and Nel 2003); India (Robinson et al. 2007); Indonesia, Japan [Osaka City, Honshu] (Yamazaki and Sugiura 2003); Korea [Republic of] (Park et al. 1994); Malaysia, Pakistan, Philippines, Seychelles, Sri Lanka, Thailand (Robinson et al. 2007).

Quarantine pest

Chaetanaphothrips orchidii (Moulton, 1907)

Synonyms

Euthrips orchidii Moulton, 1907

Common name(s)

citrus rust thrips, anthurium thrips, orchid thrips, red rust thrips of banana, banana rust thrips

Main hosts

Main hosts of Chaetanaphothrips orchidii are Alternanthera (Joyweed), Anthurium andreanum, Bougainvillea, Chrysanthemum (daisy), Musa (banana), Petroselinum crispum (parsley) and Zea mays (maize).

Minor hosts are Acer palmatum (Japanese maple), Adiantum (maidenhair ferns), Amaranthus (grain amaranth), Begonia, Citrus reticulata x paradisi (tangelo), Citrus sinensis (navel orange), Citrus x paradisi (grapefruit), Coix lacryma-jobi (Job's-tears), Cryptotaenia canadensis (honewort), Epiphyllum, Euphorbia (spurges), Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato), Iresine (blood-leaf), Litchi chinensis (lichi), Lycopersicon, Paspalum conjugatum (sour paspalum), Passiflora (passionflower) and Pisonia (CAB International 2007)



Distribution

Chaetanaphothrips orchidii is present in Australia (New South Wales, Queensland), Brazil (Minas Gerais), China (Taiwan), Costa Rica, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Honduras, India (Kerala, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal), Indonesia (Java), Jamaica, Japan (Honshu, Kyushu), Malaysia, Mauritius, Mexico, Nepal, Puerto Rico, Saint Lucia, Sao Tome and Principe, Sri Lanka, Suriname, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobargo and United States of America (California, Florida, Hawaii, Illinois, Louisiana, Massachusetts) (CAB International 2007).

Quarantine pest

Frankliniella intonsa (Trybom, 1895)

Synonyms

Frankliniella intonsa f. norashensis Yakhontov and Jurbanov, 1957
Thrips intonsa Trybom, 1895
Frankliniella formosae Moulton, 1928

Common name(s)

Flower thrips

Main hosts

Abelmoschus esculentus (okra), Arachis hypogaea (groundnut), Asparagus officinalis (asparagus), Capsicum annuum (capsicum), Chrysanthemum indicum (chrysanthemum), Fragaria (strawberry), Glycine max (soyabean), Gossypium (cotton), Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), Medicago sativa (lucerne), Oryza sativa (rice), Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Pisum sativum (pea), Prunus persica (peach), Vigna angularis (adzuki bean) (CAB International 2007).

Distribution

This species is distributed across Asia, Europe and North America (CAB International 2007).

Quarantine pest

Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande, 1895)

Synonyms

Euthrips helianthi Moulton, 1911
Euthrips tritici californicus Moulton, 1911
Frankliniella chrysanthemi Kurosawa, 1941
Frankliniella canadensis Morgan, 1925
Frankliniella claripennis Morgan, 1925
Frankliniella conspicua Moulton, 1936
Frankliniella dahliae Moulton, 1948
Frankliniella dianthi Moulton, 1948
Frankliniella nubila Treherne, 1924
Frankliniella occidentalis brunnescens Priesner, 1932
Frankliniella occidentalis dubia Priesner, 1932
Frankliniella syringae Moulton, 1948
Frankliniella trehernei Morgan, 1925
Frankliniella tritici maculata Priesner, 1925
Frankliniella tritici moultoni Hood, 1914
Frankliniella umbrosa Moulton, 1948
Frankliniella venusta Moulton, 1936

Common name(s)

