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Forest Resources Assessment Programme
 Working 
Paper 
78/E 
  
Rome 
2003 
                    
    
Forestry Department 
                Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations 
 
 
   
 
G
LOBAL 
F
OREST 
R
ESOURCES 
A
SSESSMENT UPDATE 
2005 
  

 
FRA
 
2005
 

 
 
 
 
P
ILOT STUDY FOR 
 
C
OUNTRY 
R
EPORTING
:
 
 
INDIA 
 
 
 
Rome, 2003 
 

 

 
 
 
 
The Forest Resources Assessment Programme 
 
Forests are crucial for the well being of humanity. They provide foundations for life on earth through 
ecological functions, by regulating the climate and water resources and by serving as habitats for plants 
and animals. Forests also furnish a wide range of essential goods such as wood, food, fodder and 
medicines, in addition to opportunities for recreation, spiritual renewal and other services. 
 
Today, forests are under pressure from increasing demands of land-based products and services, which 
frequently leads to the conversion or degradation of forests into unsustainable forms of land use. When 
forests are lost or severely degraded, their capacity to function as regulators of the environment is also 
lost, increasing flood and erosion hazards, reducing soil fertility and contributing to the loss of plant and 
animal life. As a result, the sustainable provision of goods and services from forests is jeopardized.  
 
FAO, at the request of the member nations and the world community, regularly monitors the world’s 
forests through the Forest Resources Assessment Programme. The Global Forest Resources 
Assessment 2000 (FRA 2000) reviewed the forest situation by the end of the millennium. FRA 2000 
included country-level information based on existing forest inventory data, regional investigations of land-
cover change processes and a number of global studies focusing on the interaction between people and 
forests. The FRA 2000 Main report is published in print and is available on the World Wide Web. 
 
The Global Forest Resources Assessment update 2005 (FRA 2005) has been requested by the FAO 
Committee on Forestry in 2003. The FRA 2005 will use common thematic areas of the Criteria for 
Sustainable Forest Management as a reporting framework. FRA 2005 will also focus on the specific 
conditions and issues in each country. 
 
The Forest Resources Assessment Programme is organized under the Forest Resources Division (FOR) 
at FAO headquarters in Rome. Contact person is: 
 
Peter Holmgren, Chief FORM 
 
 
peter.holmgren@fao.org
 
 
 
or use the e-mail address: 
fra@fao.org
 
 
 
 
 
DISCLAIMER 
The Forest Resources Assessment (FRA) Working Paper Series is designed to reflect the 
activities and progress of the FRA Programme of FAO. Working Papers are not authoritative information 
sources – they do not reflect the official position of FAO and should not be used for official purposes. 
Please refer to the FAO forestry website (www.fao.org/forestry) for access to official information. 
The FRA Working Paper Series provides an important forum for the rapid release of preliminary 
findings needed for validation and to facilitate the final development of official quality-controlled 
publications. Should users find any errors in the documents or have comments for improving their quality 
they should contact 
fra@fao.org
.  

 
ii 
 
Table of Contents 
 
SUMMARY........................................................................................................................................................... 1
 
ABBREVIATIONS............................................................................................................................................... 2
 
1.
 
INTRODUCTION....................................................................................................................................... 3
 
1.1
 
P
URPOSE OF THIS DOCUMENT
............................................................................................................... 3
 
1.2
 
B
ACKGROUND TO 
FRA
 
2005................................................................................................................ 3
 
1.3
 
O
BJECTIVES OF COUNTRY REPORTING IN 
FRA
 
2005............................................................................. 3
 
1.4
 
N
ATIONAL 
I
NFORMATION 
D
EVELOPMENT 
P
ROCESS
............................................................................. 4
 
2.
 
NATIONAL REPORTING TABLES ....................................................................................................... 6
 
T1.
 
E
XTENT OF 
F
ORESTS AND 
O
THER 
W
OODED 
L
ANDS
............................................................................. 7
 
T2.
 
O
WNERSHIP OF 
F
ORESTS AND 
O
THER 
W
OODED 
L
ANDS
..................................................................... 11
 
T3.
 
D
ESIGNATION OF 
F
ORESTS AND 
O
THER 
W
OODED 
L
ANDS
.................................................................. 15
 
T4.
 
C
HARACTERISTICS OF 
F
ORESTS AND 
O
THER 
W
OODED 
L
ANDS
........................................................... 18
 
T5.
 
