Forest Resources Assessment Programme Working Paper 78/e rome



Yüklə 5.01 Kb.
PDF просмотр
səhifə3/12
tarix19.08.2017
ölçüsü5.01 Kb.
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   12

 
 
  
Non 
Forest 
    
 
(i) 
Scrub 
 100    
 (ii) Tree Cover 
 
 
10 
90 
(iii) Other Non Forest   
 
 
 
100 
 

 
10 (114) 
H. National Information for FRA 2005 Global Tables 
 
Table: Input to Global Reporting Table T1 
FRA 2005 Classes 
Extent in "000"ha 
  
1990 
2000 
2005 
Forests 
 
63938.600 67553.800 67700.518 
Other Wooded Lands (Scrub) 
5894.300 
4731.000 
4110.390 
Other land with Trees  
81.472 
81.472 
81.472 
Other 
land 
227404.628 224952.728 225426.620 
Inland 
water 
31407.000 31407.000 31407.000 
Total 
Area 
328726.000 328726.000 328726.000 
 

 
11 (114) 
 
T2. Ownership 
of 
Forests and Other Wooded Lands 
 
The information on “ownership” is important for policy, institutional and management purposes. 
It basically defines the boundaries and location of the authority and control over forest and tree 
resources.  
 
A. Global Classification and Definitions (FRA 2005) 
 
Public Ownership
 
The ownership of State (national, state and regional governments) or government-
owned institutions or corporations or other public bodies including cities, 
municipalities, villages and communes. 
Private Ownership
 
The right of  “ownership” of “Forests” and “Other Wooded Lands” with individuals, 
families,  private co-operatives, corporations, industries, religious and educational 
institutions, pension or investment funds, and other private institutions. 
Other or Unspecified 
Ownership
 
The “Other” or “Unspecified ownership” is one that is not classified either as “public 
ownership” or as “private ownership”. 
Source: FAO. 2004. Terms and Definition FRA-2005. FRA Working paper 73. Rome 
 
B. National Data Sources 
 
Forest Survey of India (FSI) is an Government of India organization under the Ministry of 
Environment & Forests. Since 1965, it is regularly conducting assessment of forest resources and 
publishes the information in the “State of Forest Report” (SFR).  
 
The SFR also contains information on legal status of forests. It classifies it into three categories 
(a) Reserved forests , (b) Protected forests and (c) Other or Un-classed forests. The first two 
categories of forests are “owned by government”.  The status of third category is not clear and 
varies state by state and it includes forest owned by private individual or bodies.  
The SFR 1993 that contain information for 1990 does not provide this information. Hence SFR 
1991 that provides information for 1989 have been used instead and these figures have taken as 
for 1990 since there is very less variation each year.  
 
Following SFRs form the basis of information for this global table. 
 
Information Year 
Source 
1990 
SFR, 1991. State of Forest Resources 1991. Forest Survey of India, Ministry of 
Environment and Forests, Government of India. 
2000 
SFR, 2001. State of Forest Resources, 2001. Forest Survey of India, Ministry of 
Environment and Forests, Government of India. 
 
The Forestry Statistics complied and published by Indian Council of Forestry Research and 
Education (ICFRE) Dehradun, provides information on ownership by each State of India. It 
presents information by individual States and Union Territories in India . However it does not 

 
12 (114) 
provide national totals because there is no information for some states. The figures for “private 
ownership” of forests, although incomplete  have been taken from Forestry Statistics.  The area of 
un-classed forest, less the area under private ownership, has been classified as belonging to 
“unspecified ownership”.  
 
The period of the annual reporting in Forestry Statistics series is from April 1
st
 to March 31
st
 of 
next year. It covers first nine months of the starting year and next 3 months of ending year, 
therefore information has been dealt as belonging to the starting year. For example, the period 1
st
 
April 96 to 31
st
 March 1997 is nationally denoted as 1996-97 and contains 9 months of 1996 and 
only 3 months of 1997 therefore the information has been treated as for 1996. Following 
publication have been used for archiving National Data.  
 
For 1988 to 1993: Forestry Statistics, India, 1988-95. 1997. Indian Council of  Forestry Research 
and Education, Dehradun, Uttaranchal, India. 
 
For 1996 & 1997: Forestry Statistics, India, 2000. 2002.Indian Council of  Forestry Research and 
Education, Dehradun, Uttaranchal, India. 
 
