Naeem Ashraf Raja (LEAD Pakistan Fellow) Central Asia Sustainable Use Specialist Group, Quetta
Nasir Ali Panhwar (LEAD Pakistan Fellow) Community Development Officer, IUCN Karachi
Rana Shabbir Conservator of Forests, Punjab Forest Department
Riaz ul Hassan Chief Conservator of Forests, Punjab Forest Department
Rizwan Irshad Ministry of Environment Islamabad
Saima Zaman, M/S LEAD Pakistan Islamabad
Salman Hasan, M/S LEAD Pakistan Islamabad
Sarah Javed M/S LEAD Pakistan Islamabad
Syed Ali Ghalib Zoological Survey Department, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad
Syed Mahmood Nasir Director Biodiversity, Ministry of Environment, Islamabad
Tahir Rasheed (LEAD Pakistan Fellow) Sustainable use Specialist Group IUCN, Quetta
Umeed Khalid Conservator National Council for conservation of Wildlife (NCCW), Ministry of Environment, Islamabad
List of Organizations consulted in the preparation of National Report: Agriculture, Livestock and Cooperatives Department, Government of NWFP Peshawar
Animal Sciences Institute, NARC, Islamabad
CABI- Biosciences Rawalpindi
Coastal Development and Fisheries Department, Government of Balochistan, Quetta
Directorate of Agriculture Research Northern Areas
Environment and Alternate Energy Department, Government of Sindh, Karachi
Environment Department, Government of NWFP, Peshawar, Office of the Chief Conservator of forests, NWFP, Peshawar
Environmental Protection Agency, Quetta
Federal Seed Certification and Registration Department, MINFAL Islamabad
Fisheries Department, Government of Pakistan
Food Department, Government of the Punjab, Lahore
Forest and Environment Department, Government of AJK, Muzaffar Abad
Forest and Environment Department, Government of Northern Areas
Forest and Wildlife Department, Government of Balochistan, Quetta
Forest and Wildlife Department, Government of Sindh
Forest Wildlife and Fisheries Department, Government of the Punjab, Lahore
IUCN-Islamabad Program Office
Labour and Manpower Division, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad
Pakistan Museum of Natural History (PMNH), Islamabad
Pakistan Intellectual Property Organization
Pakistan Forest Institute, Peshawar
Social Welfare Department, Government of Sindh, Karachi
1 Source: www.pakistan.gov.pk
2 according to the latest reports the population is 160 million
3 Forest Working Plans are legally binding management plans that are prepared by provincial forestry departments; these are normally for ten to twenty years. The plans concentrate on the sustainable yield of timber and not on sustainable forestry. (See also Chapter 4 for details)
4 Case Study prepared by Tahir Rashid Fellow LEAD-Pakistan
5 Pakistan Museum of Natural History, 1997, Biodiversity of Pakistan, Pakistan Museum of Natural History, Islamabad
6 Nasir, E. and Ali, S.I., 1969-1989, Flora of Pakistan, Nos. 1-190, Department of Botany, University of Karachi and PARC, Islamabad, Shinwari et al. 2006
7 Shinwari, Z.K.; Watanabe, T.; Rehman, M. & Yoshikawa, T. 2006, A Pictorial guide to Medicinal Plants of Pakistan. Publisher: Kohat University of Science & Technology, Kohat, NWFP, Pakistan. Pp. 492
9 Agarwala, V.P., 1988, Forests in India. Calcutta: Oxford Publishing
10 Please also see section 2.1.7 ‘Thorn Forest’ in Chapter 2 for the descriptive part.
11 Nomadic tribe that keeps mainly hairy goats and descends to the low hills in winter for grazing
12 Case Study Prepared by Fauzia Bilqis Malik Fellow LEAD- Pakistan
13 Crocodile Specialist Group (1996). Crocodylus palustris. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006
14 Javed H. I., Rehman H. and S. Fakhri 2005. On the status of Marsh Crocodile in Pakistan, Records, Zoological Survey of Pakistan, Vol. XVI pp 40-45
15 Groombridge, B. (1982). I.U.C.N. Amphibia-Reptilia Red Data Book. Part 1. Testudines, Crocodylia, Rhynchocephalia. I.U.C.N. Publ., Gland, Switzerland
16 Source: Third National Report- Pakistan
17 Case Study by Ghulam Ali Awan, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad
18 Sheikh, K.M. & Molur, S. 2005. (Eds.) “Status and Red List of Pakistan’s Mammals” Based on Pakistan’s Conservation Assessment and Management Plan for Mammals. 344 pp. IUCN, Pakistan
19 Case study by Tahir Rasheed Fellow LEAD Pakistan
20 Case Study Prepared by Naeem Ashraf Raja Fellow LEAD- Pakistan
21 ‘Some studies on the Biology of captive Cheer Pheasant in Pakistan’ M.Phil Thesis by Rizwan Irshad
22 Souhail et al March 2007, International conference on Biodiversity as Renewable resource of Pakistan, University of Arid Agriculture.
23 Mohyuddin, A.I., 1981, A Review of Biological Control of Insect and Weed Pests in Pakistan, Proceedings of the 2nd Pakistan Congress on Zoology, Tandojam, 26-27 December 31-79.
