Final report for research exploration programs assessment of distribution and natural status of paphiopedilum canhii



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Fig.67. Paphiopedilum concolor (Lindl. ex Bateman) Pfitzer Tang et F.T.Wang. Rare species of Indochina (Dien Bien Prov. and Distr., Na U Municipality, CPC 2424). Fig. 68-70. Paphiopedilum dianthum Tang et F.T.Wang. Endangered species endemic for Indochinese area (Dien Bien Prov. and Distr., Na U Municipality, Dien Bien Prov., Tua Chua Distr. and Dien Bien Prov., Muong Cha Distr., CPC 862, CPC 878 and CPC 1087).


Specific spectacular plant species in native area of Paphiopedilum canhii
Fig.71-73. Vaccinium sp. Tuberiferous epiphytic or lithophytic scandent shrub species, most probably new for the flora of Vietnam (Dien Bien Prov. and Distr., Na U Municipality and Dien Bien Prov., Tua Chua Distr., CPC 849, CPC 874 and CPC 954). Fig.74. Vaccinium sp. Tuberiferous epiphytic pendulous shrub species common in the area (Dien Bien Prov., Tua Chua Distr., CPC 1007).


Fig.75, 76. Vaccinium sp. Tuberiferous epiphytic and lithophytic creeping shrub species common in the area (Dien Bien Prov., Tua Chua Distr., CPC 937). Fig.77-79. Selaginella tamariscina (P. Beauv.) Spring. Spectacular lithophytic herb occurring on vertical limestone cliffs in studied area (Son La Prov., Chieng Co Municipality, CPC 1117).

Discovered genera and species new for science



Fig.80-82. ×Lockia sonii Aver., gen. and sp.nov. New for science natural generic hybrid of Luisia and Vanda discovered in native area of Paphiopedilum canhii (Son La Prov., Chieng Co Municipality, CPC 1140).
Fig.83, 84. Begonia viscosa Aver., sp.nov. Lithophytic under shrub endemical for Van Vieng limestone massif (Vientiane Prov., Van Vieng mountains, CPC 2438). Fig.85, 86. Dendrobium munutiflora Aver., sp.nov. Endemic of NE Laos and NW Vietnam (Phongsali Prov., Muong May Distr., CPC 2428).


Fig.87. Saccolabiopsis sp.nov. Very rare canopy epiphyte (Hoa Binh Prov., Tu Do Distr., CPC 1592). Fig.88-90. Schoenorchis scolopendria Aver., sp.nov. Very rare endemic discovered in native area of Paphiopedilum canhii (Son La Prov., Chieng Co Municipality, CPC 1139).


Discovered genera and species new for the flora of Vietnam
Fig.91, 92. Bulbophyllum violaceolabellum Seidenf. Species new for the flora of Vietnam discovered in habitats of Paphiopedilum canhii (Dien Bien Prov., Na U area, CPC 2318). Fig.93, 94. Coelogyne micrantha Lindl. Species new for the flora of Vietnam discovered in native area of Paphiopedilum canhii (Dien Bien Prov., Muong Cha Distr., CPC 1077).


Fig.95, 96. Cuscuta formosana Hayata. Parasitic achlorophyllous vine new for the flora of Vietnam discovered in native area of Paphiopedilum canhii (Dien Bien Prov., Tua Chua Distr., CPC 1046). Fig.97, 98. Cymbidium cyperifolium Wall. ex Lindl. Orchid species new for the flora of Vietnam discovered in native area of Paphiopedilum canhii (Son La Prov., CPC s.n.).


Fig.99. Dendrobium dixanthum Rchb.f. Orchid species new for the flora of Vietnam discovered in native area of Paphiopedilum canhii (Dien Bien Distr., CPC s.n.). Fig.100-102. Dendrobium findlayanum Par. et Rchb.f. Orchid species new for the flora of Vietnam discovered in habitats of Paphiopedilum canhii (Dien Bien Distr., Na U area, CPC 2315).

Fig.103. Dendrobium senile Par. et Rchb.f. Very rare orchid species new for the flora of Vietnam discovered in native area of Paphiopedilum canhii (Dien Bien Prov., CPC s.n.). Fig.104. Holcoglossum amesianum (Rchb.f.) Christenson. Very rare orchid species new for the flora of Vietnam discovered in habitats of Paphiopedilum canhii (Dien Bien Distr., Na U area, CPC 2347). Fig.105, 106. Monomeria gymnopus (Hook.f.) Aver. Species new for the flora of Vietnam discovered in habitats of Paphiopedilum canhii (Dien Bien Prov. and Distr., Na U Municipality, CPC 848; Dien Bien Prov., Tua Chua Distr., CPC 941).

Fig.107, 108. Phylacium majus Collett et Hemsl. New species for the flora of Vietnam discovered in native area of Paphiopedilum canhii (Dien Bien Prov., Muong Cha Distr., CPC 1081). Fig.109, 110. Pyrrosia nummulariifolia (Sw.) Ching. New species for the flora of Vietnam discovered in habitats of Paphiopedilum canhii (Dien Bien Distr., Na U area, CPC 850).


