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2.3.3.2 Diversity of fauna

Nepal has a relatively high number of fauna species. Higher fauna groups have been relatively well studied, however the taxonomy and distribution of the lower fauna groups, except for the butterflies and to some extent the spiders, have yet to be studied. A comprehensive Fauna of Nepal guide is essential to understand the status of species for their conservation.


Platyhelminthes Helminths are invertebrate animals without appendages and with bilateral symmetry. Most species are parasitic. They occur in the wild as well as within domestic plants and animals. In Nepal, helminths are not well studied and helminthological works are confined to the Kathmandu Valley. A checklist of 168 species of helminth parasites has been compiled, with 33 species belonging to the trematodes, 67 to the nematodes, 36 to the cestodes, and 32 species being plant Nematodes (Gupta 1997). Some common plant helminth parasites include Meliodogyne incognita, M. arenaria, and M. javanica, all of which cause damage to vegetables. Ascaris lumbricoides, Ancylostoma duodenale, and Taenia species are common human parasites.
Spiders Thapa (1995) reported 144 species of spiders belonging to 17 families. 109 species are endemic, including 33 species that are rare in distribution and three threatened species. Most of the spiders in Nepal have been collected from the high mountains and Mid-hills. The far-western region and the entire lowland Terai and Siwalik Hills need further study.
Insects An inventory made by Thapa (1997) covers approximately 5,052 species of insects, of which 1,131 were discovered for the first time and described from Nepalese specimens. Apis laboriosa, the world's largest honeybee, Attacus atlas, the world's largest atlas moth, and Epiophlebia laidlawi, a relict dragonfly species, are three of the best known insect species unique to Nepal.

Butterflies & Moths Among Nepal’s fauna, the butterflies are the most studied group throughout the country (Smith 1994; 1997). 640 species of butterflies have been recorded, distributed in different ecological zones. The Red Data Book of the Fauna of Nepal (BPP 1995b) listlilists 142 species, of which 12 are endangered, 43 are vulnerable, and the rest, 87 species, are susceptible to be threatened. There are four species and 25 subspecies which are possibly endemic (Smith 1997, pers. comm.). There are 557 species in the Mid-hills, 325 in the Terai and 82 in the Highlands (BPP 1995h). So far, 2,253 species of moths (excluding Microlepidoptera) have been recorded in Nepal (Smith 1997, pers. comm.).
Fishes The fish fauna of Nepal has been fairly well documented. Many taxonomic changes have been made in the genera and species of fish by Shrestha (2001), who listed a total of 182 species belonging to 11 orders, 31 families and 93 genera. Altogether, 34 species are known to be threatened, and 8 species are endemic.
Amphibians and Reptiles Shah (1995) listed 143 species of amphibians and reptiles in Nepal, with 43 species of amphibians (one salamander, four toads, and 38 frogs) and 100 species of reptiles (24 lizards, 14 turtles, two crocodiles and 60 snakes). Studies of amphibians and reptiles have been carried out in a number of areas in Nepal including the Arun Valley in eastern Nepal, Royal Chitwan National Park in central Nepal and the Annapurna-Dhaulagiri region in western Nepal.
Birds The birds of Nepal have been well studied. 852 species belonging to 18 orders have been recorded (Grimmet et al. 2000). Eleven species have become extinct over the last century. 691 bird species are recorded in the Mid-hills, 648 in the Terai and Siwalik Hills and 413 in the highlands. 111 species are confined to the Terai and Siwalik Hills, 29 species are confined to the Mid-hills and 24 to the highlands (BPP 1995f). The richest area for birds is the lowland tropical forest below 300m in the Terai, where over 500 species have been recorded (Inskipp & Inskipp 1991).
Mammals A comprehensive account of Nepal’s mammalian fauna has been produced by Suwal and Verheugt (1995), who listed a total of 181 mammal species belonging to 12 orders and 39 families. Mammals are well represented in the protected areas of Nepal.

