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Source: Shrestha and Joshi 1996
Altogether, 27 mammal species are listed as threatened by IUCN: eight as Endangered, ten as Vulnerable, four as Indeterminate, and five as Insufficiently Known. Additionally, 22 bird species, nine reptile species (one Endangered, two Vulnerable, one Rare, four Indeterminate and one Insufficiently Known), and two insect species are listed under IUCN’s Red List (1995) (Table 2.28). Nine species of birds are regarded as threatened in Nepal.
One rodent species, the Himalayan field mouse (Apodemus gurkha), which is found in central Nepal between 2,200-3,600m, is endemic to Nepal. Two species of mammals, the pigmy hog (Sus salvanius) and the Indian Chevrotain (Moschiola meminna), have probably become extinct in Nepal (IUCN-Nepal 1995a).
Table 2.28 Nepal’s Threatened Animals in the IUCN Red List, 1994


Order/Family

Scientific name

Common name

Status


Class: Mammalia






















Carnivora/CANIDAE

01. Canis lupus

Grey Wolf

V




02. Cuon alpinus

Asiatic Wild

V




03. Vulpes benghalensis

Bengal Fox

I

FELIDAE

04. Catopuma temmincki (Felis temmincki)

Asiatic Golden Cat

I




05. Neofelis nebulosa

Clouded Leopard

V




06. Panthera tigris tigris

Tiger

E




07. Prionaliurus marmorata (Felis marmorata)

Marbled Cat

K




08. Prionaliurus viverrinus, Felis viverrinus, F. viverrina)

Fishing Cat

K




09. Uncia uncia (Panthera unica)

Snow Leopard

E

MUSTELIDAE

10. Aonyx cinerea

Oriental Small-clawed Otter

K




11. Lutra perspicillata

Smooth -coated Otter

K

URSIDAE

12. Ailurus fulgens

Lesser Panda (Red Panda)

V




13. Melurus ursinus (Ursus ursinus)

Sloth Bear

V




14. Selenarctos thibetanus (Ursus thibetanus)

Asiatic Black Bear

V

Cetacea/LATANESTIDAE

15. Platanista gangetica

Ganges River Dolphin

V

Proboscidea/ELEPHANTIDAE

16. Elephas maximus

Asian Elephant

E

Perissodactayla/ RHINOCEROTIDAE

17. Rhinoceros unicornis

Greater One-horned Rhinoceros

E

Artiodactyla/SUIDAE

18. Sus salvanius

Pygmy Hog

E

CERVIDAE

19. Cervus duvauceli duvauceli

Swamp Deer

I

BOVIDAE

20. Antilope cervicapra

Blackbuck

V




21. Bos gaurus (B. frontalis)

Gaur

V




22. Bos mutus (B. grunniens)

Wild Yak

E




23. Bubalus arnee (B. bubalus)

Wild Water Buffalo

E




24. Capricornis sumatraensis

(Naemorhedus sumatraensis)

Mainland Serrow

T




25. Hemitragus jemlahicus

Himalayan Thar

K




26. Tetracerus quadricornis

Four-horned Antelope

V

Lagomorpha/OCHOTONIDAE

27. Ochotona nubrica

Nubra Pika

I

LEPORIDAE

28. Caprolagus hispidus

Hispid Hare

E

Class: Aves






















Pelacaniformes/ PELACANIDAE

01. Pelecanus philippensis

Spot-billed Pelican

I

Ciciniformes/CICONIIDAE

02. Leptoptilos dubius

Greater Adjutant Stork

E




03. Leptoptilos javanicus

Lesser Adjutant Stork

V

Falconiformes/ACCIPITRIDAE

04. Aythya baeri

Baee’s Pochard

V




05. Aegypius monachus

Cinerous Vulture

V




06. Aquila heliaca

Imperial Eagle

R




07. Haliaeetus albicvilla

White-tailed Eagle

V




08. Haliaeetus leucoryphus

Pallas’s Sea-Eagle

R

FALCONIDAE

09. Falco naumanni

Lesser Kestrel

R

Galliformes/PHASIANIDAE

10. Catreus walllichi

Cheer Pheasant

E




11. Francolinus gularis

Swamp Francolin

V




12. Tragopan melanocephalus

Western Tragopan

E

Gruiformes/OTIDIDAE

13. Eupodotis bengalensis (Houbaropsis

bengalensis)