Fig.111. Schoenorchis fragrans (Par. et Rchb.f.) Seidenf. et Smitinand. Very rare orchid species new for the flora of Vietnam discovered in native area of Paphiopedilum canhii (Son La Prov., Chieng Co Municipality, CPC 1138). Fig.112. Sinocrassula indica (Decne) A.Berger. Very rare species new for the flora of Vietnam discovered in native area of Paphiopedilum canhii (Dien Bien Prov., Muong Cha Distr., CPC 2041).

Rare ornamental and spectacular orchid species associated with Paphiopedilum canhii
Fig.113. Anoectochilus calcareus Aver. Lithophytic and terrestrial orchid species closely associated with habitats of Paphiopedilum canhii (Dien Bien Prov., Tua Chua Distr., CPC 924, CPC 990). Local calcium dependent species endemic for northern Vietnam. Fig.114, 115. Bulbophyllum lockii Aver. Very rare orchid species in the flora of Vietnam discovered in native area of Paphiopedilum canhii (Dien Bien Prov., Tua Chua Distr., CPC 921). Local endemic of north-western Vietnam.



Fig. 116, 117. Bulbophyllum nigrescens Rolfe. Very rare orchid species in the flora of Vietnam discovered in native area of Paphiopedilum canhii (Dien Bien Prov., Tua Chua Distr., CPC 2137). Local endemic of north Indochina.

Fig. 118, 119. Callostylis rigida Blume. Creeping epiphytic and lithophytic orchid species closely associated with habitats of Paphiopedilum canhii (Dien Bien Prov., Muong Cha Distr., CPC 1052; Son La Prov., Chieng Co Municipality, CPC 1113).



Fig.120. Coelogyne assamica Linden et Rchb.f. Epiphytic orchid species associated with habitats of Paphiopedilum canhii (Dien Bien Prov., CPC s.n.). Fig.121. Dendrobium crepidatum Lindl. et Paxton. Epiphytic orchid species associated with habitats of Paphiopedilum canhii (Dien Bien Prov., CPC s.n.). Fig.122. Dendrobium harveyanum Rchb.f. Very rare epiphytic orchid species associated with habitats of Paphiopedilum canhii (Dien Bien Prov., CPC s.n.).
Fig.123. Dendrobium lituiflorum Lindl. Rare epiphytic orchid species associated with habitats of Paphiopedilum canhii (Phongsali Prov., Muong May Distr., CPC s.n., CPC 2428 ass.). Fig.124. Dendrobium moniliforme Sw. Epiphytic orchid species associated with habitats of Paphiopedilum canhii (Dien Bien Prov., CPC s.n.). Fig.125. Dendrobium nobile Lindl. var. albolutea D.H.Duong et Aver. Epiphytic orchid species associated with habitats of Paphiopedilum canhii (Dien Bien Prov., CPC s.n.). Fig.126. Dendrobium porphyrochilum Lindl. Very rare orchid species in the flora of Vietnam discovered in native area of Paphiopedilum canhii (Dien Bien Prov., CPC s.n.).

Fig.127. Dendrobium trantuanii Perner et X.N.Dang. Very rare local endemic discovered in habitats of Paphiopedilum canhii (Dien Bien Prov., Na U area, CPC 2417). First photo in nature. Fig.128. Eriodes barbata (Lindl.) Rolfe. Very rare orchid species in the flora of Vietnam discovered in native area of Paphiopedilum canhii (Dien Bien Prov., Tua Chua Distr., CPC 925). Fig.129, 130. Monomeria barbata Lindl. Lithophytic and epiphytic orchid species closely associated with habitats of Paphiopedilum canhii (Dien Bien Prov., Tua Chua Distr., CPC 924, CPC 990).

Fig.131. Panisea garrettii (I.D.Lund) Aver. Lithophytic and epiphytic orchid species closely associated with habitats of Paphiopedilum canhii (Dien Bien Prov., Tua Chua Distr., CPC 876, CPC 917; Dien Bien Prov., Muong Cha Distr., CPC 1086). Fig.132, 133. Porpax elwesii (Rchb.f.) Rolfe. Very rare orchid species in the flora of Vietnam discovered in native area of Paphiopedilum canhii (Dien Bien Prov., Tua Chua Distr., CPC 989). Fig.134. Stereochilus brevirachis Christenson. Very rare local endemic in the flora of Vietnam discovered in native area of Paphiopedilum canhii (Dien Bien Prov., Tua Chua Distr., CPC 1853a). First photo in nature.