2.3.3.3 Protected, threatened and endemic species



Protected Species HMGN has imposed restrictions on the export of 12 plant species and one forest product (Table 2.24). Additionally, 27 mammal species, nine bird species, and three reptile species have been given legal protection under the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act, 1973 (Table 2.25). However, there are still 10 species of fish and 12 species of butterflies that need protection (Smith 1997, pers. com.).
Table 2.24 Plant species and forest products legally protected under the Forest

Regulations, 1995 (amended in 2001)




Botanical name or Forest resource

Vernacular name

Family

IUCN Status

CITES Code

Species banned for collection, use, sale, distribution, transportation and export

Dactylorhiza hatagirea

Panch Ounle

Orchidaceae




II

Picrorhiza scrophulariiflora

Kutki

Scrophulariaceae







Juglans regia (bark)

Okhar

Juglandaceae







Species banned for export

Abies spectabilis

Talis patra

Pinaceae







Cinnamomum glaucescens

Sugandakokila

Lauraceae







Cordyceps sinensis

Yarsa gomba

Clavicipitaceae







Lichen species

Jhyau










Nardostachys grandifloraI

Jatamansi *

Valerianaceae

V




Rauvolfa serpentina

Sarpaganda, harbaruwa

Apocynaceae

E

II

Asphaltum (rock exudate)

Silajit










Taxus buccata subsp. wallichiana

Loth salla

Taxaceae




II

Valerina jatamansii

Sugandabala

Valerianaceae







Timber trees banned for felling, transportation and export

Acacia catechu

Khayer

Leguminosae

T




Bombax ceiba

Simal

Bombacaceae







Dalbergia latifolia

Satisal

Fabaceae







Juglans regia

Okhar

Juglandaceae







Michelia champaca

Champ

Magnoliaceae

E




Pterocarpus marsupium

Bijaya sal

Fabaceae







Shorea robusta

Sal, Sakhuwa

Dipterocarpaceae







Source: Forest Regulations 1995, amended in 2001

*Products processed in the country can be exported abroad with special permission from the MFSC.

IUCN Threat categories: E=Endangered; T=Threatened; V=Vulnerable

Table 2.25 Protected animal species under the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation



Act, 1973


Scientific Name

Local Name

Common Name

IUCN Status

CITES Code

Mammals













01. Ailurus fulgens

Habrey

Red panda

V

I

02. Antilope cervicapra

Krishnasar

Black buck

V

III

03. Bos gaurus

Gaurigai

Gaur

V

I

04. Bos mutus

Chaurigai

Wild yak

E

I

05. Bubalus arnee

Arna

Wild water buffalo

E

III

06. Canis lupus

Bwanso

Tibetan wolf

V

I

07. Caprolagus hispidus

Hispid kharayo

Hispid hare

E

I

08. Cervus duvauceli

Barasingha

Swamp deer

E

I

09. Elephas maximus

Hatti

Asiatic elephant

E

I

10. Felis Iynx




Lynx

E

II

11. Hyaena hyaena

Hundar

Striped hyaena







12. Macaca assamensis

Assame Rato Bandar

Assamese monkey







13. Manis crassicaudata

Salak

Indian Pangolin




II

14. Manis pentadactyla

Salak

Chinese pangolin




II

15. Moschus chrisogaster

Kasturi Mriga

Musk deer

E

I

16. Ovis ammon

Nayan

Great Tibetan sheep




I

17. Panthera tigris

Bagh

Bengal tiger

E

I

18. Panthera uncia

Hiun Chituwa

Snow leopard

E

I

19. Pantholops hodgsoni

Chiru

Tibetan antelope




I

20. Pardofelis nebulosa

Dwanshe Chituwa

Clouded leopard

V

I

21. Platanista gangetica

Suns

Gangetic dolphin

V

I

22. Prionailurus bengalensis

Chari Bagh

Leopard cat




I

23. Prionodon pardicolor

Silu

Spotted linsang




I

24. Rhinoceros unicornis

Gainda

Asian one-horned rhinoceros

E

I

25. Sus salvanius

Pudke Bandel

Pigmy hog

Ex (?)