F
OREST 
G
ROWING 
S
TOCK
.................................................................................................................. 22
 
T6.
 
B
IOMASS 
S
TOCK OF 
F
ORESTS
............................................................................................................. 25
 
T7.
 
F
OREST 
C
ARBON
................................................................................................................................ 27
 
T8.
 
D
ISTURBANCES AFFECTING 
H
EALTH AND 
V
ITALITY OF 
F
ORESTS AND 
O
THER 
W
OODED 
L
ANDS
....... 29
 
T9.
 
F
OREST 
T
REE 
S
PECIES
........................................................................................................................ 32
 
T10.
 
F
OREST 
C
OMPOSITION
........................................................................................................................ 35
 
T11.
 
W
OOD 
R
EMOVAL
............................................................................................................................... 37
 
T12.
 
V
ALUE OF 
W
OOD 
R
EMOVAL
.............................................................................................................. 40
 
T13.
 
N
ON 
W
OOD 
F
OREST 
P
RODUCTS 
(NWFP)
 
R
EMOVAL
.......................................................................... 43
 
T14.
 
V
ALUE OF 
N
ON 
W
OOD 
F
OREST 
P
RODUCT 
R
EMOVAL
......................................................................... 46
 
T15.
 
S
ITES FOR 
S
OCIAL 
F
UNCTIONS IN 
F
ORESTS AND 
O
THER 
W
OODED LANDS
.......................................... 50
 
T16.
 
E
MPLOYMENT IN 
F
OREST AND 
O
THER 
W
OODED LANDS
.................................................................... 52
 
3.
 
REPORT BY THEMATIC AREAS........................................................................................................ 56
 
3.1
 
E
XTENT OF 
F
ORESTS 
R
ESOURCES AND 
C
ONTRIBUTION TO 
G
LOBAL 
C
ARBON 
C
YCLE
........................ 56
 
3.1.1
 
Extent of Forests Resources.......................................................................................................... 56
 
3.1.1.1
 
Method and Approach.........................................................................................................................56
 
3.1.1.2
 
Relevant Variables ..............................................................................................................................56
 
3.1.1.3
 
Source and Source Data ......................................................................................................................57
 
3.1.1.4
 
Additional Data: Area of Recorded Forest ..........................................................................................57
 
3.1.1.5
 
Additional Data: Open and Closed Forest Cover ................................................................................59
 
3.1.1.6
 
Additional Data: Area of Forest diverted for “Non-Forest Purposes”.................................................60
 
3.1.1.7
 
Additional Data: Extent of Trees Outside Forests (TOF)....................................................................61
 
3.1.1.8
 
Additional Data: Area of Forest under Management Plans .................................................................62
 
3.1.2
 
Contribution to Global Carbon Cycle .......................................................................................... 63
 
3.1.2.1
 
Method and Approach.........................................................................................................................63
 
3.1.2.2
 
Relevant Variables ..............................................................................................................................63
 
3.1.2.3
 
Source and Source Data ......................................................................................................................63
 
3.1.2.4
 
Additional Data ...................................................................................................................................63
 
3.2
 
H
EALTH AND 
V
ITALITY
...................................................................................................................... 65
 
3.2.1
 
Method and Approach .................................................................................................................. 65
 
3.2.2
 
Relevant Variables........................................................................................................................ 65
 
3.2.3
 
Source and Source Data ............................................................................................................... 65
 
3.2.4
 
Additional Data ............................................................................................................................ 66
 
3.2.4.1
 
Status of Natural Regeneration ...........................................................................................................66
 
3.2.4.2
 
Incidence of Insect and Pests ..............................................................................................................67
 
3.2.4.3
 
Incidence Weeds Infestation ...............................................................................................................70
 
3.2.4.4
 
Incidence of Grazing in different Forest Types...................................................................................71
 
3.2.4.5
 
Incidence of Fire .................................................................................................................................71
 
3.2.4.6
 
Incidence of Pollutants........................................................................................................................72
 

 
iii 
3.2.4.7
 
Presence of Indicator Species..............................................................................................................73
 
3.2.4.7
 
Density of Forest Canopy....................................................................................................................73
 
3.2.4.8
 
Status of Forest Fragmentation ...........................................................................................................74
 
3.3
 
B
IODIVERSITY
.................................................................................................................................... 76
 
