Final report for research exploration programs assessment of distribution and natural status of paphiopedilum canhii

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Deforestation is main and leading factor of extinction of aboriginal floras. Unique local floras having very high diversity of locally endemic life forms vanish completely in process of deforestation. Fast following degradation of fertile soils and denudation of subsoil horizons opens way to fast degradation of vegetation for successions terminating in climax community of secondary shrub and herbaceous weed species (Fig. 156, 162). This process is irreversible. Primary forests with their assemblage of very sensitive aboriginal species newer regenerate. Extinction of such forest formations leads to catastrophic decreasing of the world genetic diversity. Such picture is observed in studied area in its bright typical form. Our present field studies indicate that more than 99.5% of primary forests cowering land surface in studied area presently completely extinct. This observation stands in full accordance with data of earlier special regional surveys (Collins, Sayer, Whitmore, 1991).

Primitive slash-and-burn agriculture and forest logging for domestic purposes and fuel timber are main reason of countrywide deforestation in conditions of remaining traditional forms of local economic and fast increasing of human populations. Miserable pieces of remaining primary forests may be presently estimated in studied area as less than 0.5% of territory. Such unique remnant forest stands are still occurring in few remote mountain regions. Their protection and conservation is impossible without urgent special actions of municipal, provincial and governmental authorities that sounds unrealistic on the background of fast forest destruction. All this is entirely true for home area of P. canhii (Fig. 155, 157-161, 165, 166). According to our estimation, it is hardly possible to preserve intact primary vegetation that supports remnants of P. canhii subpopulations. Without special very urgent and effective actions, forest here will be destroyed in the nearest future. The survival of sensitive aboriginal species including P. canhii after forest destruction will be impossible.

Constructions of roads, highways, mining, high-voltage line communications, as well as any another large land exploitation projects are also important factors of nature destruction, that usually come after primary forest extinction. For example, road construction in area of P. canhii home area destroys not only vegetation, but also even landscape faces (Fig. 163, 164).

Landscape desertification and aggressive weed introgression play role of slow-acting, but irreversible and insuperable destructive factors in last isolated stands of primary forests all over the world in tropical zone.

Deforestation on great majority of the land surface leads to landscape desertification resulting in higher summer temperatures and loss of air humidity, particularly during dry seasons. This effect seriously depresses primary humid-lowing vegetation, particularly in its small isolated refugia. Most sensitive species in such conditions slowly decline even in physically intact primary plant community. Particularly this concerns woody conifers and herbaceous shade-loving lithophytes (Averyanov et al., 2000, 2005, 2009). Shade-loving aboriginal herbaceous lithophytes growing on vertical cliffs in conditions of permanent humidity represent most sensitive and endangered group of species. Such species always vanish first, because of vertical cliffs lose humidity and surface damp much faster than other substrates during process of habitat destruction. Assessed P. canhii and its slipper orchid associates belong to just this group of species.

Destruction of aboriginal floras by introgression of aggressive exotic and weed species represents great problem all over the world. Such species can easily and fairly fast spread in the area of disturbed primary plant communities gradually replacing indigenous species. Eventually primary plant communities become transformed into secondary thickets of weed and alien exotic species (Fig. 162). This process moves without bright visible cataclysms, but leads to strong depression of native species and eventually kills most of them. This is particularly true for most sensitive and rare endemic orchids, including all species of Paphiopedilum.

Commercial collecting is another important factor of extinction of salable non-timber plant species from the nature. It is true for any economically valuable species. Such process completely kill food, medicine, spice and other species used as whole plant in human consumption. However, commercial collecting of ornamental plants expects their cultivation after trading and sometime play partially positive role in their surviving. It is noticeable, that great majority of orchids in local trade are being collected in irreversible destroyed habitats, where they have no any chance to survive. This is obvious for most orchid species (particularly epiphytes and obligate lithophytes) during collapse of their habitats in forest logging or burning areas (Fig. 157, 158, 165, 166). Collecting of most rare endemic plants for cultivation in irreversible degrading habitats under appropriate control may be alone way for conservation of unique local plant diversity. It is true for many strictly endemic orchids including P. canhii, which could completely extinct before its discovery due to progressive deforestation in coming few years. Uncontrolled commercial collecting of this species seriously depleted its populations, but give important chance to the plant survive ex situ. Strongly limited collecting of rare orchids in nature for cultivation and propagation under control of scientific and state/local administration authorities in similar situations can fill market with cultivated seedlings and make commercial collecting of plants in nature unprofitable. Such approaches provide real way for rare species protection. Any collecting restrictions and prohibitions in practice appear absolutely ineffective for protection of rare market-valued species.