I

26. Tetracerus quadricornis

Chauka

Four horned antelope

V

III

27. Ursus arctos

Himali Rato Bhalu

Brown bear




I

Birds













01. Buceros bicornis

Raj Dhanesh

Giant hornbill




I

02. Catreus wallichii

Cheer

Cheer pheasant

E

I

03. Ciconia ciconia

Seto Saras

White stork







04. Ciconia nigra

Kalo Saras

Black stork




II

05. Eupodotis bengalensis

Khar Mujur

Bengal florican

E

I

06. Grus grus (G. antigone)

Saras

Common crane




II

07. Lophophorus impejanus

Danfe

Impeyan pheasant




I

08. Sypheotides indica

Sano Khar Mujur

Lesser florican

E

II

09. Tragopan satyra

Munal

Crimson horned pheasant




III

Reptiles













01. Gavialis gangeticus

Ghadial Gohi

Gharial

E

I

02. Python molurus

Ajingar

Asiatic rock python

V

I

03. Varanus flavescens

Sun Gohori

Golden monitor lizard

I

I

Source: DNPWC Act, 1973

CITES Codes: Appendices I, II, III

IUCN categories: Ex=Extinct; E=Endangered; I=Indeterminate; V=Vulnerable
Threatened Species Nepal has been a signatory of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES) since 1973 and a number of Nepali species are listed under various CITES appendices as follows (see also Table 2.26 below):


  • vascular plants - 15 species (one species of angiosperm in Appendix I; one species of pteridophyte, two species of gymnosperms and five species of angiosperms in Appendix II; three species of gymnosperms and three species of angiosperms in Appendix III)

  • mammals - 58 species (29 species in Appendix I; seven species in Appendix II; 22 species in Appendix III)

  • birds - 40 species (16 species in Appendix I; nine species in Appendix II; 15 species in Appendix III)

  • reptiles - 13 species (seven species in Appendix I; four species in Appendix II; two species in Appendix III)

  • amphibians - one species (Appendix II)

  • insects - two species (Appendix II)

Table 2.26 Nepal’s flora and fauna under CITES appendices, 1995




Appendix I

Appendix II

Appendix III

Flora

02. Ceropegia sp. (Milkweeds)


10. Cycas pectinata (Himalayan cycas)



01. Saussurea lappa

03. Cyatheaceae (Tree ferns)

11. Gnetum montanum (Genetum)




04. Cycadaceae (Cycas)

12. Meconopsis regia (Himalayan yellow poppy)




05. Dioscorea deltoidea (Dioscorea)

13. Podocarpus neriifolius (Podocarpus)




06. Orchidaceae (Orchids)

14. Talauma hodgsonii (Magnolia)




07. Podophyllum hexandrum (May apple)

15. Tetracentron sinense (Tetracentron)




08. Rauvolfia serpentina (Serpentine)







09. Taxus wallichiana (Himalayan yew)




Mammals

01. Ailurus fulgens (Red panda)

30. Cuon alpinus (Wild dog)

37. Antilope cervicapra (Black buck)

02. Bos gaurus (Gaur bison)

31. Equus hemionus (Wild ass)

38. Arctictis binturong (Bear cat)

03. Bos grunniens (Yak)

32. Manis species (Pangolin)

39. Bubalus arne (Wild buffalo)

04. Canis lupus (Wolf)

33. Primates species (Monkey)

40. Canis aureus (Jackal)

05. Capra falconeri (Markhor)

34. Pteropus species (Flying fox)

41. Herpestes edwardsii

(Common mongoose)



06. Caprolagus hispidus (Hispid hare)

35. Ratufa species (Squirrel)

42. Herpestes fuscus (Brown mongoose)

07. Cervus duvaucelii (Swamp deer)

36. Tupaia glis (Common tree shrew)

43. Herpestes urva

(Crab-eating mongoose)



08. Elephas maxiums (Elephant)




44. Marmota himalayana

(Himalayan marmot)



09. Felis bengalensis (Leopard cat)




45. Martes flavigula

(Yellow-throated marten)



10. Felis marmorata ( Marble cat)




46. Martes foina intermedia

(Stone marten)



11. Felis temmincki (Golden cat)




47. Mellivora capensis (Haoney badger)

12. Lutra lutra (Otter)




48. Mustela altaica (Pale weasel)

13. Melursus ursinus (Sloth bear)




49. Mustela kathiah (Yellow-

bellied Weasel)