Bengal Florican

E




14. Eupodotis indica (Sypheotides indica)

Lesseer Florican

E

Charadriformes/ SCOLOPACIDAE

15. Gallinago nemoricola

Wood Snipe

I

Coraciiformes/ALCEDINIDAE

16. Alcedo hercules

Blyth’s Kingfisher

E

BUCEROTIDAE

17. Aceros nipalensis

Rufous-necked Hornbill

R

Passeriformess/ MUSCICAPIDAE

18. Chaetornis striatus

Bristled Grasssbird

K




19. Chysomma altirostre (Moupinia altirostris)

Jerdon’s Babbler

V




20. Paradoxornis flavirostris

Black-breasted Parrotbill

I




21. Saxicola insignis

White- throated

Bushchat


K




22. Spelaeornis caudatus

Rufous-throated

Wren- Babbler



K

Class: Reptillia






















Testudines/EMYDIDAE

01. Geoclemys hamiltonii (Domania hamiltonii)

Black Pond Turtle

I




02. Kachuga kachuga

Red-crowned

Roofed Turtle



I




03. Melanochelys tricarinato (Geochelone or Nicoria tricarinata)

Three-keeled

Land Tortoise



I




04. Indotestudo elongata (Geochelone elongata)

Elongated Tortoise

K

Crocodyla/CROCODYLIDAE

05. Crocodylus palustris

Mugger

V

GAVIALIDAE

06. Gavialis gangeticus

Gharial

E

Sauria/VARANIDAE

07. Varanus flavescens

Yellow Monitor Lizard

I

Serpentes/BOIDAE

08.Python molurus

Indian Python

V

COLUBRIDAE

09. Elachistodon westermanni

Indian Egg-eating Snake

R













Class: Insecta






















Odanata/EPIOPHLEBIIDAE

01. Epiophlebia laidlawi

Relict Himalayan Dragonfly

V

Lepidoptera/PAPILIONIDAE

02. Teinopalpus imperialis

Kaiser-l-Hind

R

Source: IUCN-Nepal 1995a. Endangered Wildlife - Nepal’s threatened animals in the IUCN Red list 1994

A summary of all threatened plants and animals in Nepal is given below in Table 2.29.


Table 2.29 Numbers of threatened plant and animal species in Nepal

Groups

CITES

IUCN Red List

HMGN

Proposed
I

II

III

Ex

E

V

R

I

K

T

CT

Lichens


































1




Fungi


































1




Algae








































Bryophytes








































Pteridophytes




1


































Gymnosperms




2

3

























2




Angiosperms

1

5

3

1

12

11

22

2

5

7




8




Insects




2










1

1



















Butterflies & Moths





































12

Fishes





































10

Amphibians




1


































Reptiles

7

4

2




1

2

1

4

1







3




Birds

16

9

15




6

6

4

3

3







9




Mammals

29

7

22




8

10




4

5

1




27




TOTAL

53

31

45

1

27

30

28

13

14

8




51

22

Source: IUCN (1995 a, b); BPP (1995a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i)

Endemic species Altogether, 342 plant species and 160 animal species have been reported as being endemic to Nepal (Table 2.30).
Table 2.30 Endemic species in Nepal


Group

No. OF species

Reference

Lichens

39

Sharma, 1995

Fungi

16

Joshi & Joshi, 1991

Algae

3

Joshi & Joshi, 1991

Bryophytes

30

Joshi & Joshi, 1991

Pteridophytes

8

Joshi & Joshi, 1991

Angiosperms

246

Shrestha and Joshi, 1996

Total

342




Spiders

108

Thapa, 1995

Butterflies & Moths

*30

Smith, 1997 (pers. com.)

Fishes

8

Shrestha 1995

Amphibians & Reptiles

11

Shah, 1995

Birds

2

Shah, 1995

Mammals

1

Suwal & Verheugt, 1995

Total

160




(* Possible endemic taxa).

Oberonia nepalensis is a recently reported endemic species of angiosperm (Shakya & Chaudhary 1999)

Tomoptera maskeyi is an endemic amphibian species.


2.3.4 GENETIC DIVERSITY

Genetic diversity is the basis of heritable variation within and between populations of organisms. Ultimately, this diversity resides in the variations in sequences of the four, nucleotide base pairs, which constitute the genetic code. Farmers have used genetic diversity for thousands of years in agriculture. Hundreds of plant and wild animal species have been domesticated and have been bred for desirable characteristics such as size, disease resistance, taste, and productivity. Modern breeders also take advantage of genetic diversity. For example, a few plants from one tiny population of wild rice provided the gene for resistance to the grassy stunt virus, and so the Asian hybrid rice crop whose genotype made it susceptible to disease has flourished (Glowka et al. 1994).


Until recently, genetic diversity was only given consideration amongst domesticated species and populations held in zoos or botanical gardens (Raven 1992). However, because of habitat destruction and degradation, the number of plant and animal species is decreasing and their genetic diversity is threatened, and conservation of genetic diversity has become a major issue today. Molecular techniques and screening of genes is being applied for the preservation of wild species. Hence, knowledge of how much genetic variation exits within a species, how variation is partitioned between and within populations, and where the species has its centres of diversity is fundamental to applied conservation (Rowe & Cronk 1995).
Genetic diversity can be identified by determining allozyme variation, the amount of DNA, and the structures and numbers of chromosomes of any cell of an organism (WCMC 1992). Allozyme variation is a common method of assessing genetic diversity. Allozymes that differ by one or a few amino acids have different overall electrical charges, which can be assessed using electrophoresis. Methods such as Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism and DNA amplification using Polymerase Chain Reaction thermocycler are being applied to individual organisms to identify variations (Smith 1994; Gillings & Briscoe 1996).
Knowledge of the genetic diversity of plants in Nepal is poor. The very few studies that have been done using modern techniques include analyses of the genetic diversity in rice using Rubisco (Ribulose biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase), Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism, DNA fingerprinting using Randon Amplified Polymorphic DNA, and DNA amplification using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) (Shakya et al. 1993; Agrawal & Agrawal 1994).


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