First National Report Of Pakistan to the Convention on Biological Diversity Ministry of Environment Government of Pakistan Contents



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Economic Indicators


Driving Force Indicators

State indicators

Response Indicators

GDP per capita

Environmental/Adjusted Net

Domestic product






Net Investment Share in GDP

Share of Manufactured Goods in Total Merchandise Export




Sum of Export and Import as a percentage of GDP

Proven Mineral Resource




Annual Energy Consumption

Proven Fossil Fuel/Energy Resources




Share of Natural Resource Intensive Energy in Manufacture Value Added

Energy Resources




Net Resource Transfer/GNP

Intensity of material used

Share of manufacturing value added in GDP



Environmental Protection Expenditure as Percentage of GDP

Total Overseas Development Assistance Given or Recovered as a Percentage of GNP




Amount of New and Additional Funding for Sustainable Development

Capital Goods Imports

Share of Renewable Energy Resource




Foreign Direct Investment

Debt/GNP, Debt Service/Export,

Share of Environmentally Sound Capital Good Import, Saving as Percentage of GDP



Technical Co-operative Grants

Social Indicators

Poverty

Income, assets, unemployment, labor force participation rates, education level of labor rates, self-employment by level of education

Demographic Dynamics

Population growth rate, fertility rates, mortality rates, life expectancy, population density

Education and training

Primary school enrolment rate, secondary school enrolment rate

Human health

Doctor-population ratio, hospital-bed ratio, nurse-population ratio, LHV-population ratio, life expectancy rates, drinking water, immunisation, contraceptive prevalence rate

Capacity building

Number of skilled persons by sex

Institutional Indicators


Management

Decision-making level, field-specific job ratio, distribution of resources, dissemination of information through database, integrated decision-making, ratio of environment-related staff i.e. scientist, engineers, lawyers and other professionals.

Capacity-building

Capacity of existing sustainable development institutions

Monitoring and Evaluation

Gaps identification, number of remedial measures, mandated EIA procedure, set up NEQs for air, water and soil, number of measuring laboratories



Appendix E: Fifty Drugs Discovered from Ethno botanical Leads56




Drug

Medical Use

Plant

Family

Ajmalin

Heart arrhythmia

Rauvolfia sp.

Apocynaceae

Aspirin

Analgesic, inflammation

Filipendula ulmaria

Rosaceae

Atropine

Ophthalmology

Atropa belladonna

Solanaceae

Benzoine

Oral disinfectant

Styrax tonkinensis

Styracaceae

Caffeine

Stimulant

Camellia sinensis

Theaceae

Camphor

Rheumatic Pain

Cinnamomum camphora

Lauraceae

Cascara

Purgative

Rhamnus purshiana

Rhamnaceae

Cocaine

Ophthalmologic anaesthetic

Erythroxylum coca

Erythroxylaceae

Codeine

Analgesic, antitussive

Papaver somniferum

Papaveraeae

Colchicine

Gout

Colchicum autumnale

Liliaceae

Demecolcine

Leukaemia, lymphomata

Colchicum autumnale

Liliaceae

Deserpidine

Hypertension

Rauvolfia canescens

Apocynaceae

Dicoumarol

Thrombosis

Melilotus officinalis

Fabaceae

Digitoxin

Atrial fibrillation

Digitalis purpurea

Scrophulariaceae

Digoxin

Atrial fibrillation

Digitalis purpurea

Scrophulariaceae

Emetine

Amoebic dysentery

Cephaelis ipecachuanha

Rubiaceae

Ephedrine

Bronchodilator

Ephedra sinica

Ephedraceae

Eugenol

Toothache

Syzygium aromaticum

Myrtaceae

Gallotanins

Haemorrhoid suppository

Hamamelis virginiana

Hamamelidaceae

Hyoscyamine

Anticholinergic

Hyoscyamus niger

Solanaceae

Ipecac

Emetic

Cephaelis ipecacuanha

Rubiaceae

Ipratropium

Bronchodilator

Hyoscyamus niger

Solanaceae

Morphine

Analgesic

Papver somniferum

Papaveraceae

Noscapine

Antitussive

Papver somniferum

Papaveraceae

Papain

Attenuates mucus

Carica papaya

Cariaceae

Papaverine

Antispasmodic

Papaver somniferum

Papaveraceae

Physotigmine

Glaucoma

Physostigma venenosum

Fabaceae

Picrotoxin

Barbiturate antidote

Anamirta cocculus

Menispermaceae

Pilocarpine

Glaucoma

Pilocarpus jaborandi

Rutaceae

Podophyllotoxin

Condylomata acuminate

Podophyllum peltatum

Berberidaceae

Proscillaridin

Cardiac malfunction

Drimia maritima

Liliaceae

Protoveratrine

Hypertension

Veratrum album

Liliaceae

Pseudoephedrine

Rhinitis

Ephedra sinica

Ephedraceae

Psoralen

Vitiligo

Psoralea corylifolia

Fabaceae

Quinidine

Cardiac arrhythmia

Cinchona pubescens

Rubiaceae

Quinine

Malaria prophylaxis

Cinchona pubescens

Rubiaceae

Rescinnamine

Hypertension

Rauvolfia serpentina

Apocynaceae

Reserpine

Hypertension

Rauvolfia serpentina

Apocynaceae

Sennoside A,B

Laxative

Cassia angustifolia

Caesalpiniaceae

Scopolamine

Motion sickness

Datura stramonium

Solanaceae

Stigmasterol

Steroidal precursor

Physostigma venenosum

Fabaceae

Strophanthin

Congestive heart failure

Strophanthus gratus

Apocynaceae

Teniposide

Bladder neoplasms

Podophyllum peltatum

Berberidaceae

THC

Antiemetic

Cannabis sativa

Cannabaceae

Theophylline

Diuretic, asthma

Camellia sinensis

Theaceae

Toxiferine

Surgery, relaxant

Strychnos guianensis

Loganiaceae

Tubocurarine

Muscle relaxant

Chondrodendron tomentosum

Menispermaceae

Vinblastine

Hodgkin’s disease

Catharanthus roseus

Apocynaceae

Vincristine

Paediatric leukaemia

Catharanthus roseus

Apocynaceae

Xanthotoxin

Vitiligo

Ammi majus

Apiaceae
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