Final Import Risk Analysis Report for Fresh Unshu Mandarin Fruit from Shizuoka Prefecture in Japan



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      1. Unrestricted risk estimate

The unrestricted risk for Adoxophyes dubia, A. honmai, A. orana fasciata and Homona magnanima is: LOW.

Unrestricted risk is the result of combining the probability of entry, establishment and spread with the outcome of overall consequences. Probabilities and consequences are combined using the risk estimation matrix shown in Table 2.5.

The unrestricted risk estimate for the leafroller moths of ‘low’ exceeds Australia's ALOP. Therefore, specific risk management measures are required for these pests.


    1. Bagworms

Eumeta japonica; Eumeta minuscula

      1. Introduction

The larvae of bagworms (Psychidae) form a bag, a portable case made of bits of twigs and leaves, which they carry with them as they feed. Larvae feed on the leaves, twigs and the surface of fruit of hosts, including citrus (MAFF 1990). Males leave the bag after maturing, but females seldom emerge from their bags until oviposition is completed and death is near (Nishida 1983). Adult males have wings, but adult females are wingless and resemble larvae (Arnett 1997). The distributional range of E. japonica and E. minuscula is restricted to Japan.

The bagworms considered in this import risk assessment are E. japonica and E. minuscula. These species have been grouped together because of their related biology and taxonomy. In this assessment, the term ‘bagworms’ is used to refer to these species, unless otherwise specified.



      1. Probability of entry

Probability of importation

The likelihood that bagworms will arrive in Australia with the importation of fresh unshu mandarin from the production area in Japan is: VERY LOW.



  • Bagworms are known to occur on unshu mandarin in Japan. At the time of harvest, between October and December, bagworms will exist as late instar larvae, and some may have entered the overwintering phase (Nishida 1983). Overwintering larvae are unlikely to be found on the fruit (Nishida 1983). Actively feeding larvae may be on the surface of fresh unshu mandarin fruit at harvest.

  • Infested unshu fruit may be detected during sorting, packing and inspection procedures. Late instar larvae are large (up to 25 mm) and feed on the fruit surface (Nishida 1983). Larval feeding damage to citrus fruit by the related Psychidae species, Cryptothelea gloverii, the orange bagworm, results in one to several holes being eaten into the rind (Villaneuva et al. 2005). Larvae, from the first instar onwards, are conspicuous due to the attached bags made of leaf litter (Nishida 1983).

  • Bagworms overwinter as larvae under temperate climatic conditions in Japan. Therefore, larvae are likely to survive transportation of the fruit in climate controlled containers held at 4–6ºC.

Overwintering larvae are unlikely to be found on the fruit. The large, visible and conspicuous nature of all life stages of these two bagworm species make these moths easy to detect and support a risk rating for importation of ‘Very low’.

Probability of distribution

The likelihood that bagworms will be distributed within Australia in a viable state, as a result of the processing, sale or disposal of fresh unshu mandarin fruit from the production area in Japan is: LOW.



  • Unshu mandarin may be distributed throughout Australia for retail sale. The intended use of the commodity is human consumption but waste material would be generated.

  • Adult males have wings and are capable of flight, but adult females are flightless (Nishida 1983). First instar larvae disperse by ‘ballooning’ – spinning silk webs, which are caught by the wind (Funakoshi and Tanaka 2003). Late instar larvae are capable of dispersal by crawling (Funakoshi and Tanaka 2003).

Almost all life stages of bagworms are wingless, and their dispersal is wind dependent, which restrict their movement from the fruit and support a risk rating for distribution of ‘Low’.

Probability of entry (importation  distribution)

The likelihood that bagworms will enter Australia and be transferred in a viable state to a susceptible host, as a result of trade in fresh unshu mandarin fruit from the production area in Japan, is: VERY LOW.



      1. Probability of establishment

The likelihood that bagworms will establish within Australia, based on a comparison of factors in the source and destination areas considered pertinent to their survival and reproduction, is: HIGH.

  • A wide range of plants commonly found in Australia can act as hosts for Eumeta japonica and E. minuscula, including commercially grown fruit trees (Citrus spp., Averrhoa carambola (star fruit), Diospyros kaki (persimmon) and Pyrus spp.), native tree species such as Acacia mangium, Araucaria cunninghamii, Eucalyptus deglupta, and ornamental shrubs such as Abelia grandiflora (Robinson et al. 2007).