14. Moschus chrisogaster (Musk deer)




50. Mustela sibirica (Himalayan weasel)

15. Naemorhedus goral (ghoral)




51. Paguma larvata (Himalayan palm)

16. Naemorhedus sumatraensis

(Himalayan serow)






52. Paradosurus hermaphroditus

(Common palm civet)



17. Neofelis nebulosa

(Clouded leopard)






53. Pradoxurus jerdoni

(Brown palm civet)



18. Ovis ammon hodgsonii (Argali)




54. Tetracerus quadricornis

(Four-horned antelope)



19. Panthera tigris (Tiger)




55. Viverra zibetha (Large Indian civet)

20. Panthrea pardus

(Common leopard)






56. Viverricula indica

(Small Indian civet)



21. Uncia uncia (Snow leopard)




57. Vulpes bengalensis (Indian fox)

22. Pantholops hodgsoni (Chiru)




58. Vulpes montana (Mountain fox)

23. Platanista gangetica (Gangetic Dolphin)







24. Presbytis entellus (Langur)







25. Prionodon pardicolor (Linsang)







26. Rhinoceros unicornis (Greater One-horned Rhinoceros)







27. Selenarctos thibetanus

(Himalayan black bear)









28. Sus salvanius (Pygmy hog)







29. Ursus arctos (Brown bear)







Birds

01. Aceros nipalensis

(Rufous-necked hornbill)



17. Anthracoceros species (Pied hornbill)

26. Anas acuta (Northern pintail)

02. Aquila heliaca (Imperial eagle)

18. Ciconia nigra (Black stork)

27. Anas clypeata (Northern shoveler)

03. Ardeotis nigricepas

(Great Indian bustard)



19. Falconiformes species (Falcon)

28. Anas crecca (Common tern)

04. Buceros bicornis (Giant hornbill)

20. Gruidae species (Crane)

29. Anas penelope (Eurasian wigeon)

05. Catreus wallichii (Cheer pheasant)

21. Ithaginis cruentus (Blood pheasant)

30. Anas querquedula (Garganey)

06. Eupodotis bengalensis

(Bengal floricon)



22. Otididae species (Lesser florican)

31. Aythya nyroca

(White-eyed pochard)



07. Falco jugger (Lagger falcon)

23. Pitta nympha (Indian pitta)

32. Bubulcus ibis (Cattel egret)

08. Falco pelegrinoides

(Barbary falcon)



24. Platalea leucorodia

(Eurasian spoonbill)



33. Casmerodius albus (Great egret)

09. Falco peregrinus

(Red-capped falcon)



25. Sarkidiornis melanotos

(Comb duck {Nakta})



34. Columba livia (Rock pigeon)

10. Grus nigricollis

(Black-necked crane)






35. Dendrocygna bicolor

(Fulvous whistling duck)



11. Haliaeetus albicilla

(White-tailed eagle)






36. Egretta garzetta (Little egret)

12. Lophophorus impejanus

(Himalayan monal)






37. Gracula religiosa (Talking mynah)

13. Psittacula krameri

(Rose ringed parakeet)






38. Streptopelia senegalensis

(Laughing dove)



14. Rhodonessa caryophyllacea

(Pink-headed duck)






39. Threskiornis aethiopicus

(Black-headed ibis)



15. Tetraogallus tibeatanus

(Tibetan snowcock)






40. Tragopan satyra

(Crimson-horned pheasant)



16. Tragopan melanocephalus

(Western horned pheasant)








Reptiles

01. Crocodulus palustris

(Mugger crocodile)



08. Elachistodon westermanni

(Indian egg-eating snake)



12. Viperra russellii (Russel’s viper)

02. Gavialis gangeticus (Gharial)

09. Naja naja (Cobra)

13. Xenochrophis piscator

(Checkerd keelback)



03. Python molurus molurus

(Indian python)



10. Ophiophagus hannah (King cobra)




04. Testudinidae species (Land tortoise)

11. Ptyas mucosus

(Dhaman or common rat snake)






05. Trionyx gangeticus

(Ganges softshell)









06. Trionyx hurum (Peacock softshell)







07. Varanus flavescens

(Golden monitor lizard)


















Amphibians

01. Rana tigerina (Indian bull frog)






Insects

01. Troides aeacus aeacus

(Golden birdwing)








02. Troides helena subsp. serberus

(Common birdwing)






Source: IUCN-Nepal 1995b - Nepal’s Flora and Fauna in the current CITES lists

CITES Status Categories: Appendix I: Species threatened with extinction; Appendix II: Species not yet threatened, but which could become endangered if trade is not controlled; Appendix III: Species identified by any party as being subject to regulation in that country and which require international co-operation to control trade.