Remnants of primary forests in the area of P. canhii often retain principal nucleus of very rich and highly endemic flora. As a result, great number of rarest species were observed and collected as herbarium voucher specimens during expedition for documentation of our field studies. Totally were collected about 1067 species, which belong to 457 genera and 113 families of higher plant (Appendix 1). Many observed species vanished in other regions of Vietnam years ago, but in studied area, they are still survived and sometime are presented by fairly large populations. Most rare and interesting species are slipper orchids - relatives of P. canhii, such as P. concolor, P. malipoense, P. coccineum (P. barbigerum var. coccineum) and P. dianthum (Fig. 59-70). All these discoveries essentially expand our knowledge about distribution of these rare slipper orchid species and represent new records for NW Vietnam.

Tuberiferous ericaceous epiphytic shrubs are very typical for primary vegetation in humid mossy forest of P. canhii area. They are mainly representatives of Vaccinium genus (Fig. 71-76). Beside orchids and genuine ferns, some fern allies, like Selaginella tamariscina, belong to typical lithophytes found on vertical rocky limestone cliffs (Fig. 77-79).

About 112 orchid species were observed as direct associates in habitats of P. canhii subpopulations. Some of them are presented on Fig. 59-70, 88, 90-94, 100-106, 111, 113-154. As a most common orchids here were observed such species as:

Acampe rigida,

Acanthephyppium striatum,

Aerides odorata,

Appendicula hexandra,

Bulbophyllum ambrosia,

B. apodum,

B. delitescens,

B. hirtum,

B. odoratissimum,

B. reptans,

B. violaceolabellum,

B. xylophyllum,

Calanthe alismifolia,

C. triplicate,

Callostylis rigida (Fig. 118, 119),

Ceratostylis himalaica,

Cheirostylis chinensis,

C. cochinchinensis,

C. takeoi,

C. yunnanensis,

Cleisostoma filiforme,

C. fuersteinbergianum,

C. melanorachis,

C. paniculatum,

C. racimiferum,

C. rostratum,

C. striatum,

C. williamsonii,

Coelogyne fimbriata,

C. ovalis,

Corymborchis veratrifolia,

Cymbidium dayanum,

C. ensifolium,

C. lancifolium,

Dendrobium aphyllum,

D. cariniferum,

D. chrysanthum,

D. crepidatum,

D. fimbriatum,

D. findlayanum,

D. gratiosissimum,

D. heterocarpum,

D. jenkinsii,

D. loddigesii,

D. nobile,

D. spatella,

D. thyrsiflorum,

D. trigonopus,

Epigeneium amplum,

E. chapaense,

E. labuanum,

Eria amica,

E. apertiflora,

E. calcarea,

E. carinata,

E. clausa,

E. corneri,

E. gagnepainei,

E. globulifera,

E. pachyphylla,

E. paniculata,

E. pannea,

Flickingeria angustifolia,

Gastrochilus calceolaris,

Goodyera hispida,

Liparis mannii,

L. nervosa,

L. pumila,

L. viridiflora,

Ludisia discolor,

Luisia zollingeri,

Miguelia somai,

Monomeria barbata (Fig. 129, 130),

M. gymnopus (Fig. 105, 106),

Oberonia cavaleriei,

O. ensiformis,

O. kwangsiense,

Ornithochilus difformis,

Otochilus fuscus,

Panisea garrettii (Fig. 131),

P. yunnanensis,

Paphiopedilum concolor (Fig. 67),

P. dianthum (Fig. 88-70),

Pelatantheria insectifera,

Phaius flavus,

Phalaenopsis lobbii,

P. mannii,

Pholidota articulata,

P. chinensis,

P. imbricata,

P. levelleana,

P. pallida,

P. roseans,

P. yunnanensis,

Podochilus khasianus,

Renanthera coccinea,

R. vietnamensis,

Rhomboda petelottii,

Schoenorchis gemmata,

Sunipia scariosa,

Thelasis khasiana,

T. pygmaea,

Thrixspermum calceolus,

T. centipeda,

Trichosma coronaria,

Trichotosia dasyphylla,

T. pulvinata,

Tropidia angulosa,

T. curculigoides,

Vanda brunnea (Fig. 137-154),

V. pumila.

Some very rare orchids were known before on the base of few or single collections were also found during field works in home area of P. canhii. Species of this group are listed below:

Acampe ochracea,

Anoectochilus calcareus (Fig. 113),

Appendicula torta,

Bulbophyllum hastatum,

Bulbophyllum lockii (Fig. 114-115),

Bulbophyllum nigrescens (Fig. 116, 117),

Bulbophyllum nipondhii,

Bulbophyllum violaceolabellum (Fig. 91, 92),

C. ovalis,

Cheirostylis latilabris,

Cheirostylis marmorifolia,

Chiloschista parishii,

Coelogyne assamica (Fig. 120),

Coelogyne huettneriana,

Coelogyne micrantha (Fig. 93, 94),

Cymbidium cyperifolium (Fig. 97, 98),

Dendrobium crepidatum (Fig. 121),

Dendrobium dixanthum (Fig. 99),

Dendrobium findlayanum (Fig. 100-102),

Dendrobium finlaysonianum,

Deandrobium harveyanum (Fig. 122),

Dendrobium jenkinsii,

Dendrobium lituiflorum (Fig. 123),

Dendrobium longicornu,

Dendrobium minutiflorum, sp.nov. (Fig. 85, 86),

Dendrobium moniliforme (Fig. 124),

Dendrobium nobile var. albolutea (Fig. 125),

Dendrobium porphyrochilum (Fig. 126),

Dendrobium senile (Fig. 103),

Dendrobium trantuanii (Fig. 127),

Dendrobium trigonopus,

Didymoplexiopsis vietnamensis,

Eria bambusifolia,

Eria pachyphylla,

Eriodes barbata (Fig. 128),

Gastrochilus bellinus,

Holcoglossum amesianum (Fig. 104),

Lockia sonii, gen. et sp. nov. (Fig. 80-82),

Monomeria gymnopus (Fig. 105, 106),

Paphiopedilum coccineum,

Paphiopedilum malipoense,

Phalaenopsis gibbosa,

Podochilus oxistophylloides,

Porpax elwesii (Fig. 132-133),

Renanthera vietnamensis,

Sarcoglyphis brevilabia,

Schoenorchis fragrans (Fig. 111),

Schoenorchis scolopendria sp.nov. (Fig. 88-90),

Stereochilus brevirachis (Fig. 134),

Sunipia andersonii (Fig. 135),

Taeniophyllum glandulosum (Fig. 136),

Vanda brunnea (Fig. 137-154).

Partial identification of materials collected during field works revealed a number of important taxonomic and floristic discoveries. Among them two genera discovered and reported for the flora of Vietnam at first. They are Phylacium Benn. (Fabaceae, CPC 1081, Fig. 107, 108) and Sinocrassula A.Berger (Crassulaceae, CPC 1023 CPC 2041 CPC 2130, Fig. 112) with new species for the flora - Phylacium majus Collett et Hemsl. and Sinocrassula indica A.Berger.

At least 12 plant species were found during current survey in Vietnam at first. All they represent new records for the flora of Vietnam. Among them creeping fern - Pyrrosia nummulariifolia Ching (Polypodiaceae, CPC 850, CPC 1101, CPC 1144, CPC 2208, CPC 1828, Fig. 109-110) common in habitat of P. canhii; parasitic achlorophyllous vine - Cuscuta formosana Hayata (Cuscutaceae, CPC 1046, Fig. 95, 96) and such orchids (Orchidaceae) as - Appendicula torta Blume (CPC 2329), Bulbophyllum violaceolabellum Seidenf. (CPC 1156a, CPC 2318, Fig. 91, 92), Coelogyne micrantha Lindl. (CPC 1077, Fig. 93, 94), Cymbidium cyperifolium Lindl. (CPC s.n., CPC 1734, Fig. 97, 98), Dendrobium dixanthum Rchb.f. (CPC 1915, Fig. 99), Dendrobium findlayanum Par. et Rchb.f. (CPC 1916, CPC 2315, CPC 2374, Fig. 100-102), Dendrobium senile Par. et Rchb.f. (CPC s.n., Fig. 103), Holcoglossum amesianum Rchb.f.) Christenson (CPC 2347, Fig. 104), Monomeria gymnopus (Hook.f.) Aver. (CPC 848; CPC 940, CPC 1897, Fig. 105, 106) and Schoenorchis fragrans (Par. et Rchb.f.) U.C.Pradhan (CPC 1138a, CPC 1817, Fig. 111).