  • Female bagworms lay a high number of eggs (up to 4500 for E. japonica; up to 2400 for E. minuscula) (Nishida 1983), which would promote establishment.

  • The Australian climate is expected to be conducive for the establishment of both bagworm species. Their distributional range in Japan suggests that both species could become established in Australia due to suitable climatic environments (CAB International 2007).

  • Control programs would probably be effective for some but not all hosts (Nakayama et al. 1973), considering the large pool of native hosts, including eucalypts, acacias and araucarias (Robinson et al. 2007).

The polyphagy, high fecundity, limited success of control measures, and the likely adaptation of these moths to temperatures found in Australia all support a risk rating for establishment of ‘High’.

      1. Probability of spread

The likelihood that bagworms will spread within Australia, based on a comparison of those factors in source and destination areas considered pertinent to the expansion of the geographic distribution of these pests, is: HIGH.

  • Natural physical barriers (e.g. deserts/arid areas) may prevent or slow long distance spread of these pests, though their host plant range is extensive and includes widely distributed native tree species (see Establishment, above). Larvae are capable of short distance dispersal by crawling or ‘ballooning’ (most likely to a nearby host plant) (Nishida 1983).

  • Males are very active fliers. Females have high fecundity (see Establishment, above). In Japan, the major period of dispersal is during emergence of first instar larvae is during the summer months, during late June and early July (Nishida 1983).

  • In Japan, bagworm larvae and pupae are susceptible to high levels of parasitism and predation, particularly by hymenopteran species (Nishida 1983).

Readily available commercial hosts, including widely dispersed native tree species and high fecundity support a risk rating for spread of ‘High’.

      1. Probability of entry, establishment and spread

The likelihood that bagworms will be imported as a result of trade in fresh unshu mandarin fruit from the production area in Japan, be distributed in a viable state to a susceptible host, establish and spread within Australia, is: VERY LOW.

      1. Consequences

Assessment of the potential consequences (direct and indirect) of bagworms for Australia is: MODERATE.

Criterion

Estimate and rationale

Direct

Plant life or health

Impact score: E – significant at the regional level

Bagworms cause direct damage to many host plant species, including crops such as Citrus and Prunus species, and Eucalyptus, Araucaria and Acacia species (Robinson et al. 2007). Bagworms are common defoliators and thereby induce reduced growth of their hosts. They also can damage young twigs, and fruit of a wide range of commercially grown fruit trees (Robinson et al. 2007).



Other aspects of the environment

Impact score: D – significant at the district level

Introduced E. japonica or E. minuscula in a new environment are likely to compete for resources with the native species. Their host range includes native tree species such as Araucaria cunninghamii, Acacia mangium and Eucalyptus deglupta (Robinson et al. 2007).Their wide host range, including Eucalyptus species that occur throughout Australia, suggests that impacts on ecological communities and amenity plants are likely to occur.



Indirect

Eradication, control etc.

Impact score: C – significant at the local level

Additional programs to minimise the impact of these pests on host plants may be necessary. These impacts are likely to be significant at the local level.



Domestic trade

Impact score: C – significant at the local level

The presence of these pests in commercial production areas of fruit and timber tree production and in nursery stock production would have a significant effect at the local level due to resulting interstate trade restrictions. Affected commodities could include fruit, nursery stock and timber tree products.



International trade

Impact score: B – minor at the local level

The presence of these pests in commercial production areas of some commodities (e.g. Citrus, Pyrus) may have a minor effect at the local level. Most of the host commodities are exported in a form that is free of the pest.



Environmental and non-commercial

Impact score: B – minor at the local level

Bagworm species introduced into a new environment will compete for resources with native species. Additional pesticide applications or other activities would be necessary to manage these pests on susceptible timber trees and crops. Any additional insecticide usage may affect the environment.



      1. Unrestricted risk estimate

The unrestricted risk for Eumeta japonica and E. minuscula is: VERY LOW.

Unrestricted risk is the result of combining the probability of entry, establishment and spread with the outcome of overall consequences. Probabilities and consequences are combined using the risk estimation matrix shown in Table 2.5.