Western flower thrips

Main hosts

Allium cepa (onion), Amaranthus palmeri (Palmer amaranth), Arachis hypogaea (groundnut), Beta vulgaris (beetroot), Beta vulgaris var. saccharifera (sugarbeet), Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage), Capsicum annuum (capsicum), Carthamus tinctorius (safflower), Chrysanthemum morifolium (chrysanthemum), Citrus x paradisi (grapefruit), Cucumis melo (melon), Cucumis sativus (cucumber), Cucurbita maxima (giant pumpkin), Cucurbita pepo (ornamental gourd), Cyclamen, Dahlia, Daucus carota (carrot), Dianthus caryophyllus (carnation), Euphorbia pulcherrima (poinsettia), Ficus carica (fig), Fragaria ananassa (strawberry), Fuchsia, Geranium (cranesbill), Gerbera jamesonii (African daisy), Gladiolus hybrids (sword lily), Gossypium (cotton), Gypsophila (baby's breath), Hibiscus (rosemallows), Impatiens (balsam), Kalanchoe, Lactuca sativa (lettuce), Lathyrus odoratus (sweet pea), Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena), Limonium sinuatum (sea pink), Lisianthus, Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), Malus domestica (apple), Medicago sativa (lucerne), Orchidaceae (orchids), Petroselinum crispum (parsley), Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Pisum sativum (pea), Prunus armeniaca (apricot), Prunus domestica (plum), Prunus persica (peach), Prunus persica var. nucipersica (nectarine), Purshia tridentata (bitterbrush), Raphanus raphanistrum (wild radish), Rhododendron (Azalea), Rosa (roses), Saintpaulia ionantha (African violet), Salvia (sage), Secale cereale (rye), Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard), Sinningia speciosa (gloxinia), Solanum melongena (aubergine), Sonchus (Sowthistle), Syzygium jambos (rose apple), Trifolium (clovers), Triticum aestivum (wheat), Vitis vinifera (grapevine) (CAB International 2007).

Distribution

Asia, Europe, North Central and South America, New Zealand and Australia (CAB International 2007).

Quarantine pest

Thrips palmi Karny, 1925

Synonyms

Chloethrips aureus Ananthrakrishnan and Jagadish, 1967
Thrips gossypicola
(Priesner, 1939)
Thrips gracilis
Ananthrakrishnan and Jagadish, 1968
Thrips leucadophilus
Priesner, 1936

Common name(s)

Melon thrips

Main hosts

Allium cepa (onion), Capsicum annum (capsicum), Chrysanthemum (daisy), Citrus, Cucumis melo (melon), Cucumis sativus (cucumber), Cucurbita pepo (ornamental gourd), Fabaceae (leguminous plants), Glycine max (soyabean), Gossypium (cotton), Helianthus annuus (sunflower), Lactuca sativa (lettuce), Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato), Mangifera indica (mango), Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco), Orchidaceae (orchids), Oryza sativa (rice), Persea americana (avocado), Phaseolus (beans), Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean), Sesamum indicum (sesame), Solanum melongena (aubergine), Solanum tuberosum (potato), Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) (CAB International 2007).

Distribution

Asia, Africa, North Central and South America, Oceania (CAB International 2007).

Quarantine pest

Bactrocera tsuneonis (Miyake, 1919)

Synonyms

Dacus tsuneonis Miyake

Dacus cheni Chao

Tetradacus tsuneonis (Miyake)

Common name(s)

Japanese orange fly

Main hosts

The larvae feed inside the fruit of Citrus unshiu Marcow. (unshu mandarin) in Japan (MAFF 1990).

Other hosts include: Citrus aurantium (sour orange), Citrus reticulata (mandarin), Citrus sinensis (navel orange), Fortunella margarita (oval kumquat), Fortunella x crassifolia (Meiwa kumquat) (CAB International 2007); Ponkan, komikan, tachibana (MAFF information)



Distribution

China (Guangxi, Hunan, Sichuan (CAB International 2008); Jiangsu (EPPO 2007); Taiwan (EPPO 2007); Japan (Kyushu and the Ryukyo Islands (White and Elson-Harris 1994; EPPO 2007); Vietnam (EPPO 2007).

Quarantine pest

Sphaceloma fawcettii Jenkins

Synonyms

Sphaceloma citri Jenkins

Sphaceloma fawcettii var. fawcettii Jenkins

Sphaceloma fawcettii var. scabiosa Jenkins

Sporotrichum citri Butler

Ramularia scabiosae McAlpine and Tryon

Elsinoë fawcetti Bitancourt and Jenkins [teleomorph]

Common name(s)

Citrus scab, common scab of orange, sour orange scab (CAB International 2004).

Main hosts

Members of the family Rutaceae particularly: Citrus aurantium (sour orange), C. hystrix (papeda lime), C. jambhiri (rough lemon), C. latifolia (Tahitian limes), C. limon (lemon), C. limonia (lemandarin, Mandarin lime), C. madurensis (calamondin), C. x nobilis (tangor), C. x paradisi (grapefruit), C. reticulata (mandarin), C. sinensis (some cultivars of sweet orange), C. unshiu (Satsuma orange) and Poncirus trifoliata (trifoliate orange) (CAB International 2004; CABI and EPPO 1997b).