Among taxa discovered and proposed for description as a new for science are 9 orchids: new genus and species - ×Lockia sonii, gen. et sp.nov. (Fig. 80-82) and 8 species from genera Bulbophyllum (CPC 2253), Cleisostoma minutissima (CPC 2403), Dendrobium minutiflorum (CPC 2428, Fig. 85, 86), Hippeophyllum sp.nov. (CPC 1136), Saccolabiopsis sp.nov. (CPC 1592, Fig. 87), Sarcoglyphis brevilabia (CPC 2106) and Schoenorchis scolopendria (CPC 1139, CPC 1387, CPC 1818, Fig. 88-90). Also were discovered and proposed for description 3 species from families: Begoniaceae – Begonia viscosa (CPC 2438, Fig. 83, 84), Gesneriacerae - Chirita sp.nov. (CPC 2440) and Convallariaceae - Ophiopogon sp.nov. (CPC 1455).

Widely cultivated as highly prized ornamental plants - Dendrobium trantuanii (Fig. 127) and Stereochilus brevirachis (Fig. 134) were found in their natural habitats at first. Both they appear as remarkable associates of Paphiopedilum canhii. Very important ornamental species - Vanda brunnea exhibits in studied area great variation in flowers shape and color (Fig. 137-154).

Paphiopedilum canhii is endemic of NW Vietnam with extremely restricted distribution, located in alone geographical point on the area less than 0.35 km2. Ecologically this species is obligate lithophyte growing at elevations 900-1200 m a.s.l. in intact primary forests on cliffs of remnant mountains composed with highly eroded crystalline rocky limestone.

Paphiopedilum canhii in its native habitats grow in association with a number of extremely rare orchid species, which extinct in other areas of Vietnam many years ago.

Commercial collecting for sale was main factor of dramatic P. canhii population declining during 2009-2010 years just after its discovery. Leading agents stimulated this activity were demands of international market.

Intact total population of the species before mass collecting numbered approximately 10.000-15.000 mature and juvenile specimens. About 99.5% of population is presently extinguished due to uncontrolled commercial collecting.

Progressive deforestation and land exploitation are additional endangered factors for existed species habitats.

Following to IUCN criteria (IUCN, 2010) P. canhii belongs to group of critically endangered species (CR) approaching very neat to full extinction in the nature (EW).

Conservation of the species in nature needs immediate effective overall protection of its habitats.

Effective conservation of the species ex situ needs legalization of plants entered into high-technology nurseries.

Example of P. canhii distribution confirms that strictly local endemism is very typical for limestone floras of northern Vietnam. Great number of similar local endemics can certainly extinct in this area in the near future before their discovery in conditions of total uncontrolled deforestation. Among such plants may be species of outstanding economic significance. Urgent botanical explorations in this area are necessary for salvation of global plant diversity and national plant heritage.

Urgent organization of protected area for all existed habitats of P. canhii, including full conservation of remnant primary forests, strong limitation of land exploitation and effective prohibition of plant collecting. Area necessary for protection do not exceed 4-6 km2.

Involving into conservation actions of local authorities (Municipality People Committee, Forest Protection Department and associated local agencies). Realization of educational program for local people and local authorities with explanation of outstanding significance of P. canhii conservation for organization of highly prized see-site for ecotourism that exhibit bright example of locality with highest orchid diversity in all Indochinese Region. In perspective organization of ecotourism in this area can partially solve a problem of local peoples employment.

Organization of high technology “risky center” for cultivation, propagation and repatriation of critically endangered plant species (including P. canhii) under Vietnam governmental/scientific structures or/and in cooperation with official “risky centers” abroad.

Strongly limited collecting of rare orchids in nature for cultivation and propagation under control of scientific and state/local authorities in P. canhii similar cases can fill market with cultivated seedlings and make mass commercial collecting of plants in nature unprofitable. Such approaches provide real way for rare species protection.

Any restrictions for sale of plants (including orchids) collected in irreversible destroyed habitats in conditions of present-day total deforestation play strongly negative role in conservation of world plant diversity.

Improving of CITES regulation that in practice appears as bureaucratic mechanism ineffective for actual plant protection. In present form, it irrationally expends considerable national and international human and financial resources giving no advances for objective nature protection.


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Averyanov L., Nguyen Tien Hiep, Phan Ke Loc, Averyanova Anna L. 2000. Preliminary orchid checklist of Cao Bang Province (Vietnam). Lindleyana. Vol. 15. No 3. P. 130-164.

