Fitzgerald biosphere recovery plan


Habitat Critical to Survival



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Habitat Critical to Survival

  • The area of occupancy of the known populations; and

  • Similar habitat within 1km of distribution records that provides potential habitat buffer for the species.


Biology and Ecology

Flowers irregularly throughout the year. Killed by fire and regenerates from soil-stored seed-bank. Juvenile period of ±4 yrs. Susceptibility to Phytophthora cinnamomi unknown.


Threats

Inappropriate fire regimes; Phytophthora dieback, Climate change.






References

Australian Biological Resources Study (1995-2000) Flora of Australia, Volumes 16, 17A & 17B, Commonwealth of Australia. http://www.anbg.gov.au/abrs/online-resources/flora/stddisplay.xsql?pnid=2753 – Accessed 8/4/2010

Barrett, S., Comer, S., McQuoid, N., Porter, M., Tiller, C. & Utber, D. (2009) Identification and Conservation of Fire Sensitive Ecosystems and Species of the South Coast Natural Resource Management Region. Department of Environment and Conservation, South Coast Region, Western Australia.

Robinson, C.J. & Coates, D.J. (1995) Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Albany District, Wildlife Management Program No 20. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth, Western Australia.

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Grevillea infundibularis. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. http://www.environment.gov.au
/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/5772-conservation-advice.pdf - Accessed 8/4/2010

Hibbertia abyssa (Dilleniaceae)

(Bandalup Buttercup)


Conservation Status

  • Environment Protection & Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999): Not Listed

  • Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act (1950): Critically Endangered

Photo: © Damien Rathbone (DEC)



Description

An erect shrub up to 1.2m high and can be single or multi-stemmed. Leaves linear to subulate with strongly recurved margins and pungent tips. Young branchlets have distinct glabrous ribs but are covered in dense hairs between. Flowers bright yellow with five stamens on one side of carpals and held on slender and glabrous stalks (6-14mm long). Sepal surface has hooked and branched hairs. This species may be confused with similar Hibbertia mucronata and H. atrichosepala.


Distribution and Habitat

Restricted to Bandalup Hill area near Ravensthorpe Range, where part of one population was cleared in 2008 through mining activity.

Occurs in shallow red-brown light clay in open mallee-shrubland.
Important Populations

All known populations as the species has a restricted range to around Bandalup Hill.


Habitat Critical to Survival

  • The area of occupancy of the known populations; and

  • Similar habitat within 1km of all species distribution records that provides a potential habitat buffer for the species.


Biology and Ecology

Flowers have been recorded in October, November and March. Observations suggest that it regenerates after fire from soil-stored seed. Susceptibility to Phytophthora cinnamomi unknown, but other Hibbertia spp. can be susceptible.


Threats

Loss and degradation of habitat, Dust impacts and changes to hydrology from mining activities; Inappropriate fire regimes; Post-fire competition from environmental weeds; Phytophthora dieback, Climate change.






References

Luu, R., Rathbone, D., Barrett, S & Cochrane, A. (2010) Hibbertia abyssa Interim Recovery Plan 2010-2015 (Draft). Department of Environment and Conservation, Perth, Western Australia.

Wege, J. & Markey, A. (2009) A new, rare Hibbertia discovered on Bandalup Hill. Information Sheet 31/2009. Department of Environment and Conservation, Perth, Western Australia.

Wege, J.A. & Thiele, K.R. (2009) Two new species of Hibbertia (Dilleniaceae) from near Ravensthorpe in Western Australia. Nutysia 19(2): 303-310.



Kunzea similis (subspecies mediterranea) (Myrtaceae)



Conservation Status

  • Environment Protection & Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999): Not Listed

  • Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act (1950): Endangered

Photo: © Stephen Kern (DEC)



Description

A woody shrub to 3m high with several stiffly erect main stems, moderately to little branched. Basal branches prostrate and usually without flowers. Young branches densely covered in silky hairs. Flowers pink with prominent stamens and striking pale anthers. This subspecies is distinguished from the nominate form by larger bracteoles (3.8-4.4mm) and with (usually) exposed apex often longer than hypanthium.