Most cultivars of C. latifolia (Tahitian limes), Fortunella margarita (oval kumquat), C. sinensis (sweet orange) and C. maxima (pummelo) are more resistant. C. aurantium (sour orange) is attacked by only the Florida Broad Host Range pathotype that is also capable of infecting C. sinensis (sweet orange) fruit. C. x paradisi (grapefruit) is affected by the Florida Broad and Narrow Host Range pathotypes but not by Tryon’s or the lemon pathotypes. All pathotypes affect C. jambhiri (rough lemon) and C. limon (lemon). Tryon’s pathotype attacks certain C. reticulata (mandarin) cultivars whereas the lemon pathotype does not (Timmer et al. 1996a).



Distribution

American Samoa; Argentina; Australia (Tryon’s and lemon pathotypes only - New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland and Victoria); Bangladesh; Barbados; Belize; Bermuda; Bolivia; Brazil (Bahia, Ceara, Espirito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo); Brunei Darussalam; Cambodia; Cayman Islands; China (Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hong Kong (restricted), Hubei, Hunan, Jiangxi, Sichuan, Taiwan (restricted), Yunnan, Zhejiang); Colombia; Cook Islands; Costa Rica; Cuba; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; El Salvador; Ethiopia; Fiji; French Guiana; French Polynesia; Gabon; Ghana; Georgia; Grenada; Guadeloupe; Guam; Guatemala; Guyana; Haiti; Honduras; India (Assam, Karanataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal); Indonesia (Irian Jaya, Java, Kalimantan); Jamaica; Japan (Honshu, Ryukyu Archipelago); Kenya; Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of; Korea, Republic of; Laos; Madagascar; Malawi; Malaysia (Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, Sarawak); Maldives; Martinique; Mexico; Micronesia, Federated States of (dubious record); Mozambique; Myanmar; Nepal; New Caledonia; New Zealand; Nicaragua; Nigeria; Pakistan; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Puerto Rico; Saint Lucia; Samoa; Sierra Leone; Solomon Islands; Somalia; South Africa; Spain (Canary Islands); Sri Lanka; Suriname; Tanzania; Thailand; Trinidad and Tobago; Uganda; United States (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas); Uruguay (restricted); Vanuatu; Venezuela; Vietnam; Zaire; Zambia; Zimbabwe (restricted) (CABI and EPPO 1997b; CAB International 2004).

Quarantine pest

Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri (ex Hasse 1915) Gabriel et al. 1989

Synonyms

Bacillus citri (Hasse) Holland 1920

Bacterium citri (Hasse) Doidge 1916

Phytomonas citri (Hasse) Bergey et al. 1923

Pseudomonas citri Hasse 1915

Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. aurantifolii Vauterin et al. 1995

Xanthomonas campestris pv. aurantifolii Gabriel et al. 1989

Xanthomonas campestris pv. citri (Hasse 1915) Dye 1978

Xanthomonas citri (ex Hasse 1915) nom. rev. Gabriel et al. 1989

Xanthomonas citri f. sp. aurantifoliae Namekata & Oliveira 1972.

Common name(s)

Citrus canker, Asiatic citrus canker, citrus bacteriosis, false canker, South American canker, Mexican lime cancrosis.

Main hosts

Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri is a pathogen of Citrus unshiu Marcow. (unshu mandarin) in Japan (MAFF 1990).

Other hosts include: Aegle marmelos (bael fruit), Casimiroa edulis (white sapote), Citrus aurantiifolia (lime), Citrus aurantium (sour orange), Citrus hassaku (Hassaku), Citrus hystrix (Tahiti lime), Citrus iyo (Iyokan), Citrus junos (yuzu), Citrus limetta (sweet lemon tree), Citrus limon (lemon), Citrus madurensis (calamondin), Citrus maxima (pummelo), Citrus medica (citron), Citrus natsudaidai (natsudaidai), Citrus reshni (Cleopatra mandarin), Citrus reticulata (mandarin), Citrus reticulata x Poncirus trifoliata (citrumelo), Citrus sinensis (navel orange), Citrus sunki (sour mandarin), Citrus tankan (Satsuma), Citrus unshiu (Satsuma), Citrus x paradisi (grapefruit), Fortunella japonica (round kumquat), Fortunella margarita (oval kumquat), Ferronia limonia (syn. Limonia acidissima) (elephant apple), Poncirus trifoliata (trifoliate orange) (CAB International 2004).

Hosts native to Australia include: Acronychia acidula (lemon aspen), Citrus australasica (Australian finger lime), Citrus australis (Australian round lime), Citrus garrawayi (Mount White lime), Citrus glauca (native lime), Citrus gracilis (Kakadu lime), Citrus inodora (Russel River lime), Clauseana lansium (wampi), Micromelum minutum (lime berry), Murraya ovatifoliolata (native mock orange) (QDPIF 2006b).