The unrestricted risk estimate for the bagworms of ‘very low’ achieves Australia's ALOP. Therefore, specific risk management measures are not required for these pests.


    1. Apple heliodinid

Stathmopoda auriferella

      1. Introduction

Stathmopoda auriferella belongs to the family Oecophoridae. This lepidopteran family includes other pest species of fruit, such as Stathmopoda masinissa, the persimmon fruit moth. Overall, these moth species are relatively small, about one centimetre in size. Adults live for about one month (Park et al. 1994). While S. auriferella has been found on citrus, the biology of this species on citrus has not been reported in detail. Therefore available information of its biology on other fruits (e.g. kiwifruit) is used for the risk assessment.

      1. Probability of entry

Probability of importation

The likelihood that S. auriferella will arrive in Australia with the importation of fresh unshu mandarin fruit from the production area in Japan is: MODERATE.



  • There are two generations of S. auriferella per year on kiwifruit in Korea (Park et al. 1994). In Korea, adults occur from late May to mid-July and mid-August to early September, with peaks in early to mid June and late August. Larvae are commonly collected throughout July, whereas pupae start to appear in July, and are commonly collected in August (Park et al. 1994). Some residual eggs and larval development stages from the second generation of S. auriferella adults may be present on unshu mandarins when fruit is harvested in the designated export areas from the beginning of December. However, most of the egg hatch is likely to have occurred by the time of fruit harvest.

  • Larvae feeding on unshu fruit may be detected during sorting, packing and inspection procedures, because 70% of the damage to kiwifruit caused by S. auriferella occurred on the fruit surface, and some (10%) at the fruit stalk (Park et al. 1994).

  • Eggs are very small (0.10–0.13 mm) (Park et al. 1994), and they are unlikely to be detected on infested fruit, especially as they may be hidden in the surface texture of citrus fruit. Data obtained from the related species Stathmopoda masinissa (persimmon fruit moth) suggests that egg numbers laid per female are relatively small at about 25 eggs per female. Adults live for about one month, depending on suitable climatic conditions (Park et al. 2001). Removal of eggs from the fruit surface during routine washing procedures undertaken within the packing house.

  • Adult moths are winged and they are good fliers. They are unlikely to stay on the fruit during picking, sorting and packing, in contrast to the egg and larval development stages.

The potential presence of eggs and larvae on fruit during the latter part of fruit development support a risk rating for importation of ‘Moderate’.

Probability of distribution

The likelihood that S. auriferella will be distributed within Australia in a viable state, as a result of the processing, sale or disposal of fresh unshu mandarin fruit from the production area in Japan, is: HIGH.



  • The cold tolerance of S. auriferella is unknown, but the immature stages are likely to survive transportation. Mature larvae of a different species (S. masinissa) undergo diapause during winter (Shao et al. 1995), although earlier instar larvae may be more susceptible to cold temperatures.

  • Fruit infested with eggs and larvae may be distributed throughout Australia for retail sale.

  • Stathmopoda auriferella has a wide host range, including commercial fruit producing species such as citrus, mango, avocado, peach, grapes (Yamazaki and Sugiura 2003; CAB International 2007), and some weed (Acacia nilotica) and ornamental (Albizia altiissima) species (Robinson et al. 2007), facilitating its transfer to new areas.

  • Adult moths are winged and good fliers.

Diapause and polyphagy support a risk rating for distribution of ‘High’.

Probability of entry (importation  distribution)

The likelihood that S. auriferella will enter Australia and be transferred in a viable state to a susceptible host, as a result of trade in fresh unshu mandarin fruit from the production area in Japan, is: MODERATE.



      1. Probability of establishment

The likelihood that S. auriferella will establish within Australia, based on a comparison of factors in the source and destination areas considered pertinent to its survival and reproduction, is: HIGH.

  • A wide range of plants commonly found in Australia (e.g. citrus, grapes, kiwifruit, avocado, mango) can act as hosts for this pest. Host plants occur across a wide climatic range.

  • One study showed that the average number of eggs laid by females of a related species (S. masinissa) was 25 on persimmon (Park et al. 2001). Adult females of S. auriferella can most likely lay a similar number of eggs, which would promote establishment.