Distribution and Habitat

Confined to one population on Bandalup Hill, east of Ravensthorpe with extent of occurrence of 21.9ha. Surveys in 2007 found c.350,000 mature plants. Mining has removed 6% of population.

Favours grey loamy sandy soil over laterite geology in open shrub mallee and dense heath.
Important Populations

The single known population is considered important as it is has a restricted range (endemic to Bandalup Hill).


Habitat Critical to Survival

  • The area of occupancy of the known population; and

  • Similar habitat within 1km of distribution records that provides potential habitat buffer for the species.


Biology and Ecology

Flowers September to November and is pollinated by native bees. Killed by fire and regenerates from soil-stored seed.


Threats

Loss and degradation of habitat from mining activities; Inappropriate fire regimes; Phytophthora dieback; Climate change.






References

DEC (2008) SAP 2008 Kunzea similis subsp. mediterranea. Department of Environment and Conservation, Perth, Western Australia. (Unpublished)

Toelken, H.R. & Craig, G.F. (2007) Kunzea acicularis, K. strigosa and K. similis subsp mediterranea (Myrtaceae) – new taxa from near Ravensthorpe, Western Australia. Nutysia 17: 385-396.

Western Australian Herbarium (1998) Florabase - The Western Australia Flora - Kunzea similis subsp. mediterranea Toelken & G.F.Craig. http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/31151 - Accessed 9/4/2010



Kunzea similis (subspecies similis) (Myrtaceae)



Conservation Status

  • Environment Protection & Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999): Not Listed

  • Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act (1950): Vulnerable

Photo: © Sarah Barrett (DEC)


Description

A woody shrub to 1.5m. Similar to K. similis (subsp. mediterranea) but differs with smaller bracteoles (3.2-3.7mm) hidden between flowers and usually shorter than hypanthium.


Distribution and Habitat

Restricted to single location in FRNP on East Mt Barren near Hopetoun, with a mature population of c.3,600 individuals.

Occurs in fine sandy-clay soil on quartzite wave-cut bench on lower slopes of East Mt Barren in low heath.
Important Populations

The single known FRNP population is considered important for the survival of this species.




Habitat Critical to Survival

  • The area of occupancy of the known populations; and

  • Similar habitat within 1km of distribution records that provides potential habitat buffer for the species.


Biology and Ecology

Flowers September to October. Killed by fire and regenerates from soil-stored seed. Poor regeneration observed after fire in 2006. Presumed susceptible to Phytophthora cinnamomi. Drought stress observed in February 2010 (S. Barrett & S. Cowen pers. obs.).


Threats

Inappropriate fire regime (insufficient intervals between fires to allow seed bank regeneration); Degradation of habitat from road maintenance; Phytophthora dieback; Altered Hydrology; Stochastic events (e.g. drought), Climate change.





References

Toelken, H.R. & Craig, G.F. (2007) Kunzea acicularis, K. strigosa and K. similis subsp mediterranea (Myrtaceae) – new taxa from near Ravensthorpe, Western Australia. Nutysia 17: 385-396.



Lepidium aschersonii (Brassicaceae)

(Spiny Peppercress)



Conservation Status

  • Environment Protection & Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999): Vulnerable

  • Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act (1950): Vulnerable


Photograph not available
Description

Small, erect, perennial herb up to 30cm with intricate branched, erect stems covered in deflexed hairs. Branches become woodier and spinier with age or in dry conditions. Basal leaves (up to 12cm) are fleshy and pinnately lobed but rarely persist and the stem leaves are lanceolate to narrowly tapering, hairy, becoming smaller with increasing height. Flowers small with four 0.8mm long sepals and are greenish in colour. Fruit (3.5-4.5 x 2.5-3mm) ovate to obovate two chambered pod borne on 2-4mm pedicel (hairy above, hairless below).


Distribution and Habitat

Occurs in fragmented populations in NSW and VIC where it was previously more widespread. It was considered extinct in WA (when last recorded from Pallinup River in 1903) until 1976 when it was reported from Corackerup Creek.

In eastern states this is a wetland species preferring heavy black or clay soils in swamps and salt-marshes.
Important Populations

The last record of this species in WA was from Corackerup Creek in the 1970’s. Although it has been absent from this location since that time, should the population reoccur, it would be considered important.