C. National Classification and Definitions  
  
Broadly speaking, reserved, protected and unclassed are the three major legal classes of forest in 
India. A legal notification in a government gazette under Indian Forest Act creates or defines the 
boundaries of “reserved and “protected” forests in India. These forest by definition are owned by 
government of “Public” at large. The rest of forests areas recorded in government land records as 
forests are called un-classed forests. The status of their ownership and control varies among 
various States in India. 
 
Terms Definition 
Reserved Forest 
Any forest land or waste land or any other land, not being land for the time bring 
comprised in any holding or in any village abadi,  which is the property of 
Government or over which the Government has proprietary rights, or to the whole or 
any part of the forest produce of which the Government is entitled, and which is 
notified in government gazette as “reserve forest” under relevant section of Indian 
forest Act.  
 
Explanation: In such forest, most of the activities are prohibited unless allowed. 
 
Protected Forests 
Any forest land or waste-land or any other land, which is not included in a reserved 
forest, but which is the property of Government, or over which the Government has 
proprietary rights, or to the whole or any part of the forest- produce of which the 
Government is entitled, and which is notified in government gazette  as "protected 
forest" under relevant sections of Indian Forest Act. 
 
Explanation: In such forest, most of the activities are allowed unless prohibited. 
 
Unclassed Forests 
Any forest land or waste land or any other land “recorded” in land records as “forest” 
but not notified in government gazette as “reserved” or “protected” forests under 
Indian Forest Act.  
  

 
13 (114) 
D. National Data 
 
The  SFRs, published by FSI,  help to develop following table that presents the national data on 
“forest” under “reserved” and “protected” legal categories of  forest. It classifies the rest of  
“recorded forests” as un-classed forests. Further information is available for 189 and 2000 but not 
1989. Since there are every minor differences in information in consecutive SFRs, the 
information for 1989 is being treated as for 1990.  
 
 
Recorded Forest land in "000"ha. 
Legal Category of Forest Land 
 
(1989) (2000) 
Reserved Forest Land 
41491.617 
42331.100 
Protected Forest Land 
23308.095 
21724.500 
Un-classed Forest Land 
12208.131 
12788.100 
Total Recorded Forest Land 
77007.843 76843.700 
 
The Forestry Statistics, published by ICFRE, provide following information, though incomplete, 
on private ownership of “recorded forests”. This should represent the minimum area of “Un-
classed forests” that are under private ownership.  
 
Recorded Forest under Private 
Ownership in 000  ha 
Category 
 
 
1990 1998 
Unclassed Forests 
1255.658 
1077.932 
 
The Forestry Statistics, published by ICFRE, also provides following information, though 
incomplete, on public ownership of  “ forests”. It does not mention whether these forest under the 
ownership or “Revenue department” and “Corporate/ Communities”  are “reserved”, protected or 
un-classed. In most of the cases, these forest will be un-classed forest however, there will be 
cases like in Uttaranchal, a state in India, where most of the forest under Revenue department are 
protected forests.  
 
Unclassed  Forests in "000"ha. 
Public Owners of un-classed Forest  
 
(1990) (1998) 
Forest Department  
9003.21 
6388.31 
Revenue Department 
1325.80 
3170.51 
Corporate /Communities 
547.92 
785.92 
Total  
12866.93 12344.74 
 
Adding the above two following picture emerges for un-classed forests although the total is more 
than the country total of the un-classed. One  
 
Unclassed  Forests in "000"ha. 
Owners of un-classed Forest  
 
(1990) (1998) 
Private Owners 
1255.658 
1077.932 
Public Owners  
12866.930 
12344.740 
Total  
14122.588 13422.672 
 

 
14 (114) 
The total area of the un-classed forest is more than what is recorded at national level (see SFR 
based information, first table in this section). This may be due to double counting of protection 
areas under ownership of un-classed forest with revenue, and corporate or community.  
 
Therefore, the most conservative approach to classify by ownership is to respect the figures of 
private forests and consider the rest under public ownership. 
 
E. Calibration  
 
No calibration is needed as national reports match with UN statistical figures on national areas.  
 
F. Estimation and Forecasting 
 
Since figures for 1990 for private ownership are available no estimation is needed for 1990. 
However, figures for 2000 are not available. The latest figures are for 1998. These figures are 
being assumed for 2000 to be on conservative side.   
 
G. Reclassification into FRA 2005 Classes 
 
Table: Reclassification (Percentage allocation) into FRA 2005 classes 
Percentage of a National class belonging to a FRA Class 
National Classes of 
Ownership 
 
Public Ownership 
 
 Private Ownership 
 
Other or unspecified 
Ownership 
Reserve Forest 
100 


Protected Forest 
100 


Unclassed Forest for 1990 
89.72 
 
10.28 
 

 
Unclassed Forest for 2000 
91.57 
 
8.73 
 

 
 
 
H. National Information for FRA 2005 Global Tables 
 
Following table presents ownership of “Forests” reported in Table 1. 
 