The pathogen has also been associated with other plant species such as grasses and weeds, surviving in their root zone (rhizosphere). Goto et al. (1975a) reported its presence on the grass Zoysia japonica in Japan, which grew in close proximity with citrus canker infected trees in Japan. Similarly the pathogen has been associated with goat weed (Ageratum conyzoides L.) in India (Kalita et al. 1997). However, the epidemiological significance of these sources remains unclear.



Distribution

Afghanistan, Argentina, Australia (restricted distribution, under official control) (QDPIF 2006a; ProMED 2007), Bangladesh, Belau, Bolivia, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Cambodia, China, Christmas Island, Cocos Islands, Comoros, Congo Democratic Republic, Fiji, Gabon, India, Indonesia, Iran, Ivory Coast, Japan, Korea [Republic of], Korea [DPR], Laos, Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Mauritius, Micronesia, Myanmar, Nepal, Oman, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay, Philippines, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Seychelles, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Thailand, United Arab Emirates, Uruguay, United States of America (Florida), Vietnam, Yemen (CAB International 2004).

The geographical distribution of X. citri subsp. citri differs for different strains of citrus canker. Canker A (Asiatic canker) is found in Asia, South America, Oceania and the USA; canker B (cancrosis B) in South America; canker C (Mexican lime cancrosis) in Brazil; and canker D (citrus bacteriosis) in Mexico. An outbreak of the Asiatic strain of X. citri subsp. citri occurred in a geographically isolated citrus growing region in Queensland in 2004 where the pest continues to be under eradication (QDPIF 2006a).




Appendix C: Biosecurity framework

Australia's biosecurity policies

The objective of Australia’s biosecurity policies and risk management measures is the prevention or control of the entry, establishment or spread of pests and diseases that could cause significant harm to people, animals, plants and other aspects of the environment.

Australia has diverse native flora and fauna and a large agricultural sector, and is relatively free from the more significant pests and diseases present in other countries. Therefore, successive Australian Governments have maintained a conservative, but not a zero-risk, approach to the management of biosecurity risks. This approach is consistent with the World Trade Organization’s (WTO’s) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement).

The SPS Agreement defines the concept of an ‘appropriate level of protection’ (ALOP) as the level of protection deemed appropriate by a WTO Member establishing a sanitary or phytosanitary measure to protect human, animal or plant life or health within its territory. Among a number of obligations, a WTO Member should take into account the objective of minimising negative trade effects in setting its ALOP.

Like many other countries, Australia expresses its ALOP in qualitative terms. Australia’s ALOP, which reflects community expectations through Australian Government policy, is currently expressed as providing a high level of sanitary and phytosanitary protection, aimed at reducing risk to a very low level, but not to zero.

Consistent with the SPS Agreement, in conducting risk analyses Australia takes into account as relevant economic factors:



  • the potential damage in terms of loss of production or sales in the event of the entry, establishment or spread of a pest or disease in the territory of Australia

  • the costs of control or eradication of a pest or disease

  • and the relative cost-effectiveness of alternative approaches to limiting risks.

Roles and responsibilities within Australia’s quarantine system

Australia protects its human14, animal and plant life or health through a comprehensive quarantine system that covers the quarantine continuum, from pre-border to border and post-border activities.

Pre-border, Australia participates in international standard-setting bodies, undertakes risk analyses, develops offshore quarantine arrangements where appropriate, and engages with our neighbours to counter the spread of exotic pests and diseases.

At the border, Australia screens vessels (including aircraft), people and goods entering the country to detect potential threats to Australian human, animal and plant health.

The Australian Government also undertakes targeted measures at the immediate post-border level within Australia. This includes national co-ordination of emergency responses to pest and disease incursions. The movement of goods of quarantine concern within Australia’s border is the responsibility of relevant state and territory authorities, which undertake inter- and intra-state quarantine operations that reflect regional differences in pest and disease status, as a part of their wider plant and animal health responsibilities.

Roles and responsibilities within the Department

The Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry is responsible for the Australian Government’s animal and plant biosecurity policy development and the establishment of risk management measures. The Secretary of the Department is appointed as the Director of Animal and Plant Quarantine under the Quarantine Act 1908 (the Act).

There are three groups within the Department primarily responsible for biosecurity and quarantine policy development and implementation:


  • Biosecurity Australia conducts risk analyses, including IRAs, and develops recommendations for biosecurity policy as well as providing quarantine advice to the Director of Animal and Plant Quarantine and AQIS.

  • AQIS develops operational procedures, makes a range of quarantine decisions under the Act (including import permit decisions under delegation from the Director of Animal and Plant Quarantine) and delivers quarantine services.

  • Product Integrity, Animal and Plant Health Division (PIAPH) coordinates pest and disease preparedness, emergency responses and liaison on inter- and intra-state quarantine arrangements for the Australian Government, in conjunction with Australia’s state and territory governments.

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