Habitat Critical to Survival

  • Similar habitat within 1km of distribution records that provides potential habitat buffer for the species.


Biology and Ecology

Flowers spring to autumn. Tolerant of a range of saline conditions. Highly productive seeder and regenerates prolifically during drought conditions, possibly due to greater soil exposure. May tolerate some levels of grazing pressure.


Threats

Threats unknown in Biosphere as species not seen in recent years but likely to be: Loss and degradation of habitat; Grazing by invasive herbivores; Competition from environmental weeds; Salinisation and altered hydrology.






References

DSE (2009) Spiny Peppercress Lepidium aschersonii, Action Statement – Flora and Fauna Guarantee Act 1988 No.111. Department of Sustainability and Environment, Melbourne, Victoria.

Robinson, C.J. & Coates, D.J. (1995) Declared Rare and Poorly Known Flora in the Albany District, Wildlife Management Program No 20. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Perth, Western Australia.

Western Australian Herbarium (1998) Florabase - The Western Australia Flora – Lepidium aschersonii Thell. http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/3019 - Accessed 9/4/2010



Marianthus mollis (Pittosporaceae)

(Hairy-fruited Marianthus)



Conservation Status

  • Environment Protection & Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999): Endangered

  • Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act (1950): Vulnerable

Photo: © Stephen Kern (DEC)



Description

A low, spreading shrub up to 50cm high. Stems reddish-brown with white hairs when young but in mature plants are grey and hairless. Leaves (2 x 1.1cm) also lose their hairs with age (except on margins and mid-rib) and are almost sessile. Flowers usually solitary, deep blue in colouration with 3-4 distinct lines on each petal and pale throat, and held on slender stalks (1.5-2.5cm long) in leaf axils.


Distribution and Habitat

Confined to an area of approximately 30ha of Ravensthorpe Range and eastwards along the rabbit proof fence, possibly sharing the same underlying geological feature. Six populations comprise >50,000 individuals and area of occupancy is estimated at 12ha.

Is not highly specific in its habitat requirements but favours gravely sands over laterite or ironstone geology and sand over laterite, preferring open mallee-heath with disturbed areas of soil.
Important Populations

All known populations are considered important to the survival of this species.


Habitat Critical to Survival

  • The area of occupancy of the known populations; and

  • Similar habitat within 1km of distribution records that provides potential habitat buffer for the species.


Biology and Ecology

Flowers August to September, but also recorded flowering in summer. Regenerates prolifically after fire from soil-stored seed. Juvenile period is ≤3 yrs. Since flowers are small, self- or insect-pollination is most likely. Seed is dispersed by animals. Probably a soil-disturbance opportunist. Presumed not susceptible to Phytophthora cinnamomi.


Threats

Loss and degradation of habitat from mining activities (e.g. loss of habitat, soil compaction, dust, weeds and pathogen introduction, and potential for introduction of poisonous chemicals); Inappropriate fire; Small population size; Stochastic events.






References

Barrett, S., Comer, S., McQuoid, N., Porter, M., Tiller, C. & Utber, D. (2009) Identification and Conservation of Fire Sensitive Ecosystems and Species of the South Coast Natural Resource Management Region. Department of Environment and Conservation, South Coast Region, Western Australia.

Hartley, R. & Barrett, S. (2005) Hairy-fruited Marianthus (Marianthus mollis) Recovery Plan. Department of Conservation and Land Management, Albany, Western Australia.

Myoporum cordifolium (Scrophulariaceae)

(Jerramungup Myoporum)



Conservation Status

  • Environment Protection & Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999): Vulnerable

  • Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act (1950): Endangered

Photo: © Sarah Barrett (DEC)



Description

A twiggy, spreading shrub up to 1m high. Leaves very small (2mm), dark green and heart-shaped. Stem warty and resinous. White solitary flowers with corolla tubes growing up to 5mm long with 5 lobes, which have prominent purple spotting. Fruit (1.5-2.5 x 1-2.2mm) brown or green and ovoid-oblong. Seed tiny, ovoid and white. Has a unique habit and shape within the genus Myoporum.