Table: Input for Global Reporting Table 2  
Extent of “Forests” in 000 ha 
Type of Ownership 
1990 2000 
1. Under Public Ownership 
62683.600 
66475.800 
2. Under Private Ownership 
1255.000 
1078.000 
3. Under Other or Unspecified Ownership 


Total 63938.600 
67553.800 
Note: The figure of private ownership for 1998 has been assumed for 2000 

 
15 (114) 
 
T3. Designation 
of 
Forests and Other Wooded Lands 
 
The information on “designation” or current management objective is essential for development 
of efficient planning, design and assessment of cross-sectoral impacts, and implementation of 
forest policy. The “designation” defines boundaries for planned interference in context of the 
conditions in which “Forests” and “Other Wooded land” reside.  
 
A. Global Classification and Definitions (FRA 2005) 
 
Production Forest 
Forest actually designated for production of forest goods i.e. where the 
extraction of forest products, usually wood and fibre, are the predominant 
management objective. It includes both wood and non wood forest products.  
Protective Forest 
Forests where service of protection to soil and water is the predominant 
management objective.  
Conservation Forest 
The “Forests” with predominant management objective of  “conservation of 
biodiversity”. 
Social Services Forest 
The “forests” where provision of social services (recreation, spiritual, and 
cultural) is the predominant management objective. 
Multiple Objective Forest 
The “forests” where a combination of production of goods, protection of soil 
and water, conservation of biodiversity and provision of social services is the 
predominant management objective. 
Protective“Other Wooded 
Lands” 
The “Other Wooded Land” with predominant management objective of 
providing service of protection to soil and water.  
Conservation“Other 
Wooded lands 
The “Other Wooded Lands”  with predominant management objective of  
“conservation of biodiversity”. 
Social Service“Other 
Wooded lands” 
The “Other Wooded Land”  with predominant management objective of 
providing social services (recreation, spiritual, and cultural).  
Multiple Objective“Other 
Wooded lands” 
The “Other Wooded Land”  where a combination of production of goods
protection of soil and water, conservation of biodiversity and provision of 
social services is the predominant management objective. 
Source: FAO. 2004. Terms and Definition FRA-2005. FRA Working paper 73. Rome 
 
B. National Data Sources 
 
The National Forestry Action Plan of India classifies the forests of country into following four 
functional categories. This does not classify “Other Wooded Lands”. 
  
 
Production Forests (for biological stabilities) 
 
Protection Forests (for meeting timber requirements) 
 
Social Forests (for meeting daily needs of the community) 
 
Protected Area Network (National Parks and Sanctuaries) 
 
Information on areas on protected forests is mainly provided by database maintained by Wild 
Life Institute of India, UN agencies (UNEP-WCMC) and Annual Reports of Ministry of 
Environment and Forests, Government of India.  Following are the details of these data sources: 
 

 
16 (114) 

 
NFAP, 1999. National Forestry Action Plan, 1999. Ministry of Environment and Forests, 
Government of India, New Delhi, India 

 
National Wildlife Database.  Wild Life Institute of India, Dehradun, India. 

 
UNEP 1993. United Nations List of National Parks and Protected Areas: India. 1993. WCMC 
Protected Areas Data Unit.. 

 
Government of India. 2003. Annual Report 2002-2203, Ministry Of Environment and 
Forests, Government of India, New Delhi, India. 
 
C. National Classification and Definitions  
 
The NFAP provides description of the classification based on designation of Forests. 
 
Term Definition 
Protection forests  
Forest managed for biological stabilities. 
Production forests  
Forests managed for meeting timber Requirements of the country. 
Social Forests  
Forests managed for meeting daily needs of local communities. 
Protected Area   
Forests managed as Protected Area (National Parks and Sanctuaries etc.). 
 
D. National Data 
 
National statistics are not maintained by designation of Forests. However, NFAP, 1999 attempts 
to provide following broad information on designation of forest. It provides figures rounded to 
nearest million hectares (column 2) for 1993 which for this table are being assumed for 1990. The 
NFAP does not provide any such classification for scrub areas (other wooded lands) etc. 
Following tables also attempts to provide more realistic picture in case of Protected Areas 
through column (3).  
 