3.3.1
 
Method and Approach .................................................................................................................. 76
 
3.3.2
 
Relevant Variables........................................................................................................................ 76
 
3.3.3
 
Source and Source Data ............................................................................................................... 76
 
3.3.4
 
Additional Data ............................................................................................................................ 77
 
3.3.4.1
 
Area under Protected Areas.................................................................................................................77
 
3.3.4.2
 
Status of Endemic Species (Flora) ......................................................................................................78
 
3.3.4.3
 
Status of Threatened Species...............................................................................................................79
 
3.3.4.4
 
Introduced and Invasive Species (Flora) .............................................................................................80
 
3.3.4.5
 
Species Richness and Diversity...........................................................................................................81
 
3.4
 
P
RODUCTIVE 
F
UNCTIONS
................................................................................................................... 83
 
3.4.1
 
Method and Approach .................................................................................................................. 83
 
3.4.2
 
Relevant Variables........................................................................................................................ 83
 
3.4.3
 
Source Data .................................................................................................................................. 83
 
3.4.4
 
Additional Data ............................................................................................................................ 84
 
3.4.4.1
 
Per hectare Growing Stock..................................................................................................................84
 
3.4.4.2
 
Rate of Annual Volume Increment .....................................................................................................85
 
3.4.4.3
 
Extent of Planting Stock Improvement ...............................................................................................86
 
3.5
 
P
ROTECTIVE 
F
UNCTIONS
.................................................................................................................... 88
 
3.5.1
 
Method and Approach .................................................................................................................. 88
 
3.5.2
 
Relevant Variables........................................................................................................................ 88
 
3.5.3
 
Source Data .................................................................................................................................. 88
 
3.5.4
 
Additional Data ............................................................................................................................ 90
 
3.5.4.1
 
Extent of Forests under Watershed “Treatment”.................................................................................90
 
3.5.4.2
 
Status of Forest Soil Fertility ..............................................................................................................91
 
3.5.4.3
 
Extent of Degraded Forests .................................................................................................................91
 
3.5.4.4
 
Ground Water Table in Vicinity of Forests .........................................................................................92
 
3.5.4.5
 
Extent of Forests in Hills.....................................................................................................................93
 
3.5.4.6
 
Extent of Mangroves ...........................................................................................................................94
 
3.6
 
S
OCIAL 
F
UNCTIONS
............................................................................................................................ 96
 
3.6.1
 
Method and Approach .................................................................................................................. 96
 
3.6.2
 
Relevant Variables........................................................................................................................ 96
 
3.6.3
 
Source Data .................................................................................................................................. 96
 
3.6.4
 
Additional Data ............................................................................................................................ 97
 
3.6.4.1
 
Use of Traditional knowledge .............................................................................................................97
 
3.6.4.2
 
Quality and Extent of Rights and Privileges .......................................................................................98
 
3.6.4.3
 
Extent of Cultural and Sacred Forests .................................................................................................98
 
3.6.4.4
 
Consumption of Energy From Wood Resources .................................................................................99
 
3.6.4.5
 
Extent of Grazing (Cattle Population Dependent on Forests) ...........................................................100
 
3.6.4.6
 
Participatory institutions ...................................................................................................................101
 
3.7
 
E
CONOMIC 
F
UNCTIONS
.................................................................................................................... 102
 
3.7.1
 
Method and Approach ................................................................................................................ 102
 
3.7.2
 
Relevant Variables...................................................................................................................... 102
 
3.7.3
 
Source Data ................................................................................................................................ 102
 
3.7.4
 
Additional Data .......................................................................................................................... 103
 
3.7.4.1
 
Financial investments in forests ........................................................................................................103
 
3.7.4.2
 
Revenue from forests ........................................................................................................................104
 
3.7.4.3
 
Trade of Wood ..................................................................................................................................105
 
3.7.4.4
 
Trade of NWFP.................................................................................................................................106
 
3.7.4.5
 
Contribution of Forest Sector to Gross Domestic Product (GDP).....................................................108
 
3.8
 
R
EVIEW OF 
S
USTAINABILITY OF 
F
OREST 
R
ESOURCES
...................................................................... 109
 
4.
 
VALIDATION OF FINDINGS.............................................................................................................. 110
 
5.
 
CONCLUSION ....................................................................................................................................... 110
 
 

 
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