Distribution and Habitat

Occurs between Ongerup and Jerramungup on south coast of WA. Extent of occurrence is approximately 1,550km². Seven populations comprising c.9,000 individuals occur in the Fitzgerald Biosphere.

Favours disturbed, open habitats, including road verges, over sandy loam or clay loam in mallee or moort areas where, prior to disturbance, open Eucalyptus spp. existed over an open or tall shrub understorey. Can be scattered through mallee by flood events.
Important Populations

All known populations are considered important populations.


Habitat Critical to Survival

  • The area of occupancy of the known populations; and

  • Similar habitat within 1km of distribution records that provides potential habitat buffer for the species.


Biology and Ecology

Usually flowers June to November, but has been observed flowering in February 2010 in FRNP, 2 yrs after bushfire (S. Barrett, S. Comer & S. Cowen pers. obs.). Juvenile period c.3 yrs. Short-lived (c.10 yrs) disturbance opportunist with fire, flood or other disturbance (e.g. ‘chaining’ for fire management/suppression) stimulating germination. Longevity of soil-stored seed is suggested to be >30 yrs.


Threats

Inappropriate fire regimes (or other disturbance events).







References

Barrett, S., Comer, S., McQuoid, N., Porter, M., Tiller, C. & Utber, D. (2009) Identification and Conservation of Fire Sensitive Ecosystems and Species of the South Coast Natural Resource Management Region. Department of Environment and Conservation, South Coast Region, Western Australia.

Chinnock, R.J. (2007) Eremophila and Allied Genera: a monograph of the plant family Myoporaceae – 30: Myoporum cordifolium, pp156-159 – Rosenberg Publishing, Dural, New South Wales, Australia.

Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts (2010). Myoporum cordifolium in Species Profile and Threats Database, Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts, Canberra. http://www.environment.gov.au/sprat - Accessed 9/4/2010

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Myoporum cordifolium. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. http://www.environment.gov.au/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/24223-conservation-advice.pdf - Accessed 9/4/2010

Ricinocarpos trichophorus (Euphorbiaceae)

(Barrens Wedding-bush)



Conservation Status

  • Environment Protection & Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999): Endangered

  • Western Australian Wildlife Conservation Act (1950): Vulnerable

Photo: © Sarah Barrett (DEC)



Description

Erect, openly branching shrub up to 1.6m high. Leaves (25-80 x 1.5mm) dark green above and grey below. Stem covered in grey felt-like hairs. Buds also covered in dense ferruginous hairs. Flowers creamy-yellow to white, arranged in groups of 6-10 on a 2cm stalk at the end of a branch.


Distribution and Habitat

Occurs in disjunct populations along the south coast of WA, from the FRNP to Lake Tay (east of Frank Hann NP) and Mts. Beaumont and Heywood, north-east of Esperance. There are five populations in Fitzgerald Biosphere comprising 4,500 individuals.

Favours sandy-clay loam along breakaways or watercourses among sandstone rocks.
Important Populations

All known populations are considered important to the survival of this species.


Habitat Critical to Survival

  • The area of occupancy of the known populations; and

  • Similar habitat within 1km of distribution records that provides potential habitat buffer for the species.


Biology and Ecology

Flowers March to May and August to November. Killed by fire and regenerates from soil-stored seed. Thought to take 4 yrs to flower and seed although it was observed to be reproductive only 2 yrs post-fire in FRNP in February 2010 (S. Barrett & S. Cowen, pers. obs.). Also observed to be affected by drought. Susceptibility to Phytophthora cinnamomi unknown.


Threats

Inappropriate fire regimes; Climate change.






References

Threatened Species Scientific Committee (2008). Commonwealth Conservation Advice on Ricinocarpos trichophorus. Department of the Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts. http://www.environment.gov.au


/biodiversity/threatened/species/pubs/19931-conservation-advice.pdf - Accessed 9/4/2010

Western Australian Herbarium (1998) Florabase - The Western Australia Flora - Ricinocarpos trichophorus Muell.Arg. http://florabase.calm.wa.gov.au/browse/profile/4702 - Accessed 9/4/2010



Stylidium galioides (Stylidiaceae)

(Yellow Mountain or Yellow Fitzgerald Triggerplant)






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