National Classification of Forests 
Area in million ha (1990) 
 
NFAP  
Detail figures 
Protection forests (for biological stabilities) 
10 
10.0 
Production forests (for timber Requirements of the country) 
15 
15.3 
Social Forests (for meeting daily needs of local communities) 
25 
25.0 
Protected Area  (National Parks and Sanctuaries etc,) 
14 
13.6 
Total Forest 
64 
63.9 
Scrub (Other Wooded Lands) 
 
5.9 
 
E. Calibration Not necessary as total matches with that in Global Table 1. 
 
F. Estimation and Forecasting 
 
Estimation and forecasting is difficult as national statistics is not maintained by designation. 
However, information is for extent of forests under Protected Areas for the year 2000. The 

 
17 (114) 
following table therefore uses only this as new information for 2000 and maintains all other 
figures as in national reporting table 1. 
 
G. Reclassification into FRA 2005 Classes 
 
Table: Reclassification (Percentage allocation) into FRA 2005 classes 
Percentage of a National Class into a FRA class 
 
 
Prod 

Prot 

Cons 

Soc  

Mult 

Prot 

Cons 

Soc 

Mult 

National Classes 
  
% % % % % % % % % 
Protection 
forests 
 
 
100 
       
Production forests    100 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Social 
Forests 
      
100 
    
Protected Area 
Forests 
  
100 
      
 Scrub (Other 
Wooded 
land          
100 
Note: 
1.F = Forests, O = Other Wooded lands, Prod = Production, Prot = Protective, Cons = Conservation Forests  
 
Soc = Social Services, and Mult = Multiple Objective 
 
H. National Information for FRA 2005 Global Tables 
 
Table: Input for Global Reporting Table 3 
FRA 2005 Classes 
Area in "000" ha 
  
1990 2000 2005 
Production Forest 
15.3 
13.6 
13.6 
Protective Forest 
10.0 
10.0 
10 
Conservation Forest 
13.6 
15.4 
15.4 
Social Services Forest 
Included in Conservation Forest 
Multiple Objective Forest 
25.0 
28.6 
28.7 
Total Forests for country  
63.9 67.6 67.7 
Protective "Other Wooded lands"" 
 
 
 
Conservation "Other Wooded Lands 
 
 
 
Social Services "Other Wooded 
lands"  
 
 
Multiple Objective "Other Wooded 
lands 
5.9 4.7 4.1 
Total for country  
(Scrub in Other Wooded Land) 
5.9 
4.7 
4.1 
Note: All increase in 2000 apportioned to Multiple Objective Forests. Increase in PA compensated by decrease in Production 
forests. Increase in 2005 apporti9oned to Multiple objective Forests 
 

 
18 (114) 
 
T4.  Characteristics of Forests and Other Wooded Lands 
 
The information on “forest characteristics ” is essential for development of appropriate efficient 
silvicultural and management practices to ensure and promote sustainability of forest resources. 
These practices will define the future structure and composition of forest resources and their 
ability to provide goods and services.  
 
A. Global Classification and Definitions (FRA 2005) 
 
Primary Forests 
Forests of native species, where ecological processes are undisturbed by human 
activities. Forest management plan may or may not exist. 
Modified Natural 
Forests 
Forests of native species or naturally regenerating introduced species, where 
ecological processes have been disturbed by human activities and it includes 
forests established through natural and or assisted natural regeneration. Forest 
management plan may or may not exist 
Semi-Natural Forests 
The “Forests” of native species or naturally regenerating introduced species 
established through natural or assisted natural regeneration. The forests are under 
intensive forest management.  
Productive Forest 
Plantation 
The “Forests” of “introduced species”, established through planting or seeding 
mainly for production of wood or non wood goods. 
Protective Forest 
Plantation 
 
The “Forests” of introduced species, established through planting or seeding 
mainly for provision of forest services, e.g. soil and water conservation, pest 
control, and conservation of (habitat) biological diversity. 
Primary 
“Other Wooded 
Land” 
The “Other Wooded land” of native species, where ecological processes are 
undisturbed by human activities. Forest management plan may or may not exist. 
Modified 
“Other Wooded 
Land” 
The “Other Wooded land” of native species or naturally regenerating introduced 
species, where ecological processes have been disturbed by human activities and 
it includes “Other Wooded Land” established through natural and or assisted 
natural regeneration. 
Semi-Natural 
1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   ...   12


Verilənlər bazası müəlliflik hüququ ilə müdafiə olunur ©azkurs.org 2016
rəhbərliyinə müraciət

    Ana səhifə