Averyanov L., Phan Ke Loc, Nguyen Tien Hiep. 2001. The distribution of Paphiopedilum vietnamense and its current status in the wild. Orchid Digest. Vol. 65. N. 4. P. 158-162.

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Averyanov L., Phillip Cribb, Phan Ke Loc, Nguyen Tien Hiep. 2003. Slipper Orchids of Vietnam. With an Introduction to the Flora of Vietnam. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Compass Press Limited. 308 p.

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Current investigation program was financially supported in parts by 3 agencies with following details -

Grant name: “Assessment of distribution and natural status of Paphiopedilum canhii, Vietnam”, The Rufford Small Grant Foundation (RSGF); found amount - £ 6000

Grant name: “Assessment of orchid endemism in NW Vietnam with special attention to Paphiopedilum canhii”, American Orchid Society (AOS); found amount - USD 6400

Grant name: “Assessment of current natural status of critically endangered species - Paphiopedilum canhii for its conservation”, Chicago Zoological Society, Chicago Board of Trade Endangered Species Fund (CZS CBTESF); found amount - USD 4500

The first stage of the work on the Program in December 2010 included 18 days, proceeded from 9 to 26 December 2010. Second final stage in March – April 2011 included 36 days, proceeded from 21 March to 25 April 2011. Program included field work trips on the territory of Vietnam and Laos and laboratory session for preliminary summarization of obtained data.

Five main project participants (L.Averyanov, P.K.Loc, P.V.The, N.T.Vinh, C.X.Canh) were involved in the field expedition work on the territory of Vietnam in Dien Bien and Son La Provinces (Vietnam) during 13 days, from 9 to 22 December 2010. Five main project participants (L.Averyanov, P.K.Loc, N.Q.Hieu, P.V.The, N.T.Vinh) were involved in the field expedition work on the territory of Vietnam in Hoa Binh, Dien Bien and Son La Provinces (Vietnam) during 30 days, from 21 March to 19 April 2011. In addition, four main project participants (L.Averyanov, P.V.The, Philavanh Nasukhum, and Chanhom Lor Inhuang) were involved in the field expedition work on territory of Laos in Phongsali, Luang Prabang and Vientiane Provinces during 6 days, during 20 - 25 April 2011. Four organizations were directly involved into realization of the project, namely - The Center for Plant Conservation of Vietnam Union of Science and Technology Associations (Vietnam), Institute of Ecology and Biological Resources of Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (Vietnam), National University of Laos, Faculty of Science (Laos) and Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Science (Russia).

In course of completed investigation, modern data for current assessment were obtained, were studied and described 53 localities, were found and described five subpopulations of Paphiopedilum canhii and accompanied plant species and plant communities, were collected about 5000 voucher herbaruim specimens with 1383 collecting numbers. Data on actual schedule of field works and plant collecting are presented in Table 3. Final summarization of obtained data in form of this report and 2 manuscripts prepared for publication were completed during laboratory session in Hanoi with participation of 3 main project participants (L.Averyanov, P.K.Loc, P.V.The) in 4 days, from 23 to 26 December 2010 and during 4 days, from 26 to 29 April 2011, and during 30 days, from 1- 30 June in St. Petersburg (Russia) by project leader – L.Averyanov.
Table 3

Schedule of field work in December 2010 and in March – April 2011

of studied locality


Administrative and geographical position

Collected specimen numbers

2010 Vietnam


9 Dec.

Dien Bien Prov., Dien Bien Distr.,

Na U Municipality, Ca Hau village: 21°13’08”N 102°57’14”E.