Sixty species of non-endemic plants are regarded as threatened (Table 2.27). These include 12 endangered species, 11 vulnerable species, 22 rare species, two indeterminate species, five insufficiently known species, and seven threatened species (Shrestha & Joshi 1996).
Table 2.27 List of non-endemic threatened plants





Scientific name

Family

IUCN category

1

Allium przewalskianum

Amaryllidaceae

V

2

Choerospondias axillaris

Anacardiaceae

R

3

Pistacia chinensis subsp. integerrina

Aanacardiaceae

R

4

Alstonia neriifolia

Apocynaceae

R

5

Alstonia scholaris

Apocynaceae

R

6

Beaumontia grandiflora

Apocynaceae

V

7

Rauvolfia serpentina

Apocynaceae

E

8

Arisaema untile

Araceae

I

9

Helwingia himalaica

Araliaceae

I

10

Hoya arnottiana

Asclepiadaceae

K

11

Tylophora belsotemma

Asclepiadaceae

Ex?

12

Podophyllum hexandrum

Berberidaceae

V

13

Alnus nitida

Betulaceae

R

14

Oroxylum indicum

Bignoniaceae

V

15

Maharanga bicolor

Boraginaceae

K

16

Maharanga emodi

Boraginaceae

K

17

Crateva unllocularis

Capparaceae

R

18

Megacarpaea polyandra

Cruciferae

V

19

Cycas pectinata

Cycadaceae

E

20

Dioscorea deltoidea

Dioscoreaceae

T

21

Dioscorea prazeri

Dioscoreaceae

T

22

Elaeocarpus sphaericus

Elaeocarpaceae

V

23

Lithocarpus fenestrata

Fagaceae

K

24

Swertia chirayita

Gentianaceae

V

25

Gnetum montanum

Gnetaceae

E

26

Acacia catechu

Fabaceae

T

27

Butea monosperma

Fabaceae

E

28

Dalbergia latifolia

Fabaceae

V

29

Gloriosa superba

Liliaceae

R

30

Lilium walllichianum

Liliaceae

R

31

Paris polyphylla

Liliaceae

V

32

Magnolia globosa

Magnoliaceae

R

33

Michelia champaca

Magnoliaceae

E

34

Michelia kisopa

Magnoliaceae

E

35

Talauma hodgsonii

Magnoliaceae

E

36

Olea ferruginea

Oleaceae

R

37

Paeonia emodi

Paeoniaceae

R

38

Calamus acanthospathus

Palmae

E

39

Calamus latifolius

Palmae

E

40

Calamus leptospadix

Palmae

E

41

Wallichia densiflora

Palmae

R

42

Passiflora napalensis

Passifloraceae

E

43

Larix griffithiana

Pinaceae

R

44

Larix himalaica

Pinaceae

K

45

Ceratostigma ulicinum

Plumbaginaceae

R

46

Podocarpus neriifolius

Podocarpaceae

E

47

Hydrobryum griffithii

Podostemaceae

R

48

Rheum nobile

Polygonaceae

R

49

Helicia nilagirica

Proteaceae

R

50

Aconitum ferox

Ranunculaceae

T

51

Aconitum gammiei

Ranunculaceae

R

52

Aconitum heterophyllum

Ranunculaceae

R

53

Aconitum laciniatum

Ranunculaceae

T

54

Aconitum spicatum

Ranunculaceae

T

55

Prunus carmesina

Rosaceae

R

56

Bergenia ciliata

Saxifragaceae

T

57

Picrorhiza scrophulariaefolia

Scrophulariaceae

V

58

Tetracentron sinense

Tetracentraceae

R

59

Ulmus wallichiana

Ulmaceae

R

60

Nardostachys grandiflora

Valerianaceae

V
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