Mohyuddin, A.I., 1989, Report on the Consultancy Visits to Malakand Division for Survey of Fruit and vegetable Pests and Diseases, Malakand Fruit and Vegetable Development Project, Saidu Sharif, Swat.
24 Fish that ascends rivers from the sea to spawn-The New Shorter Oxford Dictionary
25 Fine gauge nets that catch small fish
26 Case Study prepared by Dr. Fehmida Firdaus Sindh Wildlife Department Karachi
28Hawkes (1983) has described eight centers of biodiversity of cultivated plants. These centers are in China, Indo-Malaya, Central Asia, the Near East, the Mediterranean, Abyssinia, and South America. These are the centers where maximum plant variability exists or most of the plants have originated in these centers. This diversity of germplasm provides a sustainable basis for food supply and security, which in the future will become extremely important. The future sustainability of the human race also depends upon these resources.
29Ahmad, Zahoor, 1998, The Diversity of (Minor) Fruit Crops and Wild Relatives in the Mountain Areas of Pakistan, in T. Partap, and B. S. Thapit (eds.) Managing Agro-biodiversity, ICIMOD, Kathmandu, pp.235-240
30 The authors made a literature review of the District Gazetteers of Mianwali, Dera Ghazi Khan, Bahawalpur and the Shahpur districts of the last century (British era) specifically for this section of the book.
31 W.A. Pirzada, 1998, The Diversity of Mountain Farm Animals Resources and Conservation Concerns in Pakistan, in T. Partab and B. Athapit (eds.) Managing Agro-biodiversity, ICIMOD, Nepal, pp.208-296
32 Personal communication with Dr. Hasan Aziz Javed, Director Livestock, Livestock Department, Government of the Punjab, Lahore, 1999 for the preparation of the First National Report.
34 Personal interview by the authors (Dr. Aslam Malik and Syed Mahmood Nasir) 1999. Livestock scientists contacted were: Dr. Saeed Ahmed, Deputy Director, Veterinary Research Institute, Lahore, Dr. Hasan Aziz, Director Livestock, Lahore, Dr. Sajjad Zaheer Malik Director Planning and Evaluation, Livestock Department, Lahore, Dr. Muhammad Fayyaz and Dr. Ajmal Alvi of the Government Livestock Farm Ghulaman district Bhakkar.
35 Based on case study conducted for the preparation of the First National Report 1999.
36 NIBGE, Voluntary Code of Conduct for the Release of Organisms into the Environment, Faisalabad
37 Nasim, A., 1997, Plant Biotechnology in Pakistan, Country Report presented at Asia-Pacific Workshop on Biosafety Environmental Impact Analysis of Transgenic Plants, held at M.S. Swaminathan Research Foundation.
Nasim, A., 50 Years of Biotechnology in Pakistan, Paper presented at 22nd International Nathiagali Summer College on Physics and Contemporary Needs, Nathiagali
38 SUNGI is a NGO with headquarters in Islamabad, and concentrates on the equitable distribution of benefits from natural resources. It is an advocacy NGO. Its main area of operation is the forests of Abbottabad civil division, NWFP. It has also played an active role in ensuring that the local people receive fair compensation for their lands acquired for the construction of the Ghazi Barotha Hydropower Project.
39 Personal interview by Nasir Ali Panhwar Fellow LEAD-Pakistan, conducted for the preparation of this report.
40 Case Study by Mehjabeen Habib Fellow LEAD Pakistan
41 During interviews conducted during 1998 by Syed Mahmood Nasir, for the preparation of Pakistan’s First National Report, with the Deputy Director Fisheries, Chashma, it was learnt that this species also occurs upstream of the Chashma Barrage. This also highlighted that organizations like the Directorate of Fisheries, WAPDA should be on the panels that deal with biodiversity as they have rich first hand information.
42 Case study by Syed Mahmood Nasir
43 Research conducted Syed Mahmood Nasir, 1999 for the First National Report.
44 Case study prepared by Shabbir Ahmed, Conservator of Forests, Punjab Forest Department and Syed Mahmood Nasir
45 The timber mafia is a term used in Pakistan for influential persons who illegally log and market timber. Due to their power and influence they cannot be apprehended.
47 Case Study by Naeem Ashraf Raja Fellow LEAD Pakistan
48 Personal observations by the author/s.
49 Sprouting of plants from stumps after the tree is cut; this is used as a tool for regeneration of tree crops.
50 Plants produce certain chemicals that inhibit others from growing near them.
51 Prepared by Dr. Nazir Bhatti, Director General, Fisheries, Government of Punjab
52 Adapted from the article in The Dawn by Baghwan Das
53 Source: Dr. Nazir Bhatti, former Director General, Fisheries, Government of Punjab
54 An animal product is anything originating or made, in whole or in part from any animal or from carcasses and any other substance of animal origin, which is specified by the federal government by notification in the official Gazette.
55 Source:Dr. Aleem Chaudhry, ex chief conservator of forests see details of IUCN categories at iucnredlist.org/info/categories_criteria2001
56 Source: Dr. Iqbal Chaudhry, Professor, HEJ institute of Chemistry