CPC 848-851


11 Dec.

Dien Bien Prov., Dien Bien Distr.,

Muong Phang Municipality

CPC 852-858


11 Dec.

Dien Bien Prov., Dien Bien Distr.,

Na U Municipality, Ca Hau village: 21°12’52”N 102°57’18”E

CPC 859-865


13 Dec.

Dien Bien Prov., Tua Chua Distr.,

Tua Thang Municipality: 21°58’04”N 103°25’21”E

CPC 866-869


13 Dec.

Dien Bien Prov., Tua Chua Distr.,

Ta Phin Municipality: 22°00’41”N 103°21’33”E

CPC 870-871


13 Dec.

Dien Bien Prov., Tua Chua Distr.,

Sin Chai Municipality: 22°03’38”N 103°18’56”E

CPC 872-917


14 Dec.

Dien Bien Prov., Tua Chua Distr.,

Sin Chai Municipality: 22°03’38”N 103°19’56”E

CPC 918-1008, 1047


16 Dec.

Dien Bien Prov., Tua Chua Distr.,

Ta Phin Municipality: 22°00’21”N 103°21’39”E

CPC 1009-1043


16 Dec.

Dien Bien Prov., Tua Chua Distr.,

Xu Nhe Municipality: 21°51’09”N 103°23’37”E

CPC 1044-1046


18 Dec.

Dien Bien Prov., Muong Cha Distr.,

Mua Ngai Municipality: 21°52’19”N 103°10’01”E

CPC 1048-1097


20 Dec.

Son La Prov., Son La City,

Chieng Co Municipality: 21°18’24”N 103°52’53”E

CPC 1098-1141a


21 Dec.

Son La Prov., Mai Son Distr., Hat Lot town: 21°13’05”N 104°06’44”E

CPC 1142-1156

2011 Vietnam


23-29 March

Hoa Binh Prov., Lac Son Distr.,

Tu Do Municipality:

(13) 20°24’52”N 105°19’41”E

(14) 20°24’57”N 105°13’16”E

(15) 20°25’21”N 105°18’01”E

(16) 20°26’48”N 105°16’18”E

(17) 20°26’07”N 105°17’19”E

(18) 20°26’32”N 105°16’55”E

(19) 20°25’29”N 105°19’36”E

Ngoc Son Municipality:

(20) 20°26’32”N 105°19’32”E

(21) 20°26’28”N 105°20’28”E

(22) 20°27’15”N 105°19’37”E

(23) 20°26’43”N 105°19’57”E

(24) 20°27’17”N 105°18’52”E

СPС 1376-1738


30 March–1 April

Hoa Binh Prov., Tan Lac Distr.,

Ngo Luong Municipality:

(25) 20°28’15”N 105°17’21”E

(26) 20°27’55”N 105°17’01”E

(27) 20°29’18”N 105°15’43”E

(28) 20°29’26”N 105°15’53”E.

(29) 20°28’43”N 105°16’18”E.

(30) 20°28’15”N 105°17’21”E

(31) 20°28’04”N 105°16’46”E

CPC 1739-1799, 1950-2036


29 March

Son La Prov., Thuan Chau Distr.,

Co Ma Municipality:

(32) 21°21’02”N 103°35’45”E

Muoi Noi Municipality:

(33) 21°18’28”N 103°48’33”E

Co Ma Municipality:

(34) 21°21’02”N 103°35’45”E

CPC 1800-1833


31 March–2 April

Son La Prov., Yen Chau Distr.,

Muong Lum Municipality:

(35) 21°01’10”N 104°29’20”E

(36) 21°00’35”N 104°29’06”E

(37) 21°01’19”N 104°30’45”E

CPC 1834-1912


4-5, 9-12 April

Dien Bien Prov., Dien Bien Distr.,

Na U Municipality:

(38) 21°13’08”N 102°57’14”E

(39) 21°13’05”N 102°57’13”E

(40) 21°12’16”N 102°57’27”E

(41) 21°12’51”N 102°57’20”E

(42) 21°13’30”N 102°57’24”E

CPC 1913-1919, 2314-2427


7-8 April

Dien Bien Prov., Muong Cha Distr.,

Hua Ngai Municipality:

(43) 21°53’46”N 103°10’17”E

(44) 21°52’27”N 103°09’45”E

CPC 1920-1949, 2037-2116


9, 14 April

Dien Bien Prov., Tuan Giao Distr.,

Mun Chung Municipality:

(45) Hoa Pass.

CPC 2117, 2449


10-13 April

Dien Bien Prov., Tua Chua Distr.,

Trung Thu Municipality:

(46) 21°55’38”N 103°18’05”E

Xa Nhe Municipality:

(47) 21°52’35”N 103°24’21”E

Tua Thang Municipality:

(48) 21°53’22”N 103°24’56”E

(49) 21°57’17”N 103°25’31”E

CPC 2118-2313

2011 Laos


22 April

Phongsali Prov., Muong May Distr.:

(50) 21°12’32”N 102°53’44”E

CPC 2428-2435

51, 52

23 April

Luang Prabang Prov., Luang Prabang Distr.:

(51) 20°05’12”N 102°15’49”E

(52) 20°34’28”N 102°24’39”E

CPC 2436-2437


24 April

Vientiane Prov., Vang Vieng Distr.:

(53) 18°54’58”N 102°24’52”E

CPC 2438-2449
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