  • Like other species of Stathmopoda, some stages of the life-cycle of S. auriferella (such as the mature larva and pupa), can probably undergo diapause during winter (see Distribution, above).

  • Adults are capable of flight, and are therefore able to move directly from fruit into the environment to find a host. Host plants include species over a wide climatic range from temperate (e.g. peaches, grapes) to tropical species (e.g. mango, avocado, coffee) (Yamazaki and Sugiura 2003; CAB International 2007; Robinson et al. 2007).

Polyphagy and flight ability all support a risk rating for distribution of ‘High’.

      1. Probability of spread

The likelihood that S. auriferella will spread within Australia, based on a comparison of those factors in source and destination areas considered pertinent to the expansion of the geographic distribution of the pest, is: HIGH.

  • Natural physical barriers (e.g. deserts/arid areas) may prevent long distance spread of these pests unaided but adults are capable of flight and larvae may be spread in infested host material.

  • Japan possesses a generally cooler climate than that of Australia. Stathmopoda auriferella could potentially reproduce and spread at a greater rate than in Japan if introduced into Australia.

  • The absence or presence of natural enemies in Australia is not known.

  • Although field and laboratory tests have shown that some species of Stathmopoda (e.g. S. masinissa) can be controlled with chemical pesticides (e.g. Tomomatsu et al. 1995; Matsuoka et al. 2001), such data is lacking for S. auriferella. However, other studies have shown that chemical control of Stathmopoda species has failed to prevent infestation (e.g. Tomkins 1992).

Directional flight ability, the potential for greater reproductive success in larger geographical areas with suitable climatic conditions in Australia and the failure to control infestations of Stathmopoda species all support a risk rating for spread of ‘High’.

      1. Probability of entry, establishment and spread

The overall likelihood that S. auriferella will be imported as a result of trade in fresh unshu mandarin from the production area in Japan, be distributed in a viable state to a susceptible host, establish and spread within Australia, is: MODERATE.

      1. Consequences

Assessment of the potential consequences (direct and indirect) of S. auriferella for Australia is: LOW.

Criterion

Estimate and rationale

Direct

Plant life or health

Impact score: C – significant at the local level

This pest causes direct damage to many host plant species, such as Citrus, Mangifera, Vitis, and Prunus spp. (Yamazuki and Sugiura 2003; CAB International 2007), and Acacia (Robinson et al. 2007). Stathmopoda auriferella larvae damage the leaves, buds and fruit of its hosts.



Other aspects of the environment

Impact score: B – minor at the local level

Introduction of S. auriferella into a new environment would lead to competition for resources with other native lepidopteran species. However, this pest has a preference for commercial host species.



Indirect

Eradication, control etc.

Impact score: C – significant at the local level

Additional programs to minimise the impact of S. auriferella on host plants may be necessary, although the efficacy of pesticides and other control measures on this species is unknown.



Domestic trade

Impact score: D – significant at the district level

The presence of this pest in commercial production areas may have a significant effect at the district level due to resulting interstate trade restrictions.



International trade

Impact score: D – significant at the district level

The presence of S. auriferella in commercial production areas of a range of commodities (including Citrus, Vitis, Prunus, Mangifera) may have a significant effect at the district level due to additional phytosanitary requirements to access overseas markets where this pest is absent, e.g. the USA and New Zealand.



Environmental and non-commercial

Impact score: B – minor at the local level

Although additional pesticide applications or other control activities would be required to control this pest on susceptible crops, these are not considered to impact on the environment.

Additional pesticide applications or other activities would be necessary to manage these pests on susceptible fruit crops (see above) and some weed (Acacia nilotica) and ornamental (Albizia altissima) species (Robinson et al. 2007). Any additional insecticide usage may affect the environment.


      1. Unrestricted risk estimate

The unrestricted risk for S. auriferella is: LOW.

Unrestricted risk is the result of combining the probability of entry, establishment and spread with the outcome of overall consequences. Probabilities and consequences are combined using the risk estimation matrix shown in Table 2.5.

The unrestricted risk estimate for S. auriferella of ‘low’ exceeds Australia's ALOP. Therefore, specific risk management measures are required for this pest.


    1. Thrips

Chaetanaphothrips orchidii*, Frankliniella intonsa; Frankliniella occidentalis^; Thrips palmi#

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