Fig.135. Sunipia andersonii (King et Pantl.) P.F.Hunt. Epiphytic orchid species closely associated with habitats of Paphiopedilum canhii (Dien Bien Prov., Tua Chua Distr., CPC 1005; Dien Bien Prov., Muong Cha Distr., CPC 1088). Fig.136. Taeniophyllum glandulosum Blume. Very rare leafless orchid species in the flora of Vietnam discovered in native area of Paphiopedilum canhii (Son La Prov., Chieng Co Municipality, CPC 1137). Fig.137-140. Vanda brunnea Rchb.f. Endangered epiphytic orchid species of great horticultural significance closely associated with habitats of Paphiopedilum canhii in its natural habitats (Dien Bien Prov., Tua Chua Distr., CPC 891, CPC 2124; Muong Cha Distr., CPC 1945; Phongsali Prov., Muong May Distr., CPC 2432). Fig.141-153. Vanda brunnea Rchb.f. Endangered epiphytic orchid species of great horticultural significance closely associated with habitats of Paphiopedilum canhii. Variation in shape and coloration of flower in natural populations(Dien Bien Prov., Tua Chua Distr., CPC 891, CPC 2124; Muong Cha Distr., CPC 1945; Phongsali Prov., Muong May Distr., CPC 2432). Fig.154. Vanda brunnea Rchb.f. Endangered epiphytic orchid species of great horticultural significance closely associated with habitats of Paphiopedilum canhii. Opening flowers of very rare albino form (Dien Bien Prov., CPC s.n.).





Main factors of fast extinction of aboriginal species in native area of Paphiopedilum canhii
Fig.155. Logging of timber trees of canopy primary forest stratum (Chukrasia tabularis A.Juss.) in discovered area of Paphiopedilum canhii (Dien Bien Prov. and Distr., Na U Municipality). Fig.156. Secondary weed vegetation completely lacking aboriginal species on the top of remnant hill composed with highly eroded solid crystalline, marble-like rocky limestone (Son La Prov., Mai Son Distr.). Result of deep irreversible degradation of primary flora and vegetation succeeded after primary forest logging. Fig.157, 158. Wide agricultural fields rapidly replacing primary vegetation in discovered area of Paphiopedilum canhii (Dien Bien Prov. and Distr.) for cultivation of maize.


Fig.159, 160. Wide areas of primitive planting of maize on rocky badlands and in valleys after forest logging and burning rapidly replacing primary vegetation in all over studied area (Son La Prov., Mai Son Distr. – fig. 145 and Dien Bien Prov. and Distr., Na U Municipality – fig. 146). Fig.161. Wide areas of primitive planting of maize on rocky badlands and terracing of slopes for rice paddy-fields rapidly replacing primary vegetation in all over studied area (Dien Bien Prov., Tua Chua Distr.). Fig.162. Top of remnant rocky limestone hill occupied by community of aggressive exotic weed species with domination of Euphorbia antiquorum L. fatally replacing species of indigenous aboriginal flora in all studied area (Son La Prov., Mai Son Distr.).




Fig.163, 164. Mining, road and other communication construction fatally lead to full destruction not only vegetation, but also specific landforms all over studied area (Dien Bien Prov. and Distr., Na U Municipality – fig. 149; Son La Prov., Mai Son Distr. – fig. 150). Fig.165, 166. Full collapse of native vegetation after forest burning for primitive agriculture (Phongsali Prov., Muong May Distr., to the W of Paphiopedilum canhii area). Large majority of orchids offered on local markets are collected in irreversible destroyed habitats. Various restrictions for their sale delete last chance of their survival. In conditions of total present day deforestation, any sale and plant delivery restrictions play strongly negative role for global plant diversity conservation.


Fig. 167-170. Paphiopedilum canhii in local nurseries of Dien Bien City. Commercial plant collecting, much exceeding demands of the market and poor cultivation facilities for their successful growing in local nurseries leads to loss of most wild collected specimens.


Some scenes of field works according to current project
Fig.171. Observation of landscape and vegetation from the top of rocky, limestone mountain, Prof. L.Averyanov (Son La Prov., Chieng Co Municipality). Fig.172. Photography of Paphiopedilum canhii on vertical limestone cliff, Mr. Chu Xuan Canh (Dien Bien Prov. and Distr., Na U Municipality). Fig.173. Climbing on steep rocky slope of limestone mountain during field works, Mr. Pham Van The (Son La Prov., Chieng Co Municipality). Fig.174. Study of Paphiopedilum coccineum in its typical natural habitat Prof. L.Averyanov (Dien Bien Prov., Tua Chua Distr.).


Fig.175. Fieldwork in close cooperation of FPD (Forest Protection Department of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development) officers, Prof. L.Averyanov and Mr. Nguyen Tien Vinh under photography of collected plants (Dien Bien Prov., Muong Cha Distr.). Fig.176, 177. Talks with orchid dealers on local markets for information on diversity and distribution of orchid species offered for sale, Prof. L.Averyanov and Mr. Nguyen Tien Vinh (Dien Bien and Son La cities).

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Technical notes:
Report should be sent at July 2011 to following agencies:
The Rufford Small Grant Foundation

Jane Raymond (jane@rufford.org)


American Orchid Society, Education and Research Department

Dr. Pamela Giust (TheAOS@aos.org; pgiust@aos.org)


Chicago Zoological Society, Chicago Board of Trade Endangered Species Fund

Dr Carla Owens (Carla.Owens@